Mussolini and His Generals

The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, 1922-1940

Author: John Gooch

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521856027

Category: History

Page: 651

View: 4026

Study of the relationship between the military and foreign policies of Fascist Italy, 1922 to 1940.

Mussolini's War

Fascist Italy’s Military Struggles from Africa and Western Europe to the Mediterranean and Soviet Union 1935-45

Author: Frank Joseph

Publisher: Helion and Company

ISBN: 1906033560

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 8994

Among the great misconceptions of modern times is the assumption that Benito Mussolini was Hitler's junior partner, who made no significant contributions to the Second World War. That conclusion originated with Allied propagandists determined to boost Anglo-American morale, while undermining Axis cooperation. The Duce's failings, real or imagined, were inflated and ridiculed; his successes, pointedly demeaned or ignored. Italy's bungling navy, ineffectual army - as cowardly as it was ill-equipped - and air force of antiquated biplanes were handily dealt with by the Western Allies. So effective was this disinformation campaign that it became post-war history, and is still generally taken for granted even by otherwise well-informed scholars and students of World War Two. But a closer examination of recently disclosed, and often neglected, original source materials presents an entirely different picture. They shine new light, for example, on Italy's submarine service, the world's greatest in terms of tonnage, its boats sinking nearly three-quarters of a million tons of Allied shipping in three years' time. During a single operation, Italian 'human torpedoes' sank the battleships HMS Valiant and Queen Elizabeth, plus an eight-thousand-ton tanker, at their home anchorage in Alexandria, Egypt. By mid-1942, Mussolini's navy had fought its way back from crushing defeats to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to popular belief, his Fiat biplanes gave as good as they got in the Battle of Britain, and their monoplane replacements, such as the Macchi Greyhound, were state-of-the-art interceptors superior to the American Mustang. Savoia-Marchetti Sparrowhawk bombers accounted for seventy-two Allied warships and one hundred-ninety-six freighters before the Bagdolio armistice in 1943. On 7 June 1942, infantry of the Italian X Corps saved Rommel's XV Brigade near Gazala, in North Africa, from otherwise certain annihilation, while horse-soldiers of the Third Cavalry Division Amedeo Duca d'Aosta defeated Soviet forces on the Don River before Stalingrad the following August in history's last cavalry charge. As influential as these operations were on the course of World War Two, more potentially decisive was Mussolini's planned aggression against the United States' mainland. Postponed only at the last moment when its conventional explosives were slated for substitution by a nuclear device, New York City escaped an atomic attack by margins more narrow than previously understood. It is now known that Italian scientists led the world in nuclear research in 1939, and a four-engine Piaggio heavy bomber was modified to carry an atomic bomb five years later. These and numerous other disclosures combine to debunk lingering propaganda stereotypes of an inept, ineffectual Italian armed forces. That dated portrayal is rendered obsolete by a true-to-life account of the men and weapons of Mussolini's War.

Germany, Italy and the International Economy 1929–1936

Co-operation or Rivalries at Times of Crisis?

Author: Per Tiedtke

Publisher: Tectum Wissenschaftsverlag

ISBN: 3828864074

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 5890

When in 1929 the world economy went into crisis, a new approach to international trade and finance appeared on the scene. Characterised by bilateralism, protectionism and autarchy, this approach, whose main proponents were Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, challenged the idea of liberal free trade. Per Tiedtke offers a systematic analysis of the role of economic factors in the German-Italian rapprochement under the banner of the fascism as well as its patterns of collaboration and rivalries. Tiedtke's work will help to describe and explain the economic foundations of the "Rome-Berlin Axis", which plunged Europe and the world into the disaster of World War II.

The Oxford Illustrated History of World War Two

Author: Richard Overy

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019104539X

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 7003

World War Two was the most devastating conflict in recorded human history. It was both global in extent and total in character. It has understandably left a long and dark shadow across the decades. Yet it is three generations since hostilities formally ended in 1945 and the conflict is now a lived memory for only a few. And this growing distance in time has allowed historians to think differently about how to describe it, how to explain its course, and what subjects to focus on when considering the wartime experience. For instance, as World War Two recedes ever further into the past, even a question as apparently basic as when it began and ended becomes less certain. Was it 1939, when the war in Europe began? Or the summer of 1941, with the beginning of Hitler's war against the Soviet Union? Or did it become truly global only when the Japanese brought the USA into the war at the end of 1941? And what of the long conflict in East Asia, beginning with the Japanese aggression in China in the early 1930s and only ending with the triumph of the Chinese Communists in 1949? In The Oxford Illustrated History of World War Two a team of leading historians re-assesses the conflict for a new generation, exploring the course of the war not just in terms of the Allied response but also from the viewpoint of the Axis aggressor states. Under Richard Overy's expert editorial guidance, the contributions take us from the genesis of war, through the action in the major theatres of conflict by land, sea, and air, to assessments of fighting power and military and technical innovation, the economics of total war, the culture and propaganda of war, and the experience of war (and genocide) for both combatants and civilians, concluding with an account of the transition from World War to Cold War in the late 1940s. Together, they provide a stimulating and thought-provoking new interpretation of one of the most terrible and fascinating episodes in world history.

Program of the ... Annual Meeting

Author: American Historical Association,History of Science Society. Meeting

Publisher: N.A


Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: N.A

View: 4153

Modern Naval History

Debates and Prospects

Author: Richard Harding

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472579119

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 6030

Specifically structured around research questions and avenues for further study, and providing the historical context to enable this further research, Modern Naval History is a key historiographical guide for students wishing to gain a deeper understanding of naval history and its contemporary relevance. Navies play an important role in the modern world, and the globalisation of economies, cultures and societies has placed a premium on maritime communications. Modern Naval History demonstrates the importance of naval history today, showing its relevance to a number of disciplines and its role in understanding how navies relate to their host societies. Richard Harding explains why naval history is still important, despite slipping from the attention of policy makers and the public since 1945, and how it can illuminate answers to questions relating to economic, diplomatic, political, social and cultural history. The book explores how naval history has informed these fields and how it can produce a richer and more informed historical understanding of navies and sea power.


A Global History

Author: Thomas Zeiler

Publisher: Oxford University Press


Category: History

Page: 485

View: 4493

Annihilation argues that World War II evolved into a war of annihilation - a total war - that engulfed militaries and civilians alike, and spared no country either destruction or blame for the carnage. The book questions the adopted intention of the "good war" thesis by wielding the "strategy of annihilation" on all sides as an architectural framework. Readers will find global coverage linking together all theaters of the conflict in a narrative that advances from the beginning to end of the war.


Publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries, a Division of the American Library Association

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A


Category: Academic libraries

Page: N.A

View: 2192

Eine Anatomie der Macht

der Chomsky-Reader

Author: Noam Chomsky

Publisher: Europa Verlag DE

ISBN: 9783203760070


Page: 479

View: 8381

Die deutsche Revolution 1918/19

Author: Sebastian Haffner

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644300046

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 1479

Über kaum einen historischen Vorgang neuerer Zeit herrscht so viel Unklarheit und Dissenz wie über die deutsche Revolution von 1918/19. Hat die sozialdemokratische Führung, die am 9. November 1918 die Regierung übernahm, die Revolution gemacht oder niedergeschlagen? Hat sie Deutschland vor dem Bolschewismus gerettet oder der Reaktion zum Sieg verholfen? Ist sie ein Ruhmesblatt oder ein Schandfleck der deutschen Geschichte? Sebastian Haffner rekonstruiert hier die Ereignisse und räumt mit alten Legenden auf: mit der Leugnung des Faktums, dass überhaupt eine Revolution stattgefunden hat, mit der Behauptung, dass die Revolution eine bolschewistische gewesen sei, und schließlich mit der berühmten, bis in unsere Tage überlieferten Dolchstoßlegende.

Kultfigur und Nation

Öffentliche Denkmäler in Paris, Berlin und London 1848-1914

Author: Helke Rausch

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 348683584X

Category: History

Page: 797

View: 2503

Trotz ihrer unbestreitbar durchschlagenden Gestaltungskraft ist die moderne Nation am ehesten als kulturelles Gebilde zu fassen, das Ordnungsentwürfe und Sinnzuschreibungen kollektiviert. Denkmäler zu errichten ist dabei ein - entscheidendes - Merkmal der nationalen Identifikation. Helke Rausch leistet hierzu einen transnationalen Vergleich und eröffnet Denkmal-Topographien in den Metropolen Paris, Berlin und London. Sie untersucht, wie Denkmäler als ikonographische Mittel genutzt wurden, um die Nation als Einheit zu konstruieren.


Schlüsselentscheidungen im Zweiten Weltkrieg

Author: Ian Kershaw

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641128110

Category: History

Page: 736

View: 9249

Entscheidungen, die Geschichte machten Der Beginn des Zweiten Weltkriegs stellte die Regierungschefs der Welt vor lebenswichtige Entscheidungen. In London, Berlin, Washington, Rom, Moskau und Tokio mussten Politiker und Generäle weitreichende Beschlüsse fassen. Ian Kershaw nimmt zehn Entscheidungen, die für den Verlauf des Zweiten Weltkriegs von zentraler Bedeutung waren, in den Blick und macht deutlich, dass in diesem Kampf nichts vorherbestimmt war. Die Ereignisse, die den Beginn des Zweiten Weltkriegs markierten, versetzten weite Teile der Welt in eine Art Schockzustand. Plötzlich schien es keine Regeln mehr zu geben. Die Aggressoren kannten für ihr Tun keine Grenzen, für ihre Opfer aber zogen dunkle Zeiten herauf. Im Strudel dieser Ereignisse sah sich eine kleine Gruppe von Politikern mit zentralen Entscheidungen konfrontiert, die in dieser Auseinandersetzung Triumph oder Untergang bedeuten konnten. In seinem glänzend geschriebenen Buch »Wendepunkte« vermittelt der Historiker Ian Kershaw dem Leser einen einzigartigen Eindruck davon, wie groß der Entscheidungsspielraum der einzelnen Politiker tatsächlich war und welche Rolle ihre ganz individuelle Persönlichkeit spielte: Warum entschloss sich Churchill, nach der französischen Kapitulation weiterzukämpfen? Warum vertraute Stalin darauf, dass Hitler die UdSSR nicht überfallen würde? Und warum griffen die Japaner Pearl Harbor an? Diese und weitere Entscheidungen veränderten den Lauf der Welt. Die zehn wichtigsten Entscheidungen des Zweiten Weltkriegs und die Männer, die sie trafen.

Die Juden im faschistischen Italien

Geschichte, Identität, Verfolgung

Author: Michele Sarfatti

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110373513

Category: History

Page: 370

View: 3767

This book presents the history of the Jews living in Fascist Italy. Starting with a survey of the political and social situation of Jews, it goes on to describe their progressive disenfranchisement, from the deprivation of rights to the deprivation of life – the latter of which occurred especially in collaboration between the Italian Social Republic (Salò) and German authorities, who became a de facto occupying power as of 1943.