Scale, Scope, Causes, and Potential Reponse
Author: Emily Levitt,Kees Kostermans,Luc Laviolette,Nkosinathi Mbuya
Publisher: World Bank Publications
South Asia has the highest rates of malnutrition and the largest number of malnourished women and children in the world. Childhood malnutrition is the main cause of child mortality one-third of all child deaths are due to the underlying cause of malnutrition. For the children who survive, malnutrition results in lifelong problems by severely reducing a child s ability to learn and to grow to his or her full potential. Malnutrition directly leads to less productive adults and thus to weaker national economic performance. The negative impact of malnutrition on a society s productivity and a nation s long-term development is difficult to underestimate. Malnutrition is a key development priority for the World Bank s South Asia region. The Bank intends to increase its commitment to reducing malnutrition in the region. As a first step, Bank staff are preparing a series of country assessments such as Malnutrition in Afghanistan. These assessments will be useful for governments and development partners committed to scaling up effective, evidence-based interventions to reduce malnutrition in their countries. Conclusive evidence shows that a multisectoral planning approach, followed by actions in the various sectors, is the most successful method to improve a populations nutrition. Malnutrition in Afghanistan provides the background analysis for the development of a comprehensive nutrition action plan. The timing of this report is propitious. The international communities interest in the developmental benefits of nutrition programming is high. This analytical report is part of a broader effort by the World Bank South Asia region to increase investments in nutrition, recognizing that good nutrition is important to economic growth and development, and because investing in well-proven nutrition interventions pays high dividends in poverty reduction and national economic development.
Development Progress and Prospects After 2014, Sixth Report of Session 2012-13, Vol. 1: Report, Together with Formal Minutes, Oral and Written Evidence
Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: International Development Committee
Publisher: The Stationery Office
Category: Political Science
Women in Afghanistan have made gains since the Taliban was ousted in 2001, but they continue to face enormous disadvantages. The status of Afghan women is amongst the worst in the world and eighty seven per cent of women experience some form of domestic abuse during their lifetime, according to the UN. Women who participate in public life also do so at significant risk to their safety. The UK Government has said it is committed to protecting and promoting the rights of women and girls in Afghanistan and women's and girl's empowerment is a departmental priority for DFID globally. But the International Development Committee inquiry found too little practical evidence of this in DFID programmes or funding. The Department should start by examining what programmes have been effective for women in Afghanistan, then draw up a plan to expand these programmes, while doing all it can to secure commitments from other donors, such as the US, the EU and the World Bank.The Committee is recommending that the UK Government reconsider the DFID's focus on creating a 'viable state', giving greater emphasis to the provision of services and alleviating poverty. The Afghan people want their country to succeed, and the UK should continue to support them with a major aid budget in the country after the troops leave
The Path to Peace
Author: Jennifer Heath,Ashraf Zahedi
Publisher: University of Texas Press
The first comprehensive look at youth living in a country attempting to rebuild itself after three decades of civil conflict, Children of Afghanistan relies on the research and fieldwork of twenty-one experts to cover an incredible range of topics. Focusing on the full scope of childhood, from birth through young adulthood, this edited volume examines a myriad of issues: early childhood socialization in war and peace; education, literacy, vocational training, and apprenticeship; refugee life; mental and physical health, including disabilities and nutrition; children's songs, folktales, and art; sports and play; orphans; life on the streets; child labor and children as family breadwinners; child soldiers and militarization; sexual exploitation; growing up in prison; marriage; family violence; and other issues vital to understanding, empowerment, and transformation. Children of Afghanistan is the first volume that not only attempts to analyze the range of challenges facing Afghan children across class, gender, and region but also offers solutions to the problems they face. With nearly half of the population under the age of fifteen, the future of the country no doubt lies with its children. Those who seek peace for the region must find solutions to the host of crises that have led the United Nations to call Afghanistan "the worst place on earth to be born." The authors of Children of Afghanistan provide child-centered solutions to rebuilding the country's cultural, social, and economic institutions.
Author: Adam Pain,Jacky Sutton
Publisher: Practical Action Pub
Category: Social Science
This book will be of interest to readers concerned with the future of Afghanistan and also those with a broader interest in post-conflict rehabilitation in fragile states, providing an important reference for operational agencies and researchers.
From Climate Change to Fragile States
Author: Ian Christoplos,Adam Pain
Food security is high on the political agenda. Fears about societal insecurity due to food price increases and hunger, grave scenarios regarding the effects of climate change and general uncertainty about the impacts of investments in biofuels and so-call “land grabbing” on food prices and availability have meant that food security is now recognised as being a multifaceted challenge. This book is unique in that it will bring together analyses of these different factors that impact on food security. This volume will describe a range of different perspectives on food security, with an emphasis on the various meanings that are applied to food security “crisis”. The challenges to be reviewed include market volatility, climate change and state fragility. Analyses of responses to food security crises and risk will cover rural and urban contexts, arenas of national policy formation and global food regimes, and investment in land and productive technologies. This book is unique in two respects. First, it takes a step back from the normative literature focused on specific factors of, for example, climate change, agricultural production or market volatility to look instead at the dynamic interplay between these new challenges. It helps readers to understand that food security is not one discourse, but is rather related to how these different factors generate multiple risks and opportunities. Second, through the case studies the book particularly emphasises how these factors come together at local levels as farmers, entrepreneurs, consumers, local government officials and others are making key decisions about what will be done to address food security and whose food security will be given priority. The book will explore how food production and consumption is embedded in powerful political and market forces and how these influence local actions.
Author: Anne Evans,Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit
Publisher: World Bank Publications
This guide contains information on the administrative and political scene in Afghanistan, including the structures and processes of government. Issues discussed include: the historical and political context of the Afghan State; central and local administration, including budget and staffing aspects; central and local fiscal relationships; and service delivery in terms of the education and health sectors. The guide draws the bulk of its material from six provincial case studies, as well as using additional research undertaken by the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU) and the World Bank.
Author: Jha Raghbendra
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Social Science
The UN's Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for 'Zero Hunger' has refocused attention on hunger and malnutrition as major challenges for the 21st century and as essential desired goals for human development. This volume provides key insights on how these challenges for food security can be addressed globally and in a number of countries that face these challenges most acutely.According to the World Food Summit, food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. The implication is that lack of food security would overlap with hunger — both overt and hidden — and undernutrition and would have spillover effects onto the health of and labor market performance of those affected by such insecurity. This range of issues have guided the choice of contributions to this volume. Several manifestations of these topics are covered for a number of countries in Asia and Africa.
Challenges and Options
Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
This volume is the first of its kind to present a comprehensive assessment of the health sector in Afghanistan. Although health outcomes here are some of the worst in the world, the sector has made considerable progress since 2001. A nationwide survey conducted in late 2006 found that the infant mortality rate had fallen from 165 to 129 per 1,000 live births, and the under-five mortality rate had fallen from 257 to 191 per 1,000 live births. These figures represent a 22 percent and a 26 percent decline, respectively, from the end of 2001. Similarly, coverage of prenatal care has increased from less than 5 percent to 32 percent, and childhood vaccinations of DPT3 (diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus) have increased from less than 20 percent to 35 percent between 2003 and 2006. Administrative data indicate that the number of functioning primary health care facilities has nearly doubled, from 498 in 2001 to more than 936 in 2008. Also, the quality of care in publicly financed facilities has increased by about 22 percent from 2004 to 2006. Although this progress is encouraging, it is not sufficient to ensure that Afghanistan will achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). 'Building on Early Gains in Afghanistan s Health, Nutrition, and Population Sector' presents specific policy options for Afghanistan s Ministry of Public Health to consider in advancing to the next level of care for its population. The guiding principles of these options are consistency with the ministry s vision and the feasibility of implementation. The specific challenges include revising the content of the basic package of health services (BPHS), rethinking the delivery of the BPHS, securing sustained and predictable financing, defining the role of the emerging private sector, addressing the shortage of human resources for health, and expanding the capacity of the ministry to enable it to effectively carry out its stewardship functions. This book was prepared as a resource for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers in Afghanistan and other conflict-affected countries. It emphasizes the policy implications of the findings presented.
Author: Qureshi, A. S.
This report presents the analysis of current status of water resources management in Afghanistan and identify steps for maximizing the use ofavailable water resources to enhance crop productivity and environmental sustainability.
Eine geographisch-medizinische Landeskunde / A Geomedical Monograph
Author: Ludolph Fischer
The Legacy of Human Suffering in a Forgotten War : Compilation Document
Category: Human rights
Aid, Armies and Empires
Author: Peter Marsden
As the battle for Afghanistan intensifies, with the NATO-led coalition seemingly unable to defeat the Taliban, and struggling in its nation building efforts, Afghanistan expert Peter Marsden looks at why it is that the Great Powers, from 19th-century Britain to the 20th-century Soviet Union to 21st-century America, have so often been frustrated in attempting to impose their will on this strategically vital country. In comparing the three interventions, Marsden uncovers a number of similarities. The rhetoric of ‘development’ coming from the capitals of the West has, he finds, a well-established heritage. Every would-be occupier has used some form of aid to try and turn Afghanistan into the kind of country that would suit their geopolitical objectives. Marsden, who has worked with British NGOs in Afghanistan for 20 years, draws on his own experience as well as extensive archive research to establish how these grand interventions appear from the Afghan perspective, and why it is that ordinary Afghans seem to be better off when they are attracting less, not more, attention from the world powers. He argues that the Americans have yet to learn the lessons that the Soviets and the British before them learned: that no amount of financial, military or humanitarian aid will ‘stabilise’ the country if it comes with violence and foreign occupation. Afghanistan - Aid, Armies and Empires offers both an exploration of the relationship between aid and power, and a fresh and original history of Afghanistan through the prism of great power politics.
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: Political Science
"Afghanistan has come a long way since emerging from major conflict in late 2001. The economy has recovered strongly, growing by nearly 50% cumulatively in the last two years (not including drugs). Some three million internally and externally displaced Afghans have returned to their country. More than four million children, a third of them girls, are in school, and immunization campaigns have achieved considerable success. The Government has supported good economic performance by following prudent macroeconomic policies and it has made extraordinary efforts to develop key national programs and to revive social services like education and health. Nevertheless, Afghanistan remains one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of both per-capita incomes and social indicators, with large gender gaps. The difficult challenge of poverty reduction is made even more difficult by continuing insecurity, weak rule of law, and narcotics. Afghanistan - State Building, Sustaining Growth, and Reducing Poverty provides a greater understanding of the core challenges that lie ahead for Afghanistan and key priorities for national reconstruction. The Afghan economy has been shaped by more than two decades of debilitating conflict and has some very unusual features which this study analyzes. The authors argue that the country must break out of the vicious cycle that would keep it insecure, fragmented politically, weakly governed, poor, dominated by the illicit economy, and a hostage to the drug industry. The study presents key elements for a breakthrough in the next two years but the daunting agenda will require strong commitment, actions, and persistence on the part of the Government and robust support from the international community."
Author: J.A. Walker-Smith,A. S. McNeish
Category: Health & Fitness
Diarrhoea and Malnutrition in Childhood is derived from a conference of pediatric gastroenterologists from around the world, held in London at the Royal Commonwealth Society and St. Bartholomew's Hospital on November 5-7, 1984. They collaborate to create a source that would educate people from developed and developing communities regarding the topic. The book first tackles the connections between diarrhea and malnutrition, and then provides a model that further explains the relationship. The authors suggest that poverty is the main cause of the two abnormal conditions, and they refer to books and studies of the topic by respected figures in the industry. Bacteria that cause the two diseases and the diseases' variations are also covered. Other topics discussed in the book are parasites in the intestine; schemes on how to improve nutrition; importance of breast-feeding; and role that the parts of the human body play during illness. This book will serve as a valuable reference for doctors, researchers, and even casual readers.
Author: Doris Wiesmann, Lioba Weingärtner, Iris Schöninger
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Category: Social Science
Author: Adam Bennett,International Monetary Fund
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
Category: Business & Economics
This book, which reflects the IMF staff's work in Afghanistan from early 2002 through the first quarter of 2004, provides an overview of the institutional and economic achievements in Afghanistan in the post-Taliban period, that is, from late 2001 to early 2004. During this period, the staff focused on helping (often under difficult circumstances) the Afghan authorities quickly establish abasic framework for economic management and policies, including rebuilding key institutions. Reconstructing Afghanistan describes the strong economic recovery that took place during 2002 and 2003; traces the formulation and implementation of the government’s budgetary policy; discusses the progress made in rebuilding fiscal institutions; and outlines the challenges and issues that the authorities faced in the area of monetary and exchange rate policy.
The Haunted Battleground
Author: Jonathan Steele
“Fine modern history . . . [Steele] demolishes some Western myths about Afghanistan that betray short memories and government spin.” —The Economist A masterful blend of graphic reporting, illuminating interviews, and insightful analysis. Ghosts of Afghanistan is the first account of Afghanistan’s turbulent recent history by an independent eyewitness. Jonathan Steele, an award-winning journalist and commentator, has covered the country since his first visit there as a reporter in 1981. In Ghosts of Afghanistan, he turns a spotlight on the numerous myths about Afghanistan that have bedeviled foreign policy-makers and driven them to repeat earlier mistakes. Steele has conducted numerous interviews with ordinary Afghans, two of the country’s Communist presidents, senior Soviet occupation officials, as well as Taliban leaders, Western diplomats, NATO advisers, and United Nations negotiators. Steele cautions that military victory will elude the West just as it eluded the Kremlin. Showing how and why Soviet efforts to negotiate an end to the war came to nothing, he explains how negotiations today could put a stop to the tragedies of civil war and foreign intervention that have afflicted Afghanistan for three decades. “In this original look at the West’s obsession with Afghanistan the ghosts include, of course, the inevitable innocents who fall in war but also the public myths, official lies and inconvenient truths that lie behind so much of the bloodshed there.” —Seymour Hersh, The New Yorker “Steele has covered events in Afghanistan for many years, and he skewers with palpable glee the myths and half-truths that are peddled by politicians, generals, official spokesmen, and too many commentators.” —The Observer
Press, War, and Terror in the 21st Century
Author: Calvin F. Exoo
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
'Challenges students to reexamine their beliefs about the news media, helping them to become more critical citizens. In doing this, the text engages students' attention in crucial developments in the media, in politics, and in the intersection of the two' - Paul R. Brewer, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Recent content analysis shows that terrorism and international conflict--the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq--have been the number one story of American news since 9/11. The Pen and the Sword is the first comprehensive review of how the news media have covered--and are covering--these momentous events. This coverage is used throughout the book to introduce and to illustrate a critical perspective on the mass media, examining contemporary issues of media economics, politics, and public opinion.