Malnutrition in Afghanistan

Scale, Scope, Causes, and Potential Response

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821384414

Category: Medical

Page: 210

View: 7998

Malnutrition in Afghanistan analyses the very high rates of malnutrition amongst women and children in the country and provides the outline of a comprehensive nutrition action plan.

Malnutrition in Afghanistan

Scale, Scope, Causes, and Potential Reponse

Author: Emily Levitt,Kees Kostermans,Luc Laviolette,Nkosinathi Mbuya

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821384422

Category: Medical

Page: 236

View: 1103

South Asia has the highest rates of malnutrition and the largest number of malnourished women and children in the world. Childhood malnutrition is the main cause of child mortality one-third of all child deaths are due to the underlying cause of malnutrition. For the children who survive, malnutrition results in lifelong problems by severely reducing a child s ability to learn and to grow to his or her full potential. Malnutrition directly leads to less productive adults and thus to weaker national economic performance. The negative impact of malnutrition on a society s productivity and a nation s long-term development is difficult to underestimate. Malnutrition is a key development priority for the World Bank s South Asia region. The Bank intends to increase its commitment to reducing malnutrition in the region. As a first step, Bank staff are preparing a series of country assessments such as Malnutrition in Afghanistan. These assessments will be useful for governments and development partners committed to scaling up effective, evidence-based interventions to reduce malnutrition in their countries. Conclusive evidence shows that a multisectoral planning approach, followed by actions in the various sectors, is the most successful method to improve a populations nutrition. Malnutrition in Afghanistan provides the background analysis for the development of a comprehensive nutrition action plan. The timing of this report is propitious. The international communities interest in the developmental benefits of nutrition programming is high. This analytical report is part of a broader effort by the World Bank South Asia region to increase investments in nutrition, recognizing that good nutrition is important to economic growth and development, and because investing in well-proven nutrition interventions pays high dividends in poverty reduction and national economic development.

Ghost Wars

The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden

Author: Steve Coll

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141935790

Category: History

Page: 736

View: 7011

The news-breaking book that has sent schockwaves through the White House, Ghost Wars is the most accurate and revealing account yet of the CIA's secret involvement in al-Qaeada's evolution. Prize-winning journalist Steve Coll has spent years reporting from the Middle East, accessed previously classified government files and interviewed senior US officials and foreign spymasters. Here he gives the full inside story of the CIA's covert funding of an Islamic jihad against Soviet forces in Afghanistan, explores how this sowed the seeds of bn Laden's rise, traces how he built his global network and brings to life the dramatic battles within the US government over national security. Above all, he lays bare American intelligence's continual failure to grasp the rising threat of terrrorism in the years leading to 9/11 - and its devastating consequences.

Afghanistan

Development Progress and Prospects After 2014, Sixth Report of Session 2012-13, Vol. 1: Report, Together with Formal Minutes, Oral and Written Evidence

Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: International Development Committee

Publisher: The Stationery Office

ISBN: 9780215049544

Category: Political Science

Page: 146

View: 8657

Women in Afghanistan have made gains since the Taliban was ousted in 2001, but they continue to face enormous disadvantages. The status of Afghan women is amongst the worst in the world and eighty seven per cent of women experience some form of domestic abuse during their lifetime, according to the UN. Women who participate in public life also do so at significant risk to their safety. The UK Government has said it is committed to protecting and promoting the rights of women and girls in Afghanistan and women's and girl's empowerment is a departmental priority for DFID globally. But the International Development Committee inquiry found too little practical evidence of this in DFID programmes or funding. The Department should start by examining what programmes have been effective for women in Afghanistan, then draw up a plan to expand these programmes, while doing all it can to secure commitments from other donors, such as the US, the EU and the World Bank.The Committee is recommending that the UK Government reconsider the DFID's focus on creating a 'viable state', giving greater emphasis to the provision of services and alleviating poverty. The Afghan people want their country to succeed, and the UK should continue to support them with a major aid budget in the country after the troops leave

Children of Afghanistan

The Path to Peace

Author: Jennifer Heath,Ashraf Zahedi

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292759339

Category: History

Page: 388

View: 4506

The first comprehensive look at youth living in a country attempting to rebuild itself after three decades of civil conflict, Children of Afghanistan relies on the research and fieldwork of twenty-one experts to cover an incredible range of topics. Focusing on the full scope of childhood, from birth through young adulthood, this edited volume examines a myriad of issues: early childhood socialization in war and peace; education, literacy, vocational training, and apprenticeship; refugee life; mental and physical health, including disabilities and nutrition; children's songs, folktales, and art; sports and play; orphans; life on the streets; child labor and children as family breadwinners; child soldiers and militarization; sexual exploitation; growing up in prison; marriage; family violence; and other issues vital to understanding, empowerment, and transformation. Children of Afghanistan is the first volume that not only attempts to analyze the range of challenges facing Afghan children across class, gender, and region but also offers solutions to the problems they face. With nearly half of the population under the age of fifteen, the future of the country no doubt lies with its children. Those who seek peace for the region must find solutions to the host of crises that have led the United Nations to call Afghanistan "the worst place on earth to be born." The authors of Children of Afghanistan provide child-centered solutions to rebuilding the country's cultural, social, and economic institutions.

Reconstructing agriculture in Afghanistan

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Practical Action Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 7199

Pre-2001 Afghanistan has been widely represented as 25 years of war and devastation, leaving a post-conflict reconstruction agenda to start with a clean state. This analysis has ignored the nature of Afghanistan, its complexity, and its fundamental resilience. Through a critical analysis of key aspects of the rural economy and drivers of change, including the opium poppy economy, this book critically explores assumptions made about Afghanistan as a crisis state and post-conflict environment, and its reconstruction agendas and practice, and considers the limitations of the response of the international community. Bringing together papers by key practitioners and food security analysts, this book provides an important reference for operational agencies and researchers.

Undernutrition and Public Policy in India

Investing in the future

Author: Sonalde Desai,Lawrence Haddad,Deepta Chopra,Amit Thorat

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317358430

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 400

Despite substantial economic growth, India has one of the highest undernutrition rates in the world; it is home to almost 40 per cent of the world’s stunted children. This volume assesses the status and causes of undernutrition in the country, and examines the effectiveness of policies designed to address undernutrition. The essays tackle wide-ranging themes and challenging issues including nutrition; water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); maternal, neonatal and child health; Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); Public Distribution System (PDS); crop procurement; and National Food Security Act 2013. With contributions from leading academic researchers, policymakers, as well as civil society representatives, this volume will be indispensable to scholars, teachers and students of public policy, development economics, development sociology, and Indian economy. It will also be useful to government institutions, think tanks and NGOs.

Afghanistan

Between Hope and Fear

Author: Paula Bronstein

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 9781477309391

Category: Photography

Page: 228

View: 1581

The Afghan people are standing at a crucial crossroads in history. Can their fragile democratic institutions survive the drawdown of US military support? Will Afghan women and girls be stripped of their modest gains in freedom and opportunity as the West loses interest in their plight? While the media have largely moved on from these stories, Paula Bronstein remains passionately committed to bearing witness to the lives of the Afghan people. In this powerful photo essay, she goes beyond war coverage to reveal the full complexity of daily life in what may be the world's most reported on yet least known country. Afghanistan: Between Hope and Fear presents a photographic portrait of this war-torn country's people across more than a decade. With empathy born of the challenges of being an American female photojournalist working in a conservative Islamic country, Bronstein gives voice to those Afghans, particularly women and children, rendered silent during the violent Taliban regime. She documents everything from the grave trials facing the country—human rights abuses against women, poverty and the aftermath of war, and heroin addiction, among them—to the stirrings of new hope, including elections, girls' education, and work and recreation. Fellow award-winning journalist Christina Lamb describes the gains that Afghan women have made since the overthrow of the Taliban, as well as the daunting obstacles they still face. An eloquent portrait of everyday life, Afghanistan: Between Hope and Fear is the most complete visual narrative history of the country currently in print.

Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Nutrition in Bangladesh

Can Building Toilets Affect Children's Growth?

Author: Iffat Mahmud,Nkosinathi Mbuya

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464806993

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 88

View: 5637

Since the 1960s, it has been known that poor water and sanitation causes diarrhea, which consequently compromises child growth and leads to undernutrition. Ample evidence shows that poor water and sanitation causes diarrhea, but there is a growing body of knowledge discussing the magnitude of the impact of diarrhea on undernutrition. A recent hypothesis by Humphrey (2009), for example, states that the predominant impact of contaminated water and poor sanitation on undernutrition is via tropical/environmental enteropathy (triggered by exposure to fecal matter) rather than mediated by diarrhea. This new hypothesis has generated much debate, especially in the South Asia region, on the contribution of water and sanitation to the South Asian Nutrition Enigma. The region is characterized by unusually high rates of child undernutrition relative to its income level, as well as a slow reduction in undernutrition. Practitioners have struggled to decipher the reasons behind this 'anomaly.' This report provides a systematic review of the evidence to date, both published and grey literature, on the relationship between water and sanitation and nutrition. We also survey the potential impact of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) on undernutrition. This is the first report that undertakes a thorough review and discussion of WASH and nutrition in Bangladesh. The report is meant to serve two purposes. First, it synthesizes the results/evidence evolving on the pathway of WASH and undernutrition for use by practitioners working in the nutrition and water and sanitation sectors to stimulate technical discussions and effective collaboration among stakeholders. Second, this report serves as an advocacy tool, primarily for policy makers, to assist them in formulating a multisectoral approach to tackling the undernutrition problem.

Nourishing millions: Stories of change in nutrition: Synopsis

Author: Yosef, Sivan,Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896299902

Category: Political Science

Page: 4

View: 9428

In recent years, the world has seen unprecedented attention and political commitment to addressing malnutrition. Milestones such as the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Movement, the Lancet Maternal and Child Nutrition Series, and the Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) have marked the rapid rise of nutrition on the global policy and research agenda. These developments reverse years of relative neglect for nutrition. Undernutrition is a global challenge with huge social and economic costs. It kills millions of young children annually, stunts growth, erodes child development, reduces the amount of schooling children attain, and increases the likelihood of their being poor as adults, if they survive. Stunting persists through a lifetime and beyond—underweight mothers are more likely to give birth to underweight children, perpetuating undernutrition across generations. Undernutrition reduces global gross domestic product by US$1.4–$2.1 trillion a year—the size of the total economy of Africa south of the Sahara.

The Double Burden of Malnutrition in Asia

Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

Author: Stuart Gillespie,Lawrence Haddad

Publisher: SAGE Publications India

ISBN: 8132103807

Category: Medical

Page: 236

View: 7870

The greatest number of malnourished children in the world reside in Asia. The Double Burden of Malnutrition in Asia is inspired by the massive challenge that this situation currently poses for Asia. It describes the main driving forces behind the groundswell of undernutrition, while shedding light on the emerging ‘double burden’ of co-existing underweight and overweight, and the linkages between these two different forms of malnutrition. Following detailed analyses of causes and consequences, Gillespie and Haddad provide clear evidence-based options for remedial action in differing contexts, all based on the use of a practical approach to conceptualising risks and opportunities through the lifecycle. Taken together, the evidence and experience presented by the authors constitute a powerful weapon in the battle against malnutrition, and one that is relevant for a wide range of actors and institutions both in Asia and beyond.

Nutrition and economic development

Exploring Egypt's exceptionalism and the role of food subsidies

Author: Ecker, Olivier,Al-Riffai, Perrihan,Breisinger, Clemens,El-Batrawy, Rawia

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 089629238X

Category: Political Science

Page: 282

View: 1365

This book’s main hypothesis is that Egypt’s large food subsidy system has been ineffective in reducing undernutrition; in fact, it may have contributed to sustaining and even aggravating both nutrition challenges. For a long time, the subsidy system provided only calorie-rich foods, at very low and constant prices and with quotas much above dietary recommendations. This system has created incentives to consume calorie-overladen and unbalanced diets, increasing the risks of child and maternal overnutrition and, at high subsidy levels, the risk of inadequate child nutrition. Moreover, the large public budget allocated to the food subsidies is unavailable for possibly more nutrition-beneficial spending, such as for child and maternal nutrition-specific interventions. The authors’ findings consistently suggest that—in addition to the well-known economic rationale for reforming the Egyptian food subsidy system—there are strong reasons to reform food subsidies due to nutrition and public health concerns. A fundamental food subsidy reform process has been under way since June 2014. The already-implemented changes can be expected to have reduced some incentives for overconsumption and may have positive dietary effects. However, further major reform efforts are needed to transform the current subsidy system into a key policy instrument in the fight against malnutrition. The findings of this book should be valuable to policy makers, analysts, development partners, and others concerned with improving food security and promoting healthy nutrition in Egypt and other developing countries with large social protection programs.

Global Nutrition Report 2016

From Promise to Impact: Ending Malnutrition by 2030

Author: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896295842

Category: Political Science

Page: 182

View: 8833

Few challenges facing the global community today match the scale of malnutrition, a condition that directly affects 1 in 3 people. Malnutrition manifests itself in many different ways: as poor child growth and development; as individuals who are skin and bone or prone to infection; as those who are carrying too much weight or whose blood contains too much sugar, salt, fat, or cholesterol; or those who are deficient in important vitamins or minerals. Malnutrition and diet are by far the biggest risk factors for the global burden of disease: every country is facing a serious public health challenge from malnutrition. The economic consequences represent losses of 11 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) every year in Africa and Asia, whereas preventing malnutrion delivers $16 in returns on investment for every $1 spent. The world’s countries have agreed on targets for nutrition, but despite some progress in recent years the world is off track to reach those targets. This third stocktaking of the state of the world’s nutrition points to ways to reverse this trend and end all forms of malnutrition by 2030.

Pulses for nutrition in India: Changing patterns from farm to fork

Author: Roy, Devesh,Joshi, Pramod Kumar,Chandra, Raj

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896292568

Category: Political Science

Page: 284

View: 8608

India, a country with high concentrations of poor and malnourished people, long promoted a cereal-centric diet composed of subsidized staple commodities such as rice and wheat to feed its population of more than a billion. Today, however, dietary patterns are changing. Policy makers, researchers, and health activists are looking for ways to fight hunger and malnutrition in the country. As they shift their focus from calorie intake to nutrition, neglected foods such as pulses (the dried, edible seeds of legumes) are gaining attention. Pulses for Nutrition in India: Changing Patterns from Farm to Fork explores the numerous benefits of a diet that incorporates pulses. Pulses, including pigeonpeas, lentils, and chickpeas, are less expensive than meat and are excellent sources of protein. In India, people consume pulses and other legumes for protein intake. Pulses also benefit the ecosystem. Among protein-rich foods, pulses have the lowest carbon and water footprints. Pulses also improve soil health by naturally balancing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil; thus, growing pulses reduces the need for nitrogenous fertilizer. Pulses for Nutrition in India: Changing Patterns from Farm to Fork looks at the country’s pulses sector in light of agricultural systems, climate change, irrigation design, and how policies (including the Green Revolution) have evolved over time. To understand how pulses can help fulfill the objectives of India’s food policies, experts explore the role that pulse production plays in global trade; the changing demand for pulses in India since the 1960s; the possibility of improving pulse yields with better technology to compete with cereals; and the long-term health benefits of greater reliance on pulses. The analyses in Pulses for Nutrition in India: Changing Patterns from Farm to Fork contribute to the emerging literature on pulses and will aid policy makers in finding ways to feed and nourish a growing population.

Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development

A Strategy for Large Scale Action

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821364006

Category: Developing countries

Page: 246

View: 9210

Persistent malnutrition is contributing not only to widespread failure to meet the first MDG--to halve poverty and hunger--but to meet other goals in maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, education, and gender equity. The choice is now between continuing to fail, or to finally make nutrition central to development. Underweight prevalence among children is the key indicator for measuring progress on non-income poverty and malnutrition remains the world's most serious health problem and the single biggest contributor to child mortality. Nearly a third of children in the developing world are either.

The Impact of War on Children

A Review of Progress Since the 1996 United Nations Report on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children

Author: Graça Machel,Sebastião Salgado,Jennifer F. Klot,UNICEF.,Theo Sowa

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 9780774808675

Category: Political Science

Page: 230

View: 2956

"The stories and images in this book are both challenging andtragic. They tell how eight land-mines in my own country, Mozambique,prevented more than 20,000 people from returning to their villages inthe Mahniça valley for seven years. They tell of the exploitation ofgirls as soldiers and sexual slaves ... The book charts the rise ofHIV/AIDS as the single most powerful new factor compounding the dangersfor children in armed conflict. -- Graça Machel

Explaining Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries

A Cross-country Analysis

Author: Lisa C. Smith,Lawrence James Haddad

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896291146

Category: Medical

Page: 112

View: 2280

One in three preschool children in developing countries is undernourished. Consequently, they are likely to have impaired immune systems, poor cognitive development, low productivity as adults, and susceptibility to diet-related chronic diseases such as hypertension and coronary heart disease later in life. Undernourished female preschoolers are likely to grow into undernourished young women who are more likely to give birth to babies who are undernourished even before they are born, thus perpetuating the intergenerational transmission of deprivation. This report sheds light on some of the main causes of child malnutrition, projects how many children are likely to be malnourished in the year 2020 given current trends, and identifies priority actions for reducing malnutrition most quickly in the coming decades.

New Challenges to Food Security

From Climate Change to Fragile States

Author: Ian Christoplos,Adam Pain

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136777679

Category: Nature

Page: 378

View: 4445

Food security is high on the political agenda. Fears about societal insecurity due to food price increases and hunger, grave scenarios regarding the effects of climate change and general uncertainty about the impacts of investments in biofuels and so-call “land grabbing” on food prices and availability have meant that food security is now recognised as being a multifaceted challenge. This book is unique in that it will bring together analyses of these different factors that impact on food security. This volume will describe a range of different perspectives on food security, with an emphasis on the various meanings that are applied to food security “crisis”. The challenges to be reviewed include market volatility, climate change and state fragility. Analyses of responses to food security crises and risk will cover rural and urban contexts, arenas of national policy formation and global food regimes, and investment in land and productive technologies. This book is unique in two respects. First, it takes a step back from the normative literature focused on specific factors of, for example, climate change, agricultural production or market volatility to look instead at the dynamic interplay between these new challenges. It helps readers to understand that food security is not one discourse, but is rather related to how these different factors generate multiple risks and opportunities. Second, through the case studies the book particularly emphasises how these factors come together at local levels as farmers, entrepreneurs, consumers, local government officials and others are making key decisions about what will be done to address food security and whose food security will be given priority. The book will explore how food production and consumption is embedded in powerful political and market forces and how these influence local actions.