Millions Fed

Proven Successes in Agricultural Development

Author: David J. Spielman,Rajul Pandya-Lorch

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 089629661X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 165

View: 1885

Humanity has made enormous progress in the past 50 years toward eliminating hunger and malnutrition. Some five billion people--more than 80 percent of the world's population--have enough food to live healthy, productive lives. Agricultural development has contributed significantly to these gains, while also fostering economic growth and poverty reduction in some of the world's poorest countries.

Bref aperçu de Millions Fed

Succès Prouvés dans le Développement Agricole

Author: David J. Spielman,Rajul Pandya-Lorch

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896296598

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 32

View: 2930

Learning from successes in agricultural development is now more urgent than ever. Progress in feeding the world's billions has slowed, while the challenge of meeting future food needs remains enormous and is subject to new uncertainties in the global food and agricultural systems. In the late 1950s around a billion people were estimated to go hungry every day. Scientists, policymakers, farmers, and ordinary people initiated a concerted push to boost agricultural production and productivity in developing countries. Great strides were also made in improving the quality of food and the ability of vulnerable people to access food needed for survival. All these efforts have done more than just feed millions. They have also demonstrated that agriculture can be a key driver of growth and development for many of the world's poorest countries.

Proven Successes in Agricultural Development

A Technical Compendium to Millions Fed

Author: David J. Spielman,Rajul Pandya-Lorch

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 632

View: 7149

The world has made enormous progress in the past 50 years toward eliminating hunger and malnutrition. While, in 1960, roughly 30 percent of the world's population suffered from hunger and malnutrition, today less than 20 percent doessome five billion people now have enough food to live healthy, productive lives. Agricultural development has contributed significantly to these gains by increasing food supplies, reducing food prices, and creating new income and employment opportunities for some of the world's poorest people.This book examines where, why, and how past interventions in agricultural development have succeeded. It carefully reviews the policies, programs, and investments in agricultural development that have reduced hunger and poverty across Africa, Asia, and Latin America over the past half century. The 19 successes included here are described in in-depth case studies that synthesize the evidence on the intervention's impact on agricultural productivity and food security, evaluate the rigor with which the evidence was collected, and assess the tradeoffs inherent in each success. Together, these chapters provide evidence of "what works" in agricultural development.

Pearl millet and sorghum improvement in India

Author: Carl E. Pray, Latha Nagarajan

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 27

View: 1580

The spread of modern varieties and hybrids of pearl millet and sorghum that began in the mid-1960s has had an important impact on small farmer welfare in India. The success and sustainability of these improved cultivars resulted from three types (or periods) of interventions by the Indian government: (1) increased investments in crop improvement by national and international agricultural systems during the 1970s; (2) development of efficient seed systems, with the gradual inclusion of the private sector in the 1980s; and (3) the liberalization of the Indian seed industry in the late 1990s. In addition to increased overall production levels of sorghum and millet, there have been substantial yield gains in semi-arid regions as well as improved cultivars adopted in some of the poorest areas of India. The innovations of new, hybrid technology have not been limited to the Green Revolution crops; they have also had significant impact on the productivity of small-farmer households growing dryland crops, such as millet and sorghum in India.

International Development

Ideas, Experience, and Prospects

Author: Bruce Currie-Alder,Ravi Kanbur,David M. Malone,Rohinton Medhora

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191651699

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 896

View: 1394

Thinking on development informs and inspires the actions of people, organizations, and states in their continuous effort to invent a better world. This volume examines the ideas behind development: their origins, how they have changed and spread over time, and how they may evolve over the coming decades. It also examines how the real-life experiences of different countries and organizations have been inspired by, and contributed to, thinking on development. The extent to which development 'works' depends in part on particular local, historical, or institutional contexts. General policy prescriptions fail when the necessary conditions that make them work are either absent, ignored, or poorly understood. There is a need to grasp how people understand their own development experience. If the countries of the world are varied in every way, from their initial conditions to the degree of their openness to outside money and influence, and success is not centred in any one group, it stands to reason that there cannot be a single recipe for development. Each chapter provides an analytical survey of thinking about development that highlights debates and takes into account critical perspectives. It includes contributions from scholars and practitioners from the global North and the global South, spanning at least two generations and multiple disciplines. It will be a key reference on the concepts and theories of development - their origins, evolution, and trajectories - and act as a resource for scholars, graduate students, and practitioners.

Transportation Worker Identification Credential

Internal Control Weaknesses Need to be Corrected to Help Achieve Security Objectives

Author: Stephen M. Lord

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437985769


Page: 64

View: 3431

The Transportation Security Admin. and the U.S. Coast Guard manage the Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) program, which requires maritime workers to complete background checks and obtain a biometric identification card to gain unescorted access to secure areas of regulated maritime facilities. This report evaluated the extent to which: (1) TWIC processes for enrollment, background checking, and use are designed to provide reasonable assurance that unescorted access to these facilities is limited to qualified individuals; and (2) the effectiveness of TWIC has been assessed. This is a public version of a sensitive report. Information deemed sensitive has been redacted. Illustrations. This is a print on demand report.

The Democrats

A Critical History

Author: Lance Selfa

Publisher: Haymarket Books

ISBN: 1608460495

Category: Political Science

Page: 260

View: 453

"The Democrats: A Critical History is worthy reading for anyone who is interested in social change." The 2006 elections put the Democrats in the majority in both houses of Congress, yet those hoping for change have been deeply disappointed. Lance Selfa looks at the Democrats in a broad historical perspective, showing that today’s betrayals stem from the Democratic Party’s role as one of the two parties serving the interests of the US establishment, not of the broader public or its “base” of women, African Americans, trade union members, and working and poor people. Many other books on the Democrats have seen the party’s recent history as a departure from its storied past as the “party of the people.” Selfa’s book is one of the few written for a popular audience to challenge this myth and to put today’s crisis of the Democratic Party’s legitimacy in a historical perspective. As the 2008 presidential season heats up, there will be many books about individual candidates and their personalities. This book is for people who want to go beyond campaign puffery to look at the serious topics and questions at stake, with a vision that isn’t limited to the next election cycle. Lance Selfa is a researcher and author. An editor and contributor to International Socialist Review, he edited The Struggle for Palestine (Haymarket Books, 2002). He lives in Chicago.

Controlling cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug in Sub-Saharan Africa

Author: Felix Nweke

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 22

View: 2696

Cassava was imported from Latin America some 300 years ago, and colonial governments in Africa used it as a famine-reserve crop. Over time cassava spread to over 40 countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, and Nigeria is now the largest cassava producer in the world. At Africa's independence in the 1960s, cassava mosaic disease was a major problem. In the 1970s, the cassava mealybug appeared and threatened to decimate the African cassava industry. Cassava mosaic and mealybug control programs were introduced in the 1970s to combat these two problems. The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) drew on research on mosaic disease control in Tanzania and developed high-yielding mosaic disease resistant Tropical Manioc Selection (TMS) varieties in only six years of research, from 1971 to 1977. The TMS varieties increased cassava yields by 40 percent without fertilizer. To tackle the mealybug problem, an Africa-wide biological control center was established at the IITA in Nigeria. The IITA brought together an international group of scientists and donors who crisscrossed Central and South America and eventually found a wasp that fed off the mealybug. The wasp was imported from South America into Africa and introduced into cassava fields in over 100 locations throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. The wasp has been effective in bringing the mealybug under control and reduces yield loss by 2.5 tons per hectare. The successful control of both the cassava mosaic disease and the cassava mealybug problems has raised cassava yields and turned cassava into a cash crop that is now spreading throughout Africa. Both cassava success stories are an example of the payoff from problem-solving research that may take many decades.

The impact of shallow tubewells and boro rice on food security in Bangladesh

Author: Mahabub Hossain

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 23

View: 9066

Bangladesh has made notable progress in achieving food security, despite extreme population pressures, limited land resources, and an agrarian structure dominated by small and tenant farmers. After two decades of sluggish performance prior to the late 1980s, the production of rice--the dominant staple food--has increased much faster than the population. The development of minor irrigation, particularly private, investment-based expansion of shallow tubewells, has contributed to this impressive performance, and was an outcome of the government's market liberalization policy for irrigation equipment in the late 1980s. This policy promoted rapid expansion of irrigated "boro" rice farming in the dry season. The fast diffusion of boro rice in the rain-fed, low-yielding "aus" rice area contributed to accelerated growth in rice productivity, a reduction in the unit cost of production, and a decline in real rice prices. Together, these factors have been a major factor behind attainment of food security and moderately reduced poverty in Bangladesh over the last two decades.

Liberal Betrayal of America and the Tea Party Firestorm

Author: William Davis Eaton


ISBN: 1934956279

Category: Religion

Page: 284

View: 8810

On November 4, 2008 the American people elected a virtually unknown, untried, and inexperienced but charismatic community organizer from the streets of Chicago as President of the United States. His campaign had promised little more than "Hope," "Change," and "Yes We Can," with an occasional vague reference to "transformative" change. The new President, exalting himself and his associates as "the ones we have been waiting for," lost no time in imposing an enormous expansion of layered bureaucratic power through regulation, takeovers, intimidation, and ruinous debt to replace the institutions of American Liberty. Barack Hussein Obama tells us that America is no longer an exceptional nation; no longer a Christian nation; and acts as though it were no longer a constitutional nation. The result is a genuine coup d'etat; and the meaning of "transformative" change becomes all too clear. Call it sociofascism. The ground for this shocking "change" was prepared when the campus riots of the 1960s opened a culture war against America. Over the decades this became a full-fledged Civil War to capture or destroy American institutions of Liberty, and is now merged with the Obama regime. But in their jackboot haste to effect their purpose the new commanders stepped on a sleeping giant, and aroused its fury. "We the people" saw "transformative" change exposed for what it is. The Tea Parties were born, and a broad citizen-based counter-attack against those who would destroy America began barely a month after the new regime took office. Liberal Betrayal of America and the Tea Party Firestorm is the story of how this has happened, and what the future prospects for America may be.

Agroenvironmental transformation in the Sahel: Another kind of "Green Revolution"

Author: Chris Reij, Gray Tappan, Melinda Smale

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 43

View: 1456

A farmer-managed, agroenvironmental transformation has occurred over the past three decades in the West African Sahel, enabling both land rehabilitation and agricultural intensification to support a dense and growing population. This paper traces the technical and institutional innovations, their impacts, and lessons learned from two successful examples. The first is the story of the improvement and replication of indigenous soil and water conservation practices across the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso. Rehabilitation of at least 200,000 hectares of degraded land enabled farmers to grow cereals on land that had been barren and intensify production through developing agroforestry systems. Additionally, rehabilitation appears to have recharged local wells. The second example is a farmer-managed process of natural regeneration, using improved, local agroforestry practices over an estimated 5 million hectares in southern Niger. This large-scale effort reduced wind erosion and increased the production and marketing of crops, fodder, firewood, fruit, and other products. In both cases, income opportunities were created, reducing incentives for migration. Women benefited from the improved supply of water, fuelwood, and other tree products. Human, social, and political capital was strengthened in a process of farmer-driven change. Fluid coalitions of actors expanded the scale of the transformation. These stories have important lessons for those who seek to create effective agricultural development partnerships and meet the challenges of climate change and food security.

"Crossing the river while feeling the rocks": Incremental land reform and its impact on rural welfare in China

Author: John W. Bruce, Zongmin Li

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 51

View: 4774

Between 1978 and 1984, a massive shift from collective to household agricultural production took place in China. These incremental reforms, which Deng Xiaoping called "crossing the river while feeling the rocks," eventually gave 95 percent--160 million rural Chinese families--the right to oversee household plots, leading to stunning gains in productivity. Despite the success of the HRS, the enhancement of property rights is an ongoing reform process. Landholders depended on tenure agreements that could be changed at any time. Rural areas did not have the same right to profit from appreciating land values as urban landholders. As cities have expanded rapidly, municipalities have requisitioned rural land and issued it to new users at urban prices much higher than that paid to the rural villages. The policy debate about the appropriate pace for strengthening rural land use rights continues. This reform, the Household Responsibility System (HRS), provided strong incentives for farmers to increase labor and improve land, since they could profit from any marketable surplus they produced. Meanwhile, the state set quotas and purchased crops, providing reliable markets for increased production. It also strongly supported farmers by managing irrigation and the agricultural extension system. The state's earlier investments in rural nonfarm infrastructure paid off under the reforms, as workers released from agriculture by the more efficient use of labor found employment in local rural industries. In the years following the property reforms, the quality of life in rural China improved dramatically: per capita rural income more than doubled from 1978 to 1984. Having examined the substance, process, and effects of the reforms, this paper asks what lessons from the reforms are relevant for other developing countries. In spite of differences among countries, some elements of the Chinese reform experience seem highly relevant to others engaged in the struggle to develop.

The Asian Green Revolution

Author: Peter B.R. Hazell

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 31

View: 893

The Green Revolution brought modern science to bear on a widening Asian food crisis in the 1960s. The speed and scale with which it solved the food problem was remarkable and unprecedented, and it contributed to a substantial reduction in poverty and the launching of broader economic growth in many Asian countries. Improved cereal varieties, fertilizers, irrigation, and modern pest control methods lay at the heart of the Green Revolution, yet it was much more than a technology fix. It also required a supporting economic and policy environment. The need for markets that could handle the surge in production and the need to educate farmers about the new technology and ensure that they had access to the inputs and receive an adequate reward to their investments, led governments across Asia to actively intervene in launching and implementing the Green Revolution. Government interventions were also important for ensuring that small farmers were included in the revolution and did not get left behind. Even with the success of the Green Revolution, there are remaining social and environmental problems that still need to be resolved and a continuing need to increase yields to meet Asia's growing food needs. There is also urgent need to bring the Green Revolution in an appropriately modified form to Sub-Saharan Africa.

Improving the proof: Evolution of and emerging trends in impact assessment methods and approaches in agricultural development

Author: Mywish K. Maredia

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 48

View: 4925

Assessing impacts of public investments has long captured the interest and attention of the development community. This paper presents the evolution of different methods and approaches used for ex ante appraisal, monitoring, project evaluation, and impact assessment over the last five decades. Among these tools, impact assessment (IA) conducted retrospectively comes closest to providing the proof of development effectiveness. It is defined as the systematic analysis of the significant or lasting changes in people's lives brought about by a given action or series of actions in relation to a counterfactual. There are three basic types of retrospective IAs: macro-level IAs that focus on the contribution of developmental efforts to an impact goal aggregated at a sector or a system level; micro-level impact evaluations (IEs) concerned with estimating the average effect of an intervention on outcomes at the beneficiary level; and micro-level ex post impact analysis concerned with total effects of a development effort after the outputs are scaled-up. Ex post IAs have evolved and expanded over the decades in both breadth and depth of analysis in response to evolving development themes and methodological advancements. The increased emphasis on learning from evaluations has also seen responses from both quantitative and qualitative camps of the evaluation community. The paper argues that generation of robust knowledge that feeds into making developmental policies and investment decisions requires a hierarchical and cumulative approach to "improving the proof" through rigorous and a variety of impact assessment methods applied incrementally at the project, program and system level. Subjecting as many development interventions as resources allow to rigorous impact assessment based on a common framework can help build a critical body of evidence on impacts of development interventions, which can then be subjected to meta-analyses to help assimilate results across different studies and build a knowledge base on what works and what does not.

The global effort to eradicate rinderpest

Author: Peter Roeder, Karl Rich

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 70

View: 610

During the past 70 years, concerted efforts by the national veterinary services of affected countries from Senegal to China and Russia to South Africa--aided by international organizations--have brought the once-dreaded rinderpest virus to the point of extinction. In the near future, we can expect to see a global declaration of freedom from rinderpest, the first time this has been achieved for a livestock disease. The devastation wrought by rinderpest stimulated the founding of veterinary schools in many countries, and provided the basis for the development of the veterinary profession. The legacy of control programs in the past 20 years includes vaccine innovations and the development of new epidemiological and surveillance tools that are based on participatory techniques. Additionally, the benefits derived from eradication are many, ranging from increased confidence in livestock-based agriculture to increased food security, protected rural livelihoods, technically more proficient veterinary services, an opening of trade into lucrative markets in the Middle East, and the safeguarding of Africa's wildlife heritage from a serious threat to its dwindling populations. As for the financial benefits of rinderpest eradication, describing them is constrained because of a general lack of studies on the subject, and the fact that programs covering multiple issues often did not clearly discern the rinderpest problem. This analysis attempts to present lessons learned from the experience gained in eradicating rinderpest, and explores the socioeconomic gains made as a result.

Rich food for poor people: Genetically improved tilapia in the Philippines

Author: Sivan Yosef

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 34

View: 9883

The Genetic Improvement of Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) project, which operated from 1988-97, served as a launching point for tilapia improvement efforts in Asia, as well as tropical finfish genetic improvements globally. Based on the selective breeding of Nile tilapia, the GIFT project succeeded in producing tilapia with faster growth rates, higher survival rates, and a shorter harvest time, thus increasing fish yields dramatically. These attributes, along with its stable, low price, have made tilapia an extremely popular food source in Asia, especially among poor consumers. The resounding success of tilapia production was buoyed by strong institutional support from national and international research institutions, regional networks, governments, donors, and small-scale, private actors. Most importantly, a strong initial mandate to apply the GIFT project design to improve aquaculture in general makes GIFT an exciting and replicable benchmark for future food security efforts.

The Quiet Revolution in Staple Food Value Chains

Author: Asian Development Bank

Publisher: Asian Development Bank

ISBN: 9290929111

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 286

View: 9677

Major changes have been occurring almost unnoticed in staple value chains in Asia. The Quiet Revolution in Staple Food Value Chains documents and explains the transformation of value chains moving rice and potatoes between the farm gate and the consumer in Bangladesh, the People’s Republic of China, and India. The changes noted are the rapid rise of supermarkets, modern cold storage facilities, large rice mills, and commercialized small farmers using input-intensive, mechanized technologies. These changes affect food security in ways that are highly relevant for policymakers across Asia—the rise of supermarkets provides cheaper staples, more direct relations in the chains combined with branding have increased traceability, and the rise of cold storage has brought higher incomes for potato farmers and all-season access for potato consumers. The book also joins two debates that have long been separate and parallel—food industry and agribusiness development and market competitiveness—with the food security and poverty alleviation agend

Combating stem and leaf rust of wheat: Historical perspective, impacts, and lessons learned

Author: H.J. Dubin, John P. Brennan

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Social Science

Page: 33

View: 3979

This case study explores the half century of successful efforts of the international wheat stem and leaf rust resistance programs within the context of the international agricultural research system. The study uses a historical perspective to examine the major factors that underpin the success, and presents the impacts on economic returns, food security, and poverty in developing countries. It concludes that the major reasons for success in research on durable stem and leaf rust resistance rested on the following: symbiotic relationships of the collaborative international and national programs; free exchange of genetic resources and information; human resource development; and long-term donor commitment. Data presented show that the use of durable rust resistance has significant economic returns as well as positive impacts on poverty reduction, nutrition, food security, and the environment. Nevertheless, in recent years, decreased donor support for agriculture and productivity has had negative effects. The recent occurrence of a new strain of stem rust that defeated key durable resistance genes has endangered large wheat areas in developing countries. This highlights the critical need for continuous research and vigilance to keep ahead of the ever changing pathogenic microbes.