Models and Ultraproducts

An Introduction

Author: John Lane Bell,A. B. Slomson

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486449793

Category: Mathematics

Page: 322

View: 404

In this text for first-year graduate students, the authors provide an elementary exposition of some of the basic concepts of model theory--focusing particularly on the ultraproduct construction and the areas in which it is most useful. The book, which assumes only that its readers are acquainted with the rudiments of set theory, starts by developing the notions of Boolean algebra, propositional calculus, and predicate calculus. Model theory proper begins in the fourth chapter, followed by an introduction to ultraproduct construction, which includes a detailed look at its theoretic properties. An overview of elementary equivalence provides algebraic descriptions of the elementary classes. Discussions of completeness follow, along with surveys of the work of Jónsson and of Morley and Vaught on homogeneous universal models, and the results of Keisler in connection with the notion of a saturated structure. Additional topics include classical results of Gödel and Skolem, and extensions of classical first-order logic in terms of generalized quantifiers and infinitary languages. Numerous exercises appear throughout the text.

An Introduction to Mathematical Modeling

Author: Edward A. Bender

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486137120

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 8541

Accessible text features over 100 reality-based examples pulled from the science, engineering, and operations research fields. Prerequisites: ordinary differential equations, continuous probability. Numerous references. Includes 27 black-and-white figures. 1978 edition.

Toposes and Local Set Theories

An Introduction

Author: John L. Bell

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486462862

Category: Mathematics

Page: 267

View: 5063

This text introduces topos theory, a development in category theory that unites important but seemingly diverse notions from algebraic geometry, set theory, and intuitionistic logic. Topics include local set theories, fundamental properties of toposes, sheaves, local-valued sets, and natural and real numbers in local set theories. 1988 edition.

A Shorter Model Theory

Author: Wilfrid Hodges

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521587136

Category: Mathematics

Page: 310

View: 6362

This is an up-to-date textbook of model theory taking the reader from first definitions to Morley's theorem and the elementary parts of stability theory. Besides standard results such as the compactness and omitting types theorems, it also describes various links with algebra, including the Skolem-Tarski method of quantifier elimination, model completeness, automorphism groups and omega-categoricity, ultraproducts, O-minimality and structures of finite Morley rank. The material on back-and-forth equivalences, interpretations and zero-one laws can serve as an introduction to applications of model theory in computer science. Each chapter finishes with a brief commentary on the literature and suggestions for further reading. This book will benefit graduate students with an interest in model theory.

Introduction to Analysis

Author: Maxwell Rosenlicht

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486650388

Category: Mathematics

Page: 254

View: 677

Written for junior and senior undergraduates, this remarkably clear and accessible treatment covers set theory, the real number system, metric spaces, continuous functions, Riemann integration, multiple integrals, and more. Rigorous and carefully presented, the text assumes a year of calculus and features problems at the end of each chapter. 1968 edition.

Logic and Structure

Author: Dirk van Dalen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447145585

Category: Mathematics

Page: 263

View: 6398

Dirk van Dalen’s popular textbook Logic and Structure, now in its fifth edition, provides a comprehensive introduction to the basics of classical and intuitionistic logic, model theory and Gödel’s famous incompleteness theorem. Propositional and predicate logic are presented in an easy-to-read style using Gentzen’s natural deduction. The book proceeds with some basic concepts and facts of model theory: a discussion on compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, non-standard models and quantifier elimination. The discussion of classical logic is concluded with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, intuitionistic logic and Kripke semantics is carefully explored. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property are also included. The last chapter on Gödel's first incompleteness theorem is self-contained and provides a systematic exposition of the necessary recursion theory. This new edition has been properly revised and contains a new section on ultra-products.

Model Theory

Third Edition

Author: C.C. Chang,H. Jerome Keisler

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486310957

Category: Mathematics

Page: 672

View: 8653

This bestselling textbook for higher-level courses was extensively revised in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods. Topics include models constructed from constants, ultraproducts, and saturated and special models. 1990 edition.

Modal Logic

Graph. Darst

Author: Patrick Blackburn,Maarten de Rijke,Yde Venema

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521527149

Category: Computers

Page: 554

View: 5258

This is an advanced 2001 textbook on modal logic, a field which caught the attention of computer scientists in the late 1970s. Researchers in areas ranging from economics to computational linguistics have since realised its worth. The book is for novices and for more experienced readers, with two distinct tracks clearly signposted at the start of each chapter. The development is mathematical; prior acquaintance with first-order logic and its semantics is assumed, and familiarity with the basic mathematical notions of set theory is required. The authors focus on the use of modal languages as tools to analyze the properties of relational structures, including their algorithmic and algebraic aspects, and applications to issues in logic and computer science such as completeness, computability and complexity are considered. Three appendices supply basic background information and numerous exercises are provided. Ideal for anyone wanting to learn modern modal logic.

An Introduction to Mathematical Logic

Author: Richard E. Hodel

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486497852

Category: Mathematics

Page: 491

View: 9512

This comprehensive overview ofmathematical logic is designedprimarily for advanced undergraduatesand graduate studentsof mathematics. The treatmentalso contains much of interest toadvanced students in computerscience and philosophy. Topics include propositional logic;first-order languages and logic; incompleteness, undecidability,and indefinability; recursive functions; computability;and Hilbert’s Tenth Problem.Reprint of the PWS Publishing Company, Boston, 1995edition.

The Analysis of Fractional Differential Equations

An Application-Oriented Exposition Using Differential Operators of Caputo Type

Author: Kai Diethelm

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642145744

Category: Mathematics

Page: 247

View: 7861

Fractional calculus was first developed by pure mathematicians in the middle of the 19th century. Some 100 years later, engineers and physicists have found applications for these concepts in their areas. However there has traditionally been little interaction between these two communities. In particular, typical mathematical works provide extensive findings on aspects with comparatively little significance in applications, and the engineering literature often lacks mathematical detail and precision. This book bridges the gap between the two communities. It concentrates on the class of fractional derivatives most important in applications, the Caputo operators, and provides a self-contained, thorough and mathematically rigorous study of their properties and of the corresponding differential equations. The text is a useful tool for mathematicians and researchers from the applied sciences alike. It can also be used as a basis for teaching graduate courses on fractional differential equations.

Foundations of Mathematical Logic

Author: Haskell Brooks Curry

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486634623

Category: Mathematics

Page: 408

View: 5011

Written by a pioneer of mathematical logic, this comprehensive graduate-level text explores the constructive theory of first-order predicate calculus. It covers formal methods — including algorithms and epitheory — and offers a brief treatment of Markov's approach to algorithms. It also explains elementary facts about lattices and similar algebraic systems. 1963 edition.

Logic, Mathematics, Philosophy, Vintage Enthusiasms

Essays in Honour of John L. Bell

Author: David DeVidi,Michael Hallett,Peter Clark

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400702141

Category: Philosophy

Page: 486

View: 5619

The volume includes twenty-five research papers presented as gifts to John L. Bell to celebrate his 60th birthday by colleagues, former students, friends and admirers. Like Bell’s own work, the contributions cross boundaries into several inter-related fields. The contributions are new work by highly respected figures, several of whom are among the key figures in their fields. Some examples: in foundations of maths and logic (William Lawvere, Peter Aczel, Graham Priest, Giovanni Sambin); analytical philosophy (Michael Dummett, William Demopoulos), philosophy of science (Michael Redhead, Frank Arntzenius), philosophy of mathematics (Michael Hallett, John Mayberry, Daniel Isaacson) and decision theory and foundations of economics (Ken Bimore). Most articles are contributions to current philosophical debates, but contributions also include some new mathematical results, important historical surveys, and a translation by Wilfrid Hodges of a key work of arabic logic.

Set Theory

Author: Kenneth Kunen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781848900509

Category: Mathematics

Page: 412

View: 9852

This book is designed for readers who know elementary mathematical logic and axiomatic set theory, and who want to learn more about set theory. The primary focus of the book is on the independence proofs. Most famous among these is the independence of the Continuum Hypothesis (CH); that is, there are models of the axioms of set theory (ZFC) in which CH is true, and other models in which CH is false. More generally, cardinal exponentiation on the regular cardinals can consistently be anything not contradicting the classical theorems of Cantor and Konig. The basic methods for the independence proofs are the notion of constructibility, introduced by Godel, and the method of forcing, introduced by Cohen. This book describes these methods in detail, verifi es the basic independence results for cardinal exponentiation, and also applies these methods to prove the independence of various mathematical questions in measure theory and general topology. Before the chapters on forcing, there is a fairly long chapter on "infi nitary combinatorics." This consists of just mathematical theorems (not independence results), but it stresses the areas of mathematics where set-theoretic topics (such as cardinal arithmetic) are relevant. There is, in fact, an interplay between infi nitary combinatorics and independence proofs. Infi nitary combinatorics suggests many set-theoretic questions that turn out to be independent of ZFC, but it also provides the basic tools used in forcing arguments. In particular, Martin's Axiom, which is one of the topics under infi nitary combinatorics, introduces many of the basic ingredients of forcing.

The Axiom of Choice

Author: Thomas J. Jech

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 202

View: 2341

Set Theory and the Continuum Problem

Author: Raymond M. Smullyan,Melvin Fitting

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780486474847

Category: Mathematics

Page: 315

View: 5097

A lucid, elegant, and complete survey of set theory, this three-part treatment explores axiomatic set theory, the consistency of the continuum hypothesis, and forcing and independence results. 1996 edition.

Introduction to Real Analysis

Author: William F. Trench

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: 9780130457868

Category: Mathematics

Page: 574

View: 1677

Using an extremely clear and informal approach, this book introduces readers to a rigorous understanding of mathematical analysis and presents challenging math concepts as clearly as possible. The real number system. Differential calculus of functions of one variable. Riemann integral functions of one variable. Integral calculus of real-valued functions. Metric Spaces. For those who want to gain an understanding of mathematical analysis and challenging mathematical concepts.

Combinatorial Set Theory

With a Gentle Introduction to Forcing

Author: Lorenz J. Halbeisen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319602314

Category: Mathematics

Page: 594

View: 9235

This book, now in a thoroughly revised second edition, provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to modern set theory. Following an overview of basic notions in combinatorics and first-order logic, the author outlines the main topics of classical set theory in the second part, including Ramsey theory and the axiom of choice. The revised edition contains new permutation models and recent results in set theory without the axiom of choice. The third part explains the sophisticated technique of forcing in great detail, now including a separate chapter on Suslin’s problem. The technique is used to show that certain statements are neither provable nor disprovable from the axioms of set theory. In the final part, some topics of classical set theory are revisited and further developed in light of forcing, with new chapters on Sacks Forcing and Shelah’s astonishing construction of a model with finitely many Ramsey ultrafilters. Written for graduate students in axiomatic set theory, Combinatorial Set Theory will appeal to all researchers interested in the foundations of mathematics. With extensive reference lists and historical remarks at the end of each chapter, this book is suitable for self-study.

Nonarchimedean Fields and Asymptotic Expansions

Author: A. H. Lightstone,Abraham Robinson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483257444

Category: Mathematics

Page: 214

View: 3083

North-Holland Mathematical Library, Volume 13: Nonarchimedean Fields and Asymptotic Expansions focuses on the connection between nonarchimedean systems and the orders of infinity and smallness that are related with the asymptotic behavior of a function. The publication first explains nonarchimedean fields and nonstandard analysis. Discussions focus on the method of mathematical logic, ultrapower construction, principles of permanence, internal functions, many-sorted structures, nonarchimedean fields and groups, and fields with evaluation. The text then discusses the Euler-Maclaurin expansions and the formal concept of asymptotic expansions. Topics include a generalized criterion for asymptotic expansions, asymptotic power series, Watson's Lemma, asymptotic sequences, and the Euler-Maclaurin formula. The manuscript examines Popken space, including asymptotically finite functions, convergence, norm, algebraic properties of the norm, and Popken's description of the norm. The text is a dependable reference for mathematicians and researchers interested in nonarchimedean fields and asymptotic expansions.

Introduction to Lattices and Order

Author: B. A. Davey,H. A. Priestley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107717523

Category: Mathematics

Page: 309

View: 4474

This new edition of Introduction to Lattices and Order presents a radical reorganization and updating, though its primary aim is unchanged. The explosive development of theoretical computer science in recent years has, in particular, influenced the book's evolution: a fresh treatment of fixpoints testifies to this and Galois connections now feature prominently. An early presentation of concept analysis gives both a concrete foundation for the subsequent theory of complete lattices and a glimpse of a methodology for data analysis that is of commercial value in social science. Classroom experience has led to numerous pedagogical improvements and many new exercises have been added. As before, exposure to elementary abstract algebra and the notation of set theory are the only prerequisites, making the book suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. It will also be a valuable resource for anyone who meets ordered structures.

A Course in Model Theory

Author: Katrin Tent,Martin Ziegler

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052176324X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 248

View: 6248

This concise introduction to model theory begins with standard notions and takes the reader through to more advanced topics such as stability, simplicity and Hrushovski constructions. The authors introduce the classic results, as well as more recent developments in this vibrant area of mathematical logic. Concrete mathematical examples are included throughout to make the concepts easier to follow. The book also contains over 200 exercises, many with solutions, making the book a useful resource for graduate students as well as researchers.