Making Computers Accessible

Disability Rights and Digital Technology

Author: Elizabeth R. Petrick

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421416468

Category: Computers

Page: 208

View: 6924

In 1974, not long after developing the first universal optical character recognition technology, Raymond Kurzweil struck up a conversation with a blind man on a flight. Kurzweil explained that he was searching for a use for his new software. The blind man expressed interest: One of the frustrating obstacles that blind people grappled with, he said, was that no computer program could translate text into speech. Inspired by this chance meeting, Kurzweil decided that he must put his new innovation to work to "overcome this principal handicap of blindness." By 1976, he had built a working prototype, which he dubbed the Kurzweil Reading Machine. This type of innovation demonstrated the possibilities of computers to dramatically improve the lives of people living with disabilities. In Making Computers Accessible, Elizabeth R. Petrick tells the compelling story of how computer engineers and corporations gradually became aware of the need to make computers accessible for all people. Motivated by user feedback and prompted by legislation such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, which offered the promise of equal rights via technological accommodation, companies developed sophisticated computerized devices and software to bridge the accessibility gap. People with disabilities, Petrick argues, are paradigmatic computer users, demonstrating the personal computer’s potential to augment human abilities and provide for new forms of social, professional, and political participation. Bridging the history of technology, science and technology studies, and disability studies, this book traces the psychological, cultural, and economic evolution of a consumer culture aimed at individuals with disabilities, who increasingly rely on personal computers to make their lives richer and more interconnected.

Ensuring Digital Accessibility through Process and Policy

Author: Jonathan Lazar,Daniel F. Goldstein,Anne Taylor

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0128007109

Category: Computers

Page: 246

View: 7659

Ensuring Digital Accessibility through Process and Policy provides readers with a must-have resource to digital accessibility from both a technical and policy perspective. Inaccessible digital interfaces and content often lead to forms of societal discrimination that may be illegal under various laws. This book is unique in that it provides a multi-disciplinary understanding of digital accessibility. The book discusses the history of accessible computing, an understanding of why digital accessibility is socially and legally important, and provides both technical details (interface standards, evaluation methods) and legal details (laws, lawsuits, and regulations). The book provides real-world examples throughout, highlighting organizations that are doing an effective job with providing equal access to digital information for people with disabilities. This isn’t a book strictly about interface design, nor is it a book strictly about law. For people who are charged with implementing accessible technology and content, this book will serve as a one-stop guide to understanding digital accessibility, offering an overview of current laws, regulations, technical standards, evaluation techniques, as well as best practices and suggestions for implementing solutions and monitoring for compliance. This combination of skills from the three authors—law, technical, and research, with experience in both corporate, government, and educational settings, is unique to this book, and does not exist in any other book about any aspect of IT accessibility. The authors’ combination of skills marks a unique and valuable perspective, and provides insider knowledge on current best practices, corporate policies, and technical instructions. Together, we can ensure that the world of digital information is open to all users. Learn about the societal and organizational benefits of making information technology accessible for people with disabilities Understand the interface guidelines, accessibility evaluation methods, and compliance monitoring techniques, needed to ensure accessible content and technology. Understand the various laws and regulations that require accessible technology Learn from case studies of organizations that are successfully implementing accessibility in their technologies and digital content

Giving Voice

Mobile Communication, Disability, and Inequality

Author: Meryl Alper

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262035588

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 288

View: 2884

How communication technologies meant to empower people with speech disorders -- to give voice to the voiceless -- are still subject to disempowering structural inequalities.

Barriers and Belonging

Personal Narratives of Disability

Author: Michelle Jarman,Leila Monaghan,Alison Quaggin Harkin

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 1439913889

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 286

View: 4947

What is the direct impact that disability studies has on the lives of disabled people today? The editors and contributors to this essential anthology, Barriers and Belonging, provide thirty-seven personal narratives that explore what it means to be disabled and why the field of disability studies matters. The editors frame the volume by introducing foundational themes of disability studies. They provide a context of how institutions--including the family, schools, government, and disability peer organizations--shape and transform ideas about disability. They explore how disability informs personal identity, interpersonal and community relationships, and political commitments. In addition, there are heartfelt reflections on living with mobility disabilities, blindness, deafness, pain, autism, psychological disabilities, and other issues. Other essays articulate activist and pride orientations toward disability, demonstrating the importance of reframing traditional narratives of sorrow and medicalization. The critical, self-reflective essays in Barriers and Belonging provide unique insights into the range and complexity of disability experience.

Constructing Accessible Web Sites

Author: Cynthia Waddell,Bob Regan,Shawn Lawton Henry,Michael R. Burks,Jim Thatcher,Mark D. Urban,Paul Bohman

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 1430211164

Category: Computers

Page: 415

View: 3122

Ideal for anyone who owns or makes websites: from the freelance web professional to the corporate in-house design and development department, as well as all companies and government policy makers involved in the development and maintenance of web sites for their institutions, and organizations that provide web-based services to the public. Provides practical techniques for developing completely accessible web sites with a quick reference guide to accessible web site design. This book is for all Web professionals looking for an intuitive route to adding dynamic content from databases to their sites, assuming only HTML. No theory; no philosophy – just techniques and solutions. For web professionals creating.

Digital Youth with Disabilities

Author: Meryl Alper

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262527154

Category: Computers

Page: 120

View: 5366

Most research on media use by young people with disabilities focuses on the therapeutic and rehabilitative uses of technology; less attention has been paid to their day-to-day encounters with media and technology -- the mundane, sometimes pleasurable and sometimes frustrating experiences of "hanging out, messing around, and geeking out." In this report, Meryl Alper attempts to repair this omission, examining how school-aged children with disabilities use media for social and recreational purposes, with a focus on media use at home. In doing so, she reframes common assumptions about the relationship between young people with disabilities and technology, and she points to areas for further study into the role of new media in the lives of these young people, their parents, and their caregivers.Alper considers the notion of "screen time" and its inapplicability in certain cases -- when, for example, an iPad is a child's primary mode of communication. She looks at how young people with various disabilities use media to socialize with caregivers, siblings, and friends, looking more closely at the stereotype of the socially isolated young person with disabilities. And she examines issues encountered by parents in selecting, purchasing, and managing media for youth with such specific disabilities as ADHD and autism. She considers not only children's individual preferences and needs but also external factors, including the limits of existing platforms, content, and age standards.

Structured Negotiations

Author: Lainey Feingold

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781634255448

Category:

Page: 227

View: 9576

Utopias

A Brief History from Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities

Author: Howard P. Segal

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118234316

Category: Religion

Page: 224

View: 6350

This brief history connects the past and present of utopian thought, from the first utopias in ancient Greece, right up to present day visions of cyberspace communities and paradise. Explores the purpose of utopias, what they reveal about the societies who conceive them, and how utopias have changed over the centuries Unique in including both non-Western and Western visions of utopia Explores the many forms utopias have taken – prophecies and oratory, writings, political movements, world's fairs, physical communities – and also discusses high-tech and cyberspace visions for the first time The first book to analyze the implicitly utopian dimensions of reform crusades like Technocracy of the 1930s and Modernization Theory of the 1950s, and the laptop classroom initiatives of recent years

E-learning and Disability in Higher Education

Accessibility Research and Practice

Author: Jane K. Seale

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136216510

Category: Education

Page: 280

View: 7489

Most people working within the higher education sector understand the importance of making e-learning accessible to students with disabilities, yet it is not always clear exactly how this should be accomplished. E-Learning and Disability in Higher Education evaluates current accessibility practice and critiques the extent to which 'best' practices can be confidently identified and disseminated. This second edition has been fully updated and includes a focus on research that seeks to give 'voice' to disabled students in a way that provides an indispensible insight into their relationship with technologies and the institutions in which they study. Examining the social, educational, and political background behind making online learning accessible in higher and further education, E-Learning and Disability in Higher Education considers the roles and perspectives of the key stake-holders involved in e-learning: lecturers, professors, instructional designers, learning technologists, student support services, staff developers, and senior managers and administrators.

Maximum Accessibility

Making Your Web Site More Usable for Everyone

Author: John M. Slatin,Sharron Rush

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780201774221

Category: Computers

Page: 588

View: 953

Offers an overview of key issues, discusses the standards in depth, and presents practical design techniques, technologies, and testing methods to implement these standards for maximum accessibility. This book teaches you how to: write text equivalents for images and audio files; make scripts accessible to people who don't use a mouse; and more.

Building Access

Universal Design and the Politics of Disability

Author: Aimi Hamraie

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 1452955565

Category: Architecture

Page: 336

View: 7458

“All too often,” wrote disabled architect Ronald Mace, “designers don’t take the needs of disabled and elderly people into account.” Building Access investigates twentieth-century strategies for designing the world with disability in mind. Commonly understood in terms of curb cuts, automatic doors, Braille signs, and flexible kitchens, Universal Design purported to create a built environment for everyone, not only the average citizen. But who counts as “everyone,” Aimi Hamraie asks, and how can designers know? Blending technoscience studies and design history with critical disability, race, and feminist theories, Building Access interrogates the historical, cultural, and theoretical contexts for these questions, offering a groundbreaking critical history of Universal Design. Hamraie reveals that the twentieth-century shift from “design for the average” to “design for all” took place through liberal political, economic, and scientific structures concerned with defining the disabled user and designing in its name. Tracing the co-evolution of accessible design for disabled veterans, a radical disability maker movement, disability rights law, and strategies for diversifying the architecture profession, Hamraie shows that Universal Design was not just an approach to creating new products or spaces, but also a sustained, understated activist movement challenging dominant understandings of disability in architecture, medicine, and society. Illustrated with a wealth of rare archival materials, Building Access brings together scientific, social, and political histories in what is not only the pioneering critical account of Universal Design but also a deep engagement with the politics of knowing, making, and belonging in twentieth-century United States.

Adaptive Technology for the Internet

Making Electronic Resources Accessible to All

Author: Barbara T. Mates

Publisher: Amer Library Assn

ISBN: 9780838907528

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 192

View: 7515

Provides product information on such technologies as Braille screen, voice recognition systems, and hearing assistance devices neccessary to meet Americans with Disabilities Act stipulations.

Computer-Assisted and Web-Based Innovations in Psychology, Special Education, and Health

Author: James K. Luiselli,Aaron J. Fischer

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128021098

Category: Psychology

Page: 408

View: 8502

Computer-Assisted and Web-Based Innovations in Psychology, Special Education, and Health examines the rapid evolution of technology among educational, behavioral healthcare, and human services professionals from a multidisciplinary perspective. Section I of the book focuses on Technology for Monitoring, Assessment, and Evaluation, featuring chapters about behavioral, affective, and physiological monitoring, actigraphy measurement of exercise and physical activity, technological applications for individuals with learning disabilities/ADHD, and data analysis and graphing. In Section II, Technology for Intervention, the chapters address telehealth technologies for evidence-based psychotherapy, virtual reality therapy, substance use and addictions, and video modeling. The emphasis of Section III is Technology for Special Education, with chapters on computer-based instruction, alternative and augmentative communication, and assistive technologies. Finally, Section IV considers Technology for Training, Supervision, and Practice, specifically web-sourced training and supervision, legal, regulatory, and ethical issues with telehealth modalities, and emerging systems for clinical practice. Computer-Assisted and Web-Based Innovations is a primary resource for educating students, advising professionals about recommended practices, accelerating procedural innovations, and directing research. Reviews thoroughly the extant literature Categorizes the most salient areas of research and practice Comments on future inquiry and application given current technological trends Cites appropriate product information and related websites

Just Ask

Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design

Author: Shawn Lawton Henry

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 1430319526

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 177

View: 6727

* Improve your websites, software, hardware, and consumer products to make them more useful to more people in more situations. * Develop effective accessibility solutions efficiently. Learn: * The basics of including accessibility in design projects: - Shortcuts for involving people with disabilities in your project. - Tips for comfortable interaction with people with disabilities. * Details on accessibility in each phase of the user-centered design process (UCD): - Examples of including accessibility in user group profiles, personas, and scenarios. - Guidance on evaluating for accessibility through heuristic evaluation, design walkthroughs, and screening techniques. - Thorough coverage of planning, preparing for, conducting, analyzing, and reporting effective usability tests with participants with disabilities. - Questions to include in your recruiting screener. - Checklist for usability testing with participants with disabilities. Online at www.uiAccess.com/justask

Safe with Self-Injury

A Practical Guide to Understanding, Responding and Harm-Reduction

Author: Kay Inckle

Publisher: Pccs Books

ISBN: 9781910919163

Category:

Page: 274

View: 3159

This book is designed for anyone who has a supporting role or relationship with someone who hurts themself.

Digital Bodies

Creativity and Technology in the Arts and Humanities

Author: Susan Broadhurst,Sara Price

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349952419

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 270

View: 8027

​This book explores technologies related to bodily interaction and creativity from a multi-disciplinary perspective. By taking such an approach, the collection offers a comprehensive view of digital technology research that both extends our notions of the body and creativity through a digital lens, and informs of the role of technology in practices central to the arts and humanities. Crucially, Digital Bodies foregrounds creativity, the interrogation of technologies and the notion of embodiment within the various disciplines of art, design, performance and social science. In doing so, it explores a potential or virtual new sense of the embodied self. This book will appeal to academics, practitioners and those with an interest in not only how digital technologies affect the body, but also how they can enhance human creativity.

Refrigeration Nation

A History of Ice, Appliances, and Enterprise in America

Author: Jonathan Rees

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421411075

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 9708

Only when the power goes off and food spoils do we truly appreciate how much we rely on refrigerators and freezers. In Refrigeration Nation, Jonathan Rees explores the innovative methods and gadgets that Americans have invented to keep perishable food cold—from cutting river and lake ice and shipping it to consumers for use in their iceboxes to the development of electrically powered equipment that ushered in a new age of convenience and health. As much a history of successful business practices as a history of technology, this book illustrates how refrigeration has changed the everyday lives of Americans and why it remains so important today. Beginning with the natural ice industry in 1806, Rees considers a variety of factors that drove the industry, including the point and product of consumption, issues of transportation, and technological advances. Rees also shows that how we obtain and preserve perishable food is related to our changing relationship with the natural world.

Accessible EPUB 3

Author: Matt Garrish

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449329322

Category: Computers

Page: 94

View: 7924

Although the digital revolution has made content available to more people than print books ever could, ebooks are still only as accessible as the foundation they’re built on—and all too often the foundation is weak. But that’s changing. With the introduction of EPUB 3, publishers now have the means to create a single rich data source for audiences of all reading abilities. Through practical tips and examples, Accessible EPUB 3 takes you inside the EPUB 3 format and explores how you can enrich and enhance content for all readers. Author Matt Garrish demystifies the process of making content easier to access, demonstrating how accessible practices are intertwined with standard content best practices. Among many techniques, this guide will teach you how to: Add structure and meaning to your publications to make them more usable by accessible technologies Tailor EPUB Navigation Documents for readers requiring either full or reduced navigation Create media overlays to synchronize human narration with text display Improve text-to-speech playback by adding SSML, PLS lexicons, and CSS3 Speech functionality

Building Accessible Websites

Author: Joe Clark

Publisher: New Riders

ISBN: 9780735711501

Category: Computers

Page: 415

View: 4119

Using a strategic approach to the issues in a journalistic style, this book will be a foundation for how people think about this issue going forward-the first book people would read on the topic, before delving into the minutiae of the moment. With lawsuits and human-rights complaints proliferating, and with simple awareness of accessibility percolating through the industry, soon it will be hard to find a web shop that won't be producing accessible sites, whether it presently has the experience and know-how or not. Government mandates, lawsuits from disability groups, more non-English speaking web users, and an increasing population of Web-enabled devices make this a vital topic.

Digital Citizenship in Schools

Nine Elements All Students Should Know

Author: Mike Ribble

Publisher: International Society for Technology in Education

ISBN: 1564845184

Category: Education

Page: 220

View: 987

Students today have always had technology in their lives, so many teachers assume their students are competent tech users — more competent, in fact, than themselves. In reality, not all students are as tech savvy as teachers might assume, and not all teachers are as incompetent as they fear. Even when students are comfortable using technology, they may not be using it appropriately. Likewise, educators of all skill levels may not understand how to use technology effectively. Both students and teachers need to become members of a digital citizenry. In this essential exploration of digital citizenship, Mike Ribble provides a framework for asking what we should be doing with respect to technology so we can become productive and responsible users of digital technologies.