A Derivative of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 2nd Edition
Author: John H. Steele,Karl K. Turekian,Steve A. Thorpe
Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry is a derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 2nd Edition and serves as an important reference on current knowledge and expertise in one convenient and accessible source. The selected articles—all written by experts in their field—fall into several categories, including: chemistry of sea water, tracers in the sea, natural radioactive species in the ocean, cycles of the nuclides, marine deposits and air sea exchanges. Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry serves as an ideal reference for topical research. References related articles on marine chemistry and geochemistry to facilitate further research Richly illustrated with figures and tables that aid in understanding key concepts Includes an introductory overview of marine chemistry and geochemistry and then explores each topic in detail, making it useful to experts and graduate-level researchers Topical arrangement makes it the perfect desk reference
Author: Roy Chester,Tim D. Jickells
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Marine Geochemistry offers a fully comprehensive and integrated treatment of the chemistry of the oceans, their sediments and biota. The first edition of the book received strong critical acclaim and was described as ‘a standard text for years to come.’ This third edition of Marine Geochemistry has been written at a time when the role of the oceans in the Earth System is becoming increasingly apparent. Following the successful format adopted previously, this new edition treats the oceans as a unified entity, and addresses the question ‘how do the oceans work as a chemical system?’ To address this question, the text has been updated to cover recent advances in our understanding of topics such as the carbon chemistry of the oceans, nutrient cycling and its effect on marine chemistry, the acidification of sea water, and the role of the oceans in climate change. In addition, the importance of shelf seas in oceanic cycles has been re-evaluated in the light of new research. Marine Geochemistry offers both undergraduate and graduate students and research workers an integrated approach to one of the most important reservoirs in the Earth System. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/chester/marinegeochemistry.
Author: Michael E. Q. Pilson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Engagingly introduces marine chemistry and the ocean's geochemical interactions with the solid earth and atmosphere, for students of oceanography.
Ocean Circulation, Carbon Cycle and Climate Change
Author: Matthieu Roy-Barman,Catherine Jeandel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Marine geochemistry uses chemical elements and their isotopes to study how the ocean works in terms of ocean circulation, chemical composition, biological activity and atmospheric CO2 regulation. This rapidly growing field is at a crossroad for many disciplines (physical, chemical and biological oceanography, geology, climatology, ecology, etc.). It provides important quantitative answers to questions such as: What is the deep ocean mixing rate? How much atmospheric CO2 is pumped by the ocean? How fast are pollutants removed from the ocean? How do ecosystems react to anthropogenic pressure? This text gives a simple introduction to the concepts, the methods and the applications of marine geochemistry with a particular emphasis on isotopic tracers. Overall introducing a very large number of topics (physical oceanography, ocean chemistry, isotopes, gas exchange, modelling, biogeochemical cycles), with a balance of didactic and indepth information, it provides an outline and a complete course in marine geochemistry. Throughout, the book uses a hands-on approach with worked out exercises and problems (with answers provided at the end of the book), to help the students work through the concepts presented. A broad scale approach is take including ocean physics, marine biology, ocean-climate relations, remote sensing, pollutions and ecology, so that the reader acquires a global perspective of the ocean. It also includes new topics arising from ongoing research programs. This textbook is essential reading for students, scholars, researchers and other professionals.
Author: David J. Burdige
Publisher: Princeton University Press
"This is undoubtedly a major contribution to the field. David Burdige's scholarship is cutting edge."--Bernard P. Boudreau, Dalhousie University "Burdige has written a wonderfully exhaustive review spanning all aspects of marine sedimentary geochemistry. Generous background welcomes the newcomer, while ample depth and breadth stimulate the savvy expert. The discussions are built from the latest work in biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. And in the tradition of Robert Berner's classic treatment of early diagenesis, Burdige handles reaction pathways and transport processes rigorously and quantitatively. This nicely written, well-illustrated survey suits both the reference shelf and the classroom."--Timothy W. Lyons, University of California, Riverside "This book fills a gaping hole in our field. While certain to be used by specialists, it also provides background and ancillary information so as to reach allied fields. Burdige has done a remarkable job in providing the right balance of background theory, real-world implementation, and examples from the literature."--Rick Murray, Boston University "David Burdige's book reviews and develops the ideas that emerged in the field of geochemistry over the last twenty-five years. It is a significant contribution. The scholarship is clearly sound, with excellent and comprehensive references to the latest work. I have no doubt it will be useful to any students who wish to learn the subject."--Michael Krom, Leeds University Earth and Biosphere Institute
Author: Horst D. Schulz,Matthias Zabel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Since 1980 a considerable amount of scientific research dealing with geochemical processes in marine sediments has been carried out. This textbook summarizes the state-of-the-art in this field of research providing a complete representation of the subject and including the most recent findings. The topics covered include the examination of sedimentological and physical properties of the sedimentary solid phase. A new chapter describes properties, occurrence and formation of gas hydrates in marine sediments. The textbook ends with a chapter on model conceptions and computer models to quantify processes of early diagenesis.
Author: H. Elderfield
The Treatise on Geochemistry is the first work providing a comprehensive, integrated summary of the present state of geochemistry. It deals with all the major subjects in the field, ranging from the chemistry of the solar system to environmental geochemistry. The Treatise on Geochemistry has drawn on the expertise of outstanding scientists throughout the world, creating the reference work in geochemistry for the next decade. Each volume consists of fifteen to twenty-five chapters written by recognized authorities in their fields, and chosen by the Volume Editors in consultation with the Executive Editors. Particular emphasis has been placed on integrating the subject matter of the individual chapters and volumes. Elsevier also offers the Treatise on Geochemistry in electronic format via the online platform ScienceDirect, the most comprehensive database of academic research on the Internet today, enhanced by a suite of sophisticated linking, searching and retrieval tools.
Author: Karl A. Gschneidner,LeRoy Eyring
Even at the beginning of the new millenium the rare earths still remain, to a certain extent, a mystery. The chapters in this volume will help to unravel some of these. In the filling of the 4f electronic orbitals the lanthanides defy the elementary aufbau principle that underlies the periodic sequence of the elements, and the authors of the first chapter introduce the readers to the basic physics of the orbital collapse leading to that failure. Furthermore an explanation is offered in terms of double-well potentials. The phenomenon is illustrated using the valence transitions observed in some of the rare earth atoms, including Sm group metals and the higher oxides of cerium, praseodymium and terbium. In the second chapter the synthesis and structure of the many types of rare earth halides are described. They have been described as simple, complex, binary, ternary and multinuclear complex, and other categories needed to deal with the most studied of the rare earth compounds. The structure types are skillfully illustrated to show the elementary architecture of each type. In chapter three the authors discuss the science and applications of rare earth super ionic conductors as solid electrolytes. Conduction by oxygen and fluorine anions as well as hydrogen and other cations associated with these electrolytes is emphasized. They deal with extrinsic and intrinsic types together with their associated structures and structural types including structural defects. The chapter concludes with an outline of the many applications of solid electrolytes. Chapter four introduces the reader to the principles that underlie thermoluminescence and its application to dosimetry and provides detailed information on the R-activated phosphors that support dosimetry. This is a selective review of detailed literature based on the areas making most progress. The final chapter elaborates on the data gained by the studies and interpretation around the analytical separation of the individual rare earth elements utilizing chromatographic techniques. The authors describe the fundamental chemistry that underpins contemporary analytical separation techniques for lanthanide separation and analysis. This is done after a description of the rich assortment of separation methods in use has been introduced.
National Science Foundation 1950-2000
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Ocean Studies Board
Publisher: National Academies Press
This book describes the development of ocean sciences over the past 50 years, highlighting the contributions of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the field's progress. Many of the individuals who participated in the exciting discoveries in biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics describe in the book how the discoveries were made possible by combinations of insightful individuals, new technology, and in some cases, serendipity. In addition to describing the advance of ocean science, the book examines the institutional structures and technology that made the advances possible and presents visions of the field's future. This book is the first-ever documentation of the history of NSFâ€™s Division of Ocean Sciences, how the structure of the division evolved to its present form, and the individuals who have been responsible for ocean sciences at NSF as â€œrotatorsâ€ and career staff over the past 50 years.
Author: Susan Libes
Publisher: Academic Press
Introduction to Marine Biogeochemistry focuses on the ocean's role in the biogeochemical cycling of selected elements and the impact of humans on the cycling of these elements. Among the topics covered are the chemical composition of seawater from the perspectives of elemental speciation and the impacts of solutes on water's physical behavior; biogeochemical phenomena which control accumulation and preservation of marine sediments; marine chemistry of radioactive and stable isotopes; and seawater pollution. The book contains many examples as well as steady-state models to aid readers in understanding this growing and complex science.. The focus of Introduction to Marine Biogeochemistry is the concept of the ocean as a system, linking land and atmospheric processes The text integrates the most current research, allowing students to learn concepts in context Includes detailed coverage of computational aspects
Author: Steven Emerson,John Hedges
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.
Fundamentals and Applications
Author: George W. Luther
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Inorganic Chemistry for Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences: Fundamentals and Applications discusses the structure, bonding and reactivity of molecules and solids of environmental interest, bringing the reactivity of non-metals and metals to inorganic chemists, geochemists and environmental chemists from diverse fields. Understanding the principles of inorganic chemistry including chemical bonding, frontier molecular orbital theory, electron transfer processes, formation of (nano) particles, transition metal-ligand complexes, metal catalysis and more are essential to describe earth processes over time scales ranging from 1 nanosec to 1 Gigayr. Throughout the book, fundamental chemical principles are illustrated with relevant examples from geochemistry, environmental and marine chemistry, allowing students to better understand environmental and geochemical processes at the molecular level. Topics covered include: • Thermodynamics and kinetics of redox reactions • Atomic structure • Symmetry • Covalent bonding, and bonding in solids and nanoparticles • Frontier Molecular Orbital Theory • Acids and bases • Basics of transition metal chemistry including • Chemical reactivity of materials of geochemical and environmental interest Supplementary material is provided online, including PowerPoint slides, problem sets and solutions. Inorganic Chemistry for Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences is a rapid assimilation textbook for those studying and working in areas of geochemistry, inorganic chemistry and environmental chemistry, wishing to enhance their understanding of environmental processes from the molecular level to the global level.
Author: Jorg D. Hardege
Publisher: EOLSS Publications
Chemical Ecology is a component of Encyclopedia of Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Chemical Ecology provides the essential aspects of the chemicals involved in the interactions of living organisms. It deals with studies involving defensive chemicals which are utilized to deter potential predators, which may attack a wide variety of species, animal interaction, aquatic ecosystems, chemical ecology and pest management, relation to medicine and pharmaceuticals. This volume is aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers.
Author: Edward D. Goldberg,Yoshio Horibe,Katsuko Saruhashi
Category: Chemical oceanography
A derivative of the Treatise on Geochemistry
Author: Heinrich D Holland,Karl K. Turekian
Publisher: Academic Press
After the discovery that elements were commonly composed of isotopes, there developed a range of studies of the variability of isotopic compositions in Earth materials, which was able to add to our understanding of Earth processes and history. This collection of chapters from the Treatise on Geochemistry describes the range of isotopic studies. The chapters are grouped into the following categories: light stable isotopes, radiogenic tracers, noble gases and radioactive tracers. The first three groups depend on mass spectrometric measurements. The section on radioactive tracers employs both radioactive counting techniques and the newly developed accelerator mass spectrometric techniques. Comprehensive, interdisciplinary and authoritative content selected by leading subject experts Robust illustrations, figures and tables Affordably priced sampling of content from the full Treatise on Geochemistry
An Environmental Analytical Chemistry Approach
Author: Antonio Gianguzza,E. PELIZZETTI,Silvio Sammartano
This book introduces the general principles of reaction equilibria and kinetics involved in marine geochemical cycles. The major electrolytes dramatically affect the rates and equilibria of the chemical reactions in the sea. In order to understand these interactions, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the major, minor and trace chemical components. This volume is also focused on the development and applications of analytical techniques for accurate determination and speciation in seawater, and on the effect of pollution on the marine environment, since small quantities of other elements may have a significant influence on global chemical cycling. Audience: This book is of value for marine chemists, biogeochemists, ecologists, oceanographers, environmental engineers and analytical chemists.
Author: Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson
Publisher: Academic Press
Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic. Features up-to-date knowledge of DOM, including five new chapters The only published work to synthesize recent research on dissolved organic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea Includes chapters that address inputs from freshwater terrestrial DOM
The Fifth Element
Author: Horst Marschall,Gavin Foster
This new volume on boron isotope geochemistry offers review chapters summarizing the cosmochemistry, high-temperature and low-temperature geochemistry, and marine chemistry of boron. It also covers theoretical aspects of B isotope fractionation, experiments and atomic modeling, as well as all aspects of boron isotope analyses in geologic materials using the full range of solutions and in-situ methods. The book provides guidance for researchers on the analytical and theoretical aspects, as well as introducing the various scientific applications and research fields in which boron isotopes currently play a major role. The last compendium to summarize the geochemistry of boron and address its isotope geochemistry was published over 20 years ago (Grew &Anovitz, 1996, MSA Review, Vol.33), and there have since been significant advances in analytical techniques, applications and scientific insights into the isotope geochemistry of boron. This volume in the “Advances in Isotope Geochemistry” series provides a valuable source for students and professionals alike, both as an introduction to a new field and as a reference in ongoing research. Chapters 5 and 8 of this book are available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com
Author: Kenneth D. Black,Graham B. Shimmield
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Marine systems vary in their sensitivities to perturbation. Perturbation may be insidious – such as increasing eutrophication of coastal areas – or it may be dramatic – such as a response to an oil spillage or some other accident. Climate change may occur incrementally or it may be abrupt, and ecosystem resilience is likely to be a complex function of the interactions of those assemblages or species mediating key biogeochemical processes. Biogeochemistry of Marine Systems considers issues of marine system resilience, focusing on a range of marine systems that exemplify major global province types but are also interesting and topical in their own right, on account of their sensitivity to natural or anthropogenic change or their importance as ecological service providers. Authors concentrate on advances of the last decade.