50 Years of Ocean Discovery

National Science Foundation 1950-2000

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Ocean Studies Board

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309172578

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 8344

This book describes the development of ocean sciences over the past 50 years, highlighting the contributions of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the field's progress. Many of the individuals who participated in the exciting discoveries in biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics describe in the book how the discoveries were made possible by combinations of insightful individuals, new technology, and in some cases, serendipity. In addition to describing the advance of ocean science, the book examines the institutional structures and technology that made the advances possible and presents visions of the field's future. This book is the first-ever documentation of the history of NSF’s Division of Ocean Sciences, how the structure of the division evolved to its present form, and the individuals who have been responsible for ocean sciences at NSF as “rotators†and career staff over the past 50 years.

Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths

Author: Karl A. Gschneidner,L. Eyring

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444503466

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 7283

Even at the beginning of the new millenium the rare earths still remain, to a certain extent, a mystery. The chapters in this volume will help to unravel some of these. In the filling of the 4f electronic orbitals the lanthanides defy the elementary aufbau principle that underlies the periodic sequence of the elements, and the authors of the first chapter introduce the readers to the basic physics of the orbital collapse leading to that failure. Furthermore an explanation is offered in terms of double-well potentials. The phenomenon is illustrated using the valence transitions observed in some of the rare earth atoms, including Sm group metals and the higher oxides of cerium, praseodymium and terbium. In the second chapter the synthesis and structure of the many types of rare earth halides are described. They have been described as simple, complex, binary, ternary and multinuclear complex, and other categories needed to deal with the most studied of the rare earth compounds. The structure types are skillfully illustrated to show the elementary architecture of each type. In chapter three the authors discuss the science and applications of rare earth super ionic conductors as solid electrolytes. Conduction by oxygen and fluorine anions as well as hydrogen and other cations associated with these electrolytes is emphasized. They deal with extrinsic and intrinsic types together with their associated structures and structural types including structural defects. The chapter concludes with an outline of the many applications of solid electrolytes. Chapter four introduces the reader to the principles that underlie thermoluminescence and its application to dosimetry and provides detailed information on the R-activated phosphors that support dosimetry. This is a selective review of detailed literature based on the areas making most progress. The final chapter elaborates on the data gained by the studies and interpretation around the analytical separation of the individual rare earth elements utilizing chromatographic techniques. The authors describe the fundamental chemistry that underpins contemporary analytical separation techniques for lanthanide separation and analysis. This is done after a description of the rich assortment of separation methods in use has been introduced.

Chemical Ecology

Author: Jorg D. Hardege

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 1848261799

Category: Science

Page: 572

View: 7577

Chemical Ecology is a component of Encyclopedia of Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Chemical Ecology provides the essential aspects of the chemicals involved in the interactions of living organisms. It deals with studies involving defensive chemicals which are utilized to deter potential predators, which may attack a wide variety of species, animal interaction, aquatic ecosystems, chemical ecology and pest management, relation to medicine and pharmaceuticals. This volume is aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers.

Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle

Author: Steven Emerson,John Hedges

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139471619

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9286

The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.

Biogeochemistry of Marine Systems

Author: Kenneth D. Black,Graham B. Shimmield

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405147792

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 6102

Marine systems vary in their sensitivities to perturbation.Perturbation may be insidious – such as increasingeutrophication of coastal areas – or it may be dramatic– such as a response to an oil spillage or some otheraccident. Climate change may occur incrementally or it may beabrupt, and ecosystem resilience is likely to be a complex functionof the interactions of those assemblages or species mediating keybiogeochemical processes. Biogeochemistry of Marine Systems considers issues ofmarine system resilience, focusing on a range of marine systemsthat exemplify major global province types but are also interestingand topical in their own right, on account of their sensitivity tonatural or anthropogenic change or their importance as ecologicalservice providers. Authors concentrate on advances of the lastdecade.

Inorganic Chemistry for Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: George W. Luther

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118851374

Category: Science

Page: 454

View: 6098

Inorganic Chemistry for Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences: Fundamentals and Applications discusses the structure, bonding and reactivity of molecules and solids of environmental interest, bringing the reactivity of non-metals and metals to inorganic chemists, geochemists and environmental chemists from diverse fields. Understanding the principles of inorganic chemistry including chemical bonding, frontier molecular orbital theory, electron transfer processes, formation of (nano) particles, transition metal-ligand complexes, metal catalysis and more are essential to describe earth processes over time scales ranging from 1 nanosec to 1 Gigayr. Throughout the book, fundamental chemical principles are illustrated with relevant examples from geochemistry, environmental and marine chemistry, allowing students to better understand environmental and geochemical processes at the molecular level. Topics covered include: • Thermodynamics and kinetics of redox reactions • Atomic structure • Symmetry • Covalent bonding, and bonding in solids and nanoparticles • Frontier Molecular Orbital Theory • Acids and bases • Basics of transition metal chemistry including • Chemical reactivity of materials of geochemical and environmental interest Supplementary material is provided online, including PowerPoint slides, problem sets and solutions. Inorganic Chemistry for Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences is a rapid assimilation textbook for those studying and working in areas of geochemistry, inorganic chemistry and environmental chemistry, wishing to enhance their understanding of environmental processes from the molecular level to the global level.

Marine Geochemistry

Author: Roy Chester

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401094888

Category: Science

Page: 702

View: 2503

The past two or three decades have seen many important advances in our knowledge of the chemistry, physics, geology and biology of the oceans. It has also become apparent that in order to understand the manner in which the oceans work as a 'chemical system', it is necessary to use a framework which takes account of these interdisciplinary advances. Marine geochemistry has been written in response to the need for a single state-of-the-art text that addresses the subject of treating the sea water, sediment and rock reservoirs as a unified system. In taking this approach, a process-orientated framework has been adopted in which the emphasis is placed on identifying key processes operating within the 'unified ocean'. In doing this, particular attention has been paid to making the text accessible to students from all disciplines in such a way that future advances can readily be understood. I would like to express my thanks to those people who have helped with the writing of this volume. In particular, I wish to put on record my sincere appreciation of extremely helpful suggestions made by Professor John Edmond, FRS. In addition, I thank Dr S. Rowlatt for his comments on the sections covering the geochemistry of oceanic sediments, and Dr G. Wolff for his invaluable advice on the organic geochemistry of biota, water and sediments. It is a great pleasure to acknowledge the help of Dr K. J. T.

The Noble Gases as Geochemical Tracers

Author: Pete Burnard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642288367

Category: Science

Page: 391

View: 9319

The twelve chapters of this volume aim to provide a complete manual for using noble gases in terrestrial geochemistry, covering applications which range from high temperature processes deep in the Earth’s interior to tracing climatic variations using noble gases trapped in ice cores, groundwaters and modern sediments. Other chapters cover noble gases in crustal (aqueous, CO2 and hydrocarbon) fluids and laboratory techniques for determining noble gas solubilities and diffusivities under geologically relevant conditions. Each chapter deals with the fundamentals of the analysis and interpretation of the data, detailing sampling and sampling strategies, techniques for analysis, sources of error and their estimation, including data treatment and data interpretation using recent case studies.

The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry

Author: H. Elderfield

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080451015

Category: Science

Page: 646

View: 896

The Treatise on Geochemistry is the first work providing a comprehensive, integrated summary of the present state of geochemistry. It deals with all the major subjects in the field, ranging from the chemistry of the solar system to environmental geochemistry. The Treatise on Geochemistry has drawn on the expertise of outstanding scientists throughout the world, creating the reference work in geochemistry for the next decade. Each volume consists of fifteen to twenty-five chapters written by recognized authorities in their fields, and chosen by the Volume Editors in consultation with the Executive Editors. Particular emphasis has been placed on integrating the subject matter of the individual chapters and volumes. Elsevier also offers the Treatise on Geochemistry in electronic format via the online platform ScienceDirect, the most comprehensive database of academic research on the Internet today, enhanced by a suite of sophisticated linking, searching and retrieval tools.

Annual Report

Author: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8687

Modeling Methods for Marine Science

Author: David M. Glover,William J. Jenkins,Scott C. Doney

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139500716

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9019

This advanced textbook on modeling, data analysis and numerical techniques for marine science has been developed from a course taught by the authors for many years at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. The first part covers statistics: singular value decomposition, error propagation, least squares regression, principal component analysis, time series analysis and objective interpolation. The second part deals with modeling techniques: finite differences, stability analysis and optimization. The third part describes case studies of actual ocean models of ever increasing dimensionality and complexity, starting with zero-dimensional models and finishing with three-dimensional general circulation models. Throughout the book hands-on computational examples are introduced using the MATLAB programming language and the principles of scientific visualization are emphasised. Ideal as a textbook for advanced students of oceanography on courses in data analysis and numerical modeling, the book is also an invaluable resource for a broad range of scientists undertaking modeling in chemical, biological, geological and physical oceanography.

Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock

The Role of Fluids in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Processes

Author: Daniel Harlov,Hakon Austrheim

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642283934

Category: Science

Page: 806

View: 4536

Fluid-aided mass transfer and subsequent mineral re-equilibration are the two defining features of metasomatism and must be present in order for metamorphism to occur. Coupled with igneous and tectonic processes, metasomatism has played a major role in the formation of the Earth’s continental and oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle as well as in their evolution and subsequent stabilization. Metasomatic processes can include ore mineralization, metasomatically induced alteration of oceanic lithosphere, mass transport in and alteration of subducted oceanic crust and overlying mantle wedge, which has subsequent implications regarding mass transport, fluid flow, and volatile storage in the lithospheric mantle overall, as well as both regional and localized crustal metamorphism. Metasomatic alteration of accessory minerals such as zircon or monazite can allow for the dating of metasomatic events as well as give additional information regarding the chemistry of the fluids responsible. Lastly present day movement of fluids in both the lithospheric mantle and deep to mid crust can be observed utilizing geophysical resources such as electrical resistivity and seismic data. Such observations help to further clarify the picture of actual metasomatic processes as inferred from basic petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical data. The goal of this volume is to bring together a diverse group of geologists, each of whose specialities and long range experience regarding one or more aspects of metasomatism during geologic processes, should allow them to contribute to a series of review chapters, which outline the basis of our current understanding of how metasomatism influences and helps to control both the evolution and stability of the crust and lithospheric mantle.

Annual Report

Author: Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Oceanography

Page: N.A

View: 4065

Marine Surface Films

Chemical Characteristics, Influence on Air-Sea Interactions and Remote Sensing

Author: Martin Gade,Heinrich Hühnerfuss,Gerald M. Korenowski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540332715

Category: Science

Page: 341

View: 9371

Since the late 1960s, various groups have investigated the influence of marine surface films on mechanisms dominating energy and mass transfer across the ocean/atmosphere interface. However, a compendium summarizing the state-of-the-art research in this field is still missing. The book fills this gap and transfers the accumulated knowledge to the scientific community. After a brief historical chapter basic chemical insights are presented, followed by theoretical and experimental approaches carried out in laboratory facilities. Air-sea interaction experiments are then described and finally, remote sensing applications with sea slicks and crude oil spills are presented.

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

Author: Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124071538

Category: Science

Page: 712

View: 8077

Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic. Features up-to-date knowledge of DOM, including five new chapters The only published work to synthesize recent research on dissolved organic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea Includes chapters that address inputs from freshwater terrestrial DOM

Ophiolites and Oceanic Crust

New Insights from Field Studies and the Ocean Drilling Program

Author: Yildirim Dilek

Publisher: Geological Society of America

ISBN: 9780813723495

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 8891

The proceedings from the September 1998 conference in Marshall, California contain 39 papers on the following topics: ophiolites, ocean crust, and global tectonics; oceanic lower crust and upper mantle; structure and physical properties of upper oceanic crust; hydrothermal processes; Pacific Rim ophiolites; and, Ophiolites from Iapetus, Rheic-Pleionic, Neotethyan, and Indian Oceans. Contributors include scientists with backgrounds in structural geology, tectonics, geophysics, petrology, and geochemistry. Numerous black and white illustrations (and one in color) are included. Annotation copyrighted by Book News Inc., Portland, OR

Explorations

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Oceanography

Page: N.A

View: 9591