Muscular Christianity

Manhood and Sports in Protestant America, 1880-1920

Author: Clifford Putney

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674042407

Category: History

Page: 310

View: 8634

Dissatisfied with a Victorian culture focused on domesticity and threatened by physical decline in sedentary office jobs, American men in the late nineteenth century sought masculine company in fraternal lodges and engaged in exercise to invigorate their bodies. One form of this new manly culture, developed out of the Protestant churches, was known as muscular Christianity. In this fascinating study, Clifford Putney details how Protestant leaders promoted competitive sports and physical education to create an ideal of Christian manliness.

Men and Masculinities

A Social, Cultural, and Historical Encyclopedia

Author: Michael S. Kimmel,Amy Aronson

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1576077748

Category: Reference

Page: 892

View: 3371

Alphabetically arranged original essays explore such topics as historical movements, race and masculinity, marriage, and aging.

Christianity and the Transformation of Physical Education and Sport in China

Author: Huijie Zhang

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351810669

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 3313

Despite the popularity of sport in contemporary China, the practice of physical education is not indigenous to its culture. Strenuous physical activity was traditionally linked to low class and status in the pre-modern Chinese society. The concept of modern PE was introduced to China by Western Christian missionaries and directors of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA). It then grew from a tool for Christian evangelism to a strategic instrument in Chinese nation-building. This book examines the transformation of Chinese attitudes toward PE and sport, drawing on the concepts of cultural imperialism and nationalism to understand how an imported Western activity became a key aspect of modernization for the Chinese state. More specifically, it looks at the relationship between Christianity and the rise of Chinese nationalism between 1840 and 1937. Combining historical insight with original research, this book sheds new light on the evolution of PE and sport in modern China. It is fascinating reading for all those with an interest in sports history, Chinese culture and society, Christianity, physical education or the sociology of sport.

Sport in den USA

Author: Annette Ruth Hofmann

Publisher: Waxmann Verlag

ISBN: 9783830976264

Category: Crafts & Hobbies

Page: 232

View: 9428

Die USA gelten als die führende Sportnation. Doch was wissen wir wirklich über den amerikanischen Sport, außer dass Baseball, American Football und Cheerleading aus diesem Land stammen? Was versteht man unter Begriffen wie Athletics, Intercollegiate Sports, Intramural Sports, Title IX, Physical Education, Super Bowl oder dem „Y“? Bisher gibt es nur wenig deutschsprachige Literatur über den amerikanischen Sport, seine Strukturen und Ausprägungsformen. Dieses Buch soll diese Lücke ein wenig schließen. Die einzelnen Beiträge, die von namhaften amerikanischen und deutschen Sportwissenschaftlerinnen und -wissenschaftlern verfasst sind, zeigen, dass der Sport in den USA eine ganz andere Struktur als der deutsche Sport mit seinem Vereinswesen aufweist.

"Manhood" im frühen amerikanischen Sport

Author: Kai Mühlenhoff

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3638007316

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 102

View: 4498

Examensarbeit aus dem Jahr 2005 im Fachbereich Sport - Sportgeschichte, Note: 1,3, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster (Sportwissenschaft), 97 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Die Arbeit baut auf einem drastischen Wandel von Männlichkeitsidealen auf – dem Wandel eines Ideals, welches tief im Leben der Gemeinde verwurzelt ist, zu einem Ideal, das auf individuellen Leistungen fußt und dabei den männlichen Körper in den Mittelpunkt stellt. Ein Männlichkeitsideal ist ein Cluster von Eigenschaften, Verhaltensweisen und Werten, über die sich ein Mann identifiziert und die von Mitgliedern einer Gesellschaft als das Erstrebenswerte, als dasjenige angesehen werden, was den „guten“ und tugendhaften Mann ausmacht. In einer Zeit (1850-1920), in der weitgreifende soziale, wirtschaftliche und politische Veränderungen um sich griffen, sahen die Männer, die für sich das Ideal einer starken Identität beanspruchten, dieses in ernsthafter Gefahr. BEDERMAN (1995) hat mit dem Ideal des Masculine Primitive und seiner Betonung auf dem Körper auf die nicht von einander zu trennende Beziehung von Körper, Identität und Macht hingewiesen. In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts herrschte die Meinung vor, dass ein starker Körper einem Mann eine starke Identität verlieh und damit die Fähigkeit, sich für sich selbst behaupten und über andere dominieren zu können. Männer haben beständig Strategien entwickelt, für sich das auf Aggressivität, Härte, Kraft und Macht basierende Ideal zu bewahren, beziehungsweise es für ihre individuellen Vorhaben zu Nutze zu machen. Es gilt in diesem Sinne, ihre Strategien herauszuarbeiten, um zu zeigen, welche Funktionen dem Sport dabei als Instrument zur Umsetzung dieser Vorhaben zukamen.

Sports and Christianity

Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

Author: Nick J. Watson,Andrew Parker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415899222

Category: Religion

Page: 299

View: 1755

This interdisciplinary text examines the sports-Christianity interface from Protestant and Catholic perspectives. In addition to a "systematic review of literature," field-pioneering contributors such as Michael Novak, Shirl Hoffman, Joseph Price and Robert Higgs address a wide range of topics from the sporting world, including biblical athletic metaphors, disability, evangelism, professionalism and celebrity, humility and pride, genetic enhancement technologies, stereotypes, sport as art and British and American historical analyses of sport and Christianity. Insightful chapters from Scott Kretchmar, one of the world's leading philosophers of sport, and Father Kevin Lixey, the head of the Vatican's 'Church and Sport' office (2004-), add further depth and breadth to this book, making it accessible and interesting to academic and practitioner audiences alike. Within the context of this relatively new and rapidly expanding area of inquiry, this collection provides a unique and important addition to the current literature for both undergraduate and postgraduate students, and serves as a point of reference for scholars of theology and religious studies, psychology, health studies, ethics and sports studies. The book may also be of interest to physical educators and sports coaches who wish to adopt a more "holistic" and ethical approach to their work. As modern sport is often intertwined with commercial and political agendas, this book offers an important corrective to the "win-at-all-costs" culture of modern sport, which cannot be fully understood through secular ethical inquiry.

Heaven in the American Imagination

Author: Gary Scott Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199831971

Category: Religion

Page: 360

View: 2642

Does heaven exist? If so, what is it like? And how does one get in? Throughout history, painters, poets, philosophers, pastors, and many ordinary people have pondered these questions. Perhaps no other topic captures the popular imagination quite like heaven. Gary Scott Smith examines how Americans from the Puritans to the present have imagined heaven. He argues that whether Americans have perceived heaven as reality or fantasy, as God's home or a human invention, as a source of inspiration and comfort or an opiate that distracts from earthly life, or as a place of worship or a perpetual playground has varied largely according to the spirit of the age. In the colonial era, conceptions of heaven focused primarily on the glory of God. For the Victorians, heaven was a warm, comfortable home where people would live forever with their family and friends. Today, heaven is often less distinctively Christian and more of a celestial entertainment center or a paradise where everyone can reach his full potential. Drawing on an astounding array of sources, including works of art, music, sociology, psychology, folklore, liturgy, sermons, poetry, fiction, jokes, and devotional books, Smith paints a sweeping, provocative portrait of what Americans-from Jonathan Edwards to Mitch Albom-have thought about heaven.

The Empire Strikes Out

How Baseball Sold U.S. Foreign Policy and Promoted the American Way Abroad

Author: Robert Elias

Publisher: New Press, The

ISBN: 1595585281

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 696

Is the face of American baseball throughout the world that of goodwill ambassador or ugly American? Has baseball crafted its own image or instead been at the mercy of broader forces shaping our society and the globe? The Empire Strikes Out gives us the sweeping story of how baseball and America are intertwined in the export of “the American way.” From the Civil War to George W. Bush and the Iraq War, we see baseball’s role in developing the American empire, first at home and then beyond our shores. And from Albert Spalding and baseball’s first World Tour to Bud Selig and the World Baseball Classic, we witness the globalization of America’s national pastime and baseball’s role in spreading the American dream. Besides describing baseball’s frequent and often surprising connections to America’s presence around the world, Elias assesses the effects of this relationship both on our foreign policies and on the sport itself and asks whether baseball can play a positive role or rather only reinforce America’s dominance around the globe. Like Franklin Foer in How Soccer Explains the World, Elias is driven by compelling stories, unusual events, and unique individuals. His seamless integration of original research and compelling analysis makes this a baseball book that’s about more than just sports.

Under the Big Top

Big Tent Revivalism and American Culture, 1885-1925

Author: Josh McMullen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190266740

Category: Religion

Page: 248

View: 6766

Under the Big Top examines the immensely popular big tent revivals of turn-of-the-twentieth-century America and develops a new framework for understanding Protestantism in this transformative period of the nation's history. Contemporary critics of the revivalists often depicted them as anxious and outdated religious opponents of a modern, urban nation. Early historical accounts likewise portrayed tent revivalists as Victorian hold-outs, bent on re-establishing nineteenth-century values and religion in a new America. In this revisionist work, Josh McMullen argues that, contrary to these stereotypes, big tent revivalists actually participated in the shift away from Victorianism and helped in the construction of a new consumer culture in the United States. How did the United States became the most consumer-driven and yet one of the most religious societies in the western world? McMullen shows that revivalists and their audiences reconciled the Protestant ethic of salvation with the emerging consumer ethos by cautiously unlinking Christianity from Victorianism and joining it to the new, emerging consumer culture. Under the Big Top helps to explain the continued appeal of both the therapeutic and the salvific worldview to many Americans as well as the ambivalence that accompanies this combination.

Labor's Millennium

Christianity, Industrial Education, and the Founding of the University of Illinois

Author: Brett H. Smith

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1630876941

Category: Religion

Page: 200

View: 323

Historians have traditionally interpreted the American land-grant higher-education movement as the result of political and economic forces. Little attention has been given, however, to any explicit or implicit theological motivations for the movement. This book tells the story of how the Christian belief of many founders of the University of Illinois motivated their educational theory and practice. Constructing a social gospel of labor's millennium (their shorthand for God's kingdom being enhanced through agricultural and mechanical education), they initially proposed that the university would impart a millenarian blessing for the larger society by providing abundant food, economic prosperity, vocational dignity, and a charitable spirit of sacred unity and public service. Rich in primary-source research, Smith's account builds a compelling case for at least one such institution's adaptation of an inherited evangelical educational tradition, transitioning into a new era of higher learning that has left its mark on university life today.

Tippecanoe and Tyler Too

Famous Slogans and Catchphrases in American History

Author: Jan R. Van Meter

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226849686

Category: History

Page: 334

View: 3914

A fascinating reference restores three-dimensionality to more than fifty American sayings and turns clichés back into history by telling the life stories of the words that have profoundly shaped and continue to influence public culture.

Manhood, Citizenship, and the National Guard

Illinois, 1870-1917

Author: Eleanor L. Hannah

Publisher: Ohio State University Press

ISBN: 0814210457

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 6480

"During the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era, thousands upon thousands of American men devoted their time and money to the creation of an unsought - and in some quarters unwelcome - revived state militia. In this book, Eleanor L. Hannah studies the social history of the National Guard, focusing on issues of manhood and citizenship as they relate to the rise of the state militias." "The implications of this book are far-reaching, for it offers historians a fresh look at a long-ignored group of men and unites social and cultural history to explore changing notions of manhood and citizenship during years of frenetic change in the American landscape."--BOOK JACKET.

Acts of Conscience

Christian Nonviolence and Modern American Democracy

Author: Joseph Kip Kosek

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231513054

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 3530

In response to the massive bloodshed that defined the twentieth century, American religious radicals developed a modern form of nonviolent protest, one that combined Christian principles with new uses of mass media. Greatly influenced by the ideas of Mohandas Gandhi, these "acts of conscience" included sit-ins, boycotts, labor strikes, and conscientious objection to war. Beginning with World War I and ending with the ascendance of Martin Luther King Jr., Joseph Kip Kosek traces the impact of A. J. Muste, Richard Gregg, and other radical Christian pacifists on American democratic theory and practice. These dissenters found little hope in the secular ideologies of Wilsonian Progressivism, revolutionary Marxism, and Cold War liberalism, all of which embraced organized killing at one time or another. The example of Jesus, they believed, demonstrated the immorality and futility of such violence under any circumstance and for any cause. Yet the theories of Christian nonviolence are anything but fixed. For decades, followers have actively reinterpreted the nonviolent tradition, keeping pace with developments in politics, technology, and culture. Tracing the rise of militant nonviolence across a century of industrial conflict, imperialism, racial terror, and international warfare, Kosek recovers radical Christians' remarkable stance against the use of deadly force, even during World War II and other seemingly just causes. His research sheds new light on an interracial and transnational movement that posed a fundamental, and still relevant, challenge to the American political and religious mainstream.

1877

America's Year of Living Violently

Author: Michael Bellesiles

Publisher: New Press, The

ISBN: 159558594X

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 9227

In 1877, a decade after the Civil War, not only was the United States gripped by a deep depression, but the country was also in the throes of nearly unimaginable violence and upheaval marking the end of the brief period known as Reconstruction and a return to white rule across the South. In the wake of the contested presidential election of 1876, white supremacist mobs swept across the South, killing and driving out the last of the Reconstruction state governments. A strike involving millions of railroad workers turned violent as it spread from coast-to-coast, and for a moment seemed close to toppling the nation’s economic structure. In 1877, celebrated historian Michael Bellesiles reveals that the fires of that fated year also fueled a hothouse of cultural and intellectual innovation. Bellesiles relates the story of 1877 not just through dramatic events, but also through the lives of famous and little-known Americans.

Transpacific Field of Dreams

How Baseball Linked the United States and Japan in Peace and War

Author: Sayuri Guthrie-Shimizu

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807882666

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 344

View: 7111

Baseball has joined America and Japan, even in times of strife, for over 150 years. After the "opening" of Japan by Commodore Perry, Sayuri Guthrie-Shimizu explains, baseball was introduced there by American employees of the Japanese government tasked with bringing Western knowledge and technology to the country, and Japanese students in the United States soon became avid players. In the early twentieth century, visiting Japanese warships fielded teams that played against American teams, and a Negro League team arranged tours to Japan. By the 1930s, professional baseball was organized in Japan where it continued to be played during and after World War II; it was even played in Japanese American internment camps in the United States during the war. From early on, Guthrie-Shimizu argues, baseball carried American values to Japan, and by the mid-twentieth century, the sport had become emblematic of Japan's modernization and of America's growing influence in the Pacific world. Guthrie-Shimizu contends that baseball provides unique insight into U.S.-Japanese relations during times of war and peace and, in fact, is central to understanding postwar reconciliation. In telling this often surprising history, Transpacific Field of Dreams shines a light on globalization's unlikely, and at times accidental, participants.

Wyatt Earp: A Vigilante Life

Author: Andrew C. Isenberg

Publisher: Hill and Wang

ISBN: 1429945478

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 320

View: 808

Finalist for the 2014 Weber-Clements Book Prize for the Best Non-fiction Book on Southwestern America In popular culture, Wyatt Earp is the hero of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona, and a beacon of rough cowboy justice in the tumultuous American West. The subject of dozens of films, he has been invoked in battles against organized crime (in the 1930s), communism (in the 1950s), and al-Qaeda (after 2001). Yet as the historian Andrew C. Isenberg reveals in Wyatt Earp: A Vigilante Life, the Hollywood Earp is largely a fiction—one created by none other than Earp himself. The lawman played on-screen by Henry Fonda and Burt Lancaster is stubbornly duty-bound; in actuality, Earp led a life of impulsive lawbreaking and shifting identities. When he wasn't wearing a badge, he was variously a thief, a brothel bouncer, a gambler, and a confidence man. As Isenberg writes, "He donned and shucked off roles readily, whipsawing between lawman and lawbreaker, and pursued his changing ambitions recklessly, with little thought to the cost to himself, and still less thought to the cost, even the deadly cost, to others." By 1900, Earp's misdeeds had caught up with him: his involvement as a referee in a fixed heavyweight prizefight brought him national notoriety as a scoundrel. Stung by the press, Earp set out to rebuild his reputation. He spent his last decades in Los Angeles, where he befriended Western silent film actors and directors. Having tried and failed over the course of his life to invent a better future for himself, in the end he invented a better past. Isenberg argues that even though Earp, who died in 1929, did not live to see it, Hollywood's embrace of him as a paragon of law and order was his greatest confidence game of all. A searching account of the man and his enduring legend, and a book about our national fascination with extrajudicial violence, Wyatt Earp: A Vigilante Life is a resounding biography of a singular American figure.

Religion in American Life

A Short History

Author: Jon Butler,Grant Wacker,Randall Balmer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199913293

Category: Religion

Page: 576

View: 7058

"Quite ambitious, tracing religion in the United States from European colonization up to the 21st century.... The writing is strong throughout."--Publishers Weekly (starred review) "One can hardly do better than Religion in American Life.... A good read, especially for the uninitiated. The initiated might also read it for its felicity of narrative and the moments of illumination that fine scholars can inject even into stories we have all heard before. Read it."--Church History This new edition of Religion in American Life, written by three of the country's most eminent historians of religion, offers a superb overview that spans four centuries, illuminating the rich spiritual heritage central to nearly every event in our nation's history. Beginning with the state of religious affairs in both the Old and New Worlds on the eve of colonization and continuing through to the present, the book covers all the major American religious groups, from Protestants, Jews, and Catholics to Muslims, Hindus, Mormons, Buddhists, and New Age believers. Revised and updated, the book includes expanded treatment of religion during the Great Depression, of the religious influences on the civil rights movement, and of utopian groups in the 19th century, and it now covers the role of religion during the 2008 presidential election, observing how completely religion has entered American politics.

Formed From This Soil

An Introduction to the Diverse History of Religion in America

Author: Thomas S. Bremer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118323548

Category: Religion

Page: 464

View: 1294

Formed from This Soil offers a complete history of religion in America that centers on the diversity of sacred traditions and practices that have existed in the country from its earliest days. Organized chronologically starting with the earliest Europeans searching for new routes to Asia, through to the global context of post-9/11 America of the 21st century Includes discussion of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic class, political affiliations, and other elements of individual and collective identity Incorporates recent scholarship for a nuanced history that goes beyond simple explanations of America as a Protestant society Discusses diverse beliefs and practices that originated in the Americas as well as those that came from Europe, Asia, and Africa Pedagogical features include numerous visual images; sidebars with specialized topics and interpretive themes; discussion questions for each chapter; a glossary of common terms; and lists of relevant resources to broaden student learning

The Games People Play

Theology, Religion, and Sport

Author: Robert Ellis

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1630873845

Category: Religion

Page: 336

View: 4693

In The Games People Play, Robert Ellis constructs a theology around the global cultural phenomenon of modern sport, paying particular attention to its British and American manifestations. Using historical narrative and social analysis to enter the debate on sport as religion, Ellis shows that modern sport may be said to have taken on some of the functions previously vested in organized religion. Through biblical and theological reflection, he presents a practical theology of sport's appeal and value, with special attention to the theological concept of transcendence. Throughout, he draws on original empirical work with sports participants and spectators. The Games People Play addresses issues often considered problematic in theological discussions of sport such as gender, race, consumerism, and the role of the modern media, as well as problems associated with excessive competition and performance-enhancing substances. As Ellis explains, Sporting journalists often use religious language in covering sports events. Salvation features in many a headline, and talk of moments of redemption is not uncommon. Perhaps, somewhere beyond the cliched hyperbole, there is some theological truth in all this after all.

Canadian Churches and the First World War

Author: Gordon L. Heath

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1630872903

Category: Religion

Page: 310

View: 1543

Most accounts of Canada and the First World War either ignore or merely mention in passing the churches' experience. Such neglect does not do justice to the remarkable influence of the wartime churches nor to the religious identity of the young Dominion. The churches' support for the war was often wholehearted, but just as often nuanced and critical, shaped by either the classic just war paradigm or pacifism's outright rejection of violence. The war heightened issues of Canadianization, attitudes to violence, and ministry to the bereaved and the disillusioned. It also exacerbated ethnic tensions within and between denominations, and challenged notions of national and imperial identity. The authors of this volume provide a detailed summary of various Christian traditions and the war, both synthesizing and furthering previous research. In addition to examining the experience of Roman Catholics (English and French speaking), Anglicans, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, Lutherans, Mennonites, and Quakers, there are chapters on precedents formed during the South African War, the work of military chaplains, and the roles of church women on the home front.