Racial Classification and the State in Latin America
Author: Mara Loveman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The era of official color-blindness in Latin America has come to an end. For the first time in decades, nearly every state in Latin America now asks their citizens to identify their race or ethnicity on the national census. Most observers approvingly highlight the historic novelty of these reforms, but National Colors shows that official racial classification of citizens has a long history in Latin America. Through a comprehensive analysis of the politics and practice of official ethnoracial classification in the censuses of nineteen Latin American states across nearly two centuries, this book explains why most Latin American states classified their citizens by race on early national censuses, why they stopped the practice of official racial classification around mid-twentieth century, and why they reintroduced ethnoracial classification on national censuses at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Beyond domestic political struggles, the analysis reveals that the ways that Latin American states classified their populations from the mid-nineteenth century onward responded to changes in international criteria for how to construct a modern nation and promote national development. As prevailing international understandings of what made a political and cultural community a modern nation changed, so too did the ways that Latin American census officials depicted diversity within national populations. The way census officials described populations in official statistics, in turn, shaped how policymakers viewed national populations and informed their prescriptions for national development--with consequences that still reverberate in contemporary political struggles for recognition, rights, and redress for ethnoracially marginalized populations in today's Latin America.
Author: Trevor Noah
Publisher: Karl Blessing Verlag
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Trevor Noah kam 1984 im Township Soweto als Sohn einer Xhosa und eines Schweizers zur Welt. Zu einer Zeit, da das südafrikanische Apartheidsregime „gemischtrassige“ Beziehungen weiterhin unter Strafe stellte. Als Kind, das es nicht geben durfte, erlebte er Armut und systematischen Rassismus, aber auch die mutige Auflehnung seiner "farbenblinden" Eltern, die einfallsreich versuchten, Trennungen zwischen Ethnien und Geschlechtern zu überwinden. Heute ist er ein international gefeierter Comedian, der die legendäre "The Daily Show" in den USA leitet und weltweit – ob Sydney, Dubai, Toronto, San Francisco oder Berlin – in ausverkauften Sälen auftritt. In "Farbenblind" erzählt Trevor Noah ebenso feinsinnig wie komisch in achtzehn Geschichten von seinem Aufwachsen in Südafrika, das den ganzen Aberwitz der Apartheid bündelt: warum ihn seine Mutter aus einem fahrenden Minibus warf, um Gottes Willen zu erfüllen, welche Musik er für einen tanzenden Hitler aufzulegen pflegte, um sein erstes Geld zu verdienen, und wie ihn eine Überwachungskamera, die nicht einmal zwischen Schwarz und Weiß unterscheiden konnte, vor dem Gefängnis bewahrte.
Masseninhaftierung und Rassismus in den USA
Author: Michelle Alexander
Publisher: Antje Kunstmann
Category: Political Science
Die Wahl von Barack Obama im November 2008 markierte einen historischen Wendepunkt in den USA: Der erste schwarze Präsident schien für eine postrassistische Gesellschaft und den Triumph der Bürgerrechtsbewegung zu stehen. Doch die Realität in den USA ist eine andere. Obwohl die Rassentrennung, die in den sogenannten Jim-Crow-Gesetzen festgeschrieben war, im Zuge der Bürgerrechtsbewegung abgeschafft wurde, sitzt heute ein unfassbar hoher Anteil der schwarzen Bevölkerung im Gefängnis oder ist lebenslang als kriminell gebrandmarkt. Ein Status, der die Leute zu Bürgern zweiter Klasse macht, indem er sie ihrer grundsätzlichsten Rechte beraubt – ganz ähnlich den explizit rassistischen Diskriminierungen der Jim-Crow-Ära. In ihrem Buch, das in Amerika eine breite Debatte ausgelöst hat, argumentiert Michelle Alexander, dass die USA ihr rassistisches System nach der Bürgerrechtsbewegung nicht abgeschafft, sondern lediglich umgestaltet haben. Da unter dem perfiden Deckmantel des »War on Drugs« überproportional junge männliche Schwarze und ihre Communities kriminalisiert werden, funktioniert das drakonische Strafjustizsystem der USA heute wie das System rassistischer Kontrolle von gestern: ein neues Jim Crow.
Author: Arthur comte de Gobineau,Paul Kleinecke
The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil
Author: Edward Eric Telles
Publisher: Princeton University Press
This is the most comprehensive and up-to-date book on the increasingly important and controversial subject of race relations in Brazil. North American scholars of race relations frequently turn to Brazil for comparisons, since its history has many key similarities to that of the United States. Brazilians have commonly compared themselves with North Americans, and have traditionally argued that race relations in Brazil are far more harmonious because the country encourages race mixture rather than formal or informal segregation. More recently, however, scholars have challenged this national myth, seeking to show that race relations are characterized by exclusion, not inclusion, and that fair-skinned Brazilians continue to be privileged and hold a disproportionate share of wealth and power. In this sociological and demographic study, Edward Telles seeks to understand the reality of race in Brazil and how well it squares with these traditional and revisionist views of race relations. He shows that both schools have it partly right--that there is far more miscegenation in Brazil than in the United States--but that exclusion remains a serious problem. He blends his demographic analysis with ethnographic fieldwork, history, and political theory to try to "understand" the enigma of Brazilian race relations--how inclusiveness can coexist with exclusiveness. The book also seeks to understand some of the political pathologies of buying too readily into unexamined ideas about race relations. In the end, Telles contends, the traditional myth that Brazil had harmonious race relations compared with the United States encouraged the government to do almost nothing to address its shortcomings.
Author: Greg Pak
Publisher: Marvel Entertainment
Author: Richard Graham,Thomas E. Skidmore,Aline Helg,Alan Knight
Publisher: University of Texas Press
From the mid-nineteenth century until the 1930s, many Latin American leaders faced a difficult dilemma regarding the idea of race. On the one hand, they aspired to an ever-closer connection to Europe and North America, where, during much of this period, "scientific" thought condemned nonwhite races to an inferior category. Yet, with the heterogeneous racial makeup of their societies clearly before them and a growing sense of national identity impelling consideration of national futures, Latin American leaders hesitated. What to do? Whom to believe? Latin American political and intellectual leaders' sometimes anguished responses to these dilemmas form the subject of The Idea of Race in Latin America. Thomas Skidmore, Aline Helg, and Alan Knight have each contributed chapters that succinctly explore various aspects of the story in Brazil, Argentina, Cuba, and Mexico. While keenly alert to the social and economic differences that distinguish one Latin American society from another, each author has also addressed common issues that Richard Graham ably draws together in a brief introduction. Written in a style that will make it accessible to the undergraduate, this book will appeal as well to the sophisticated scholar.
Author: Richard T. Schaefer
Category: Social Science
This three volume reference set offers a comprehensive look at the roles race and ethnicity play in society and in our daily lives. General readers, students, and scholars alike will appreciate the informative coverage of intergroup relations in the United States and the comparative examination of race and ethnicity worldwide. These volumes offer a foundation to understanding as well as researching racial and ethnic diversity from a multidisciplinary perspective. Over a hundred racial and ethnic groups are described, with additional thematic essays offering insight into broad topics that cut across group boundaries and which impact on society. The encyclopedia has alphabetically arranged author-signed essays with references to guide further reading. Numerous cross-references aid the reader to explore beyond specific entries, reflecting the interdependent nature of race and ethnicity operating in society. The text is supplemented by photographs, tables, figures and custom-designed maps to provide an engaging visual look at race and ethnicity. An easy-to-use statistical appendix offers the latest data with carefully selected historical comparisons to aid study and research in the area
Die wahre Geschichte
Author: Solomon Northup
Publisher: Piper Verlag
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Solomon Northup war ein freier Bürger, bis er von Sklavenhändlern verschleppt und an einen Plantagenbesitzer verkauft wurde. Dort lebte er zwölf Jahre als Sklave, bis er schließlich – als einer der wenigen – seine Freiheit zurückerlangen und zu seiner Familie zurückkehren konnte. Die gleichnamige Verfilmung seiner Memoiren von Regisseur Steve McQueen hat bei der Verleihung der Golden Globes den Hauptpreis als bestes Filmdrama gewonnen.
Biologie, Ideologie und menschliche Natur
Author: Richard C. Lewontin,Leon J. Kamin,Steven P. R. Rose
was die Gene über unsere Vergangenheit verraten
Author: Steve Olson
Cuban Musicians and the Making of Latino New York City and Miami, 1940-1960
Author: Christina D. Abreu
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Category: Social Science
Among the nearly 90,000 Cubans who settled in New York City and Miami in the 1940s and 1950s were numerous musicians and entertainers, black and white, who did more than fill dance halls with the rhythms of the rumba, mambo, and cha cha cha. In her history of music and race in midcentury America, Christina D. Abreu argues that these musicians, through their work in music festivals, nightclubs, social clubs, and television and film productions, played central roles in the development of Cuban, Afro-Cuban, Latino, and Afro-Latino identities and communities. Abreu draws from previously untapped oral histories, cultural materials, and Spanish-language media to uncover the lives and broader social and cultural significance of these vibrant performers. Keeping in view the wider context of the domestic and international entertainment industries, Abreu underscores how the racially diverse musicians in her study were also migrants and laborers. Her focus on the Cuban presence in New York City and Miami before the Cuban Revolution of 1959 offers a much needed critique of the post-1959 bias in Cuban American studies as well as insights into important connections between Cuban migration and other twentieth-century Latino migrations.
Families and Communities in Transition
Author: Ruth Enid Zambrana
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Category: Social Science
It is well known that Latinos in the United States bear a disproportionate burden of low educational attainment, high residential segregation, and low visibility in the national political landscape. In Latinos in American Society, Ruth Enid Zambrana brings together the latest research on Latinos in the United States to demonstrate how national origin, age, gender, socioeconomic status, and education affect the well-being of families and individuals. By mapping out how these factors result in economic, social, and political disadvantage, Zambrana challenges the widespread negative perceptions of Latinos in America and the single story of Latinos in the United States as a monolithic group. Synthesizing an increasingly substantial body of social science research-much of it emerging from the interdisciplinary fields of Chicano studies, U.S. Latino studies, critical race studies, and family studies-the author adopts an intersectional "social inequality lens" as a means for understanding the broader sociopolitical dynamics of the Latino family, considering ethnic subgroup diversity, community context, institutional practices, and their intersections with family processes and well-being. Zambrana, a leading expert on Latino populations in America, demonstrates the value of this approach for capturing the contemporary complexity of and transitions within diverse U.S. Latino families and communities. This book offers the most up-to-date portrait we have of Latinos in America today.
Author: Nancy Priscilla Naro
Publisher: Institute of Latin American Studies
This volume examines the political, cultural, and social role of the population with African background in the shaping of national identity in various Latin American countries. Slavery survived well into the nineteenth century in countries such as Brazil and Cuba; first its existence and then the dismantling of the institution strongly affected the definition of citizenship in the emerging nation-states. However, not all blacks were slaves, and a significant number of slaves gained their freedom during periods of war and other central events in the process of state formation. In addition to their direct participation in struggles of national significance, blacks also wrote on social, political, and cultural issues. Their involvement in politics —in elections, civil wars and revolutions, and in office —as well as in religious activities, family institutions, and civil associations, is considered in terms of the broader significance to the forging of citizenship and national identity.Contributors include Carmen Bernand (University of Paris X), Jonathan Curry-Machado (London Metropolitan University), Lauren Derby (University of Chicago), David Geggus (University of Florida), Franklin W. Knight (Johns Hopkins University), and Jean Stubbs (London Metropolitan University).
Author: William E. B. Du Bois
Category: African Americans