NATO's Post-Cold War Trajectory

Decline Or Regeneration

Author: Mark Webber,James Sperling,Martin A. Smith

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230004520

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 9904

Where is NATO Going? Thinking NATO through Theoretically Operations Enlargement NATO-Russia Relations NATO and the European Union Conclusion Endnotes.

NATO's Durability in a Post-Cold War World

Author: Joe Burton

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 1438468733

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 7327

Examines how NATO has adapted and endured after the end of the Cold War, transforming itself to deal with a host of new security challenges. Why is it that despite the end of the Cold War and the almost constant controversies surrounding the alliance’s role in the world, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is still a prominent and vital player in international security? Joe Burton provides an in-depth analysis of NATO’s changing role in the post–Cold War era and its ability to survive, adapt, and meet the needs of its members in an increasingly turbulent, globalized security environment. He offers a historically and theoretically informed account of NATO that isolates the core dynamics that have held the alliance together in troubled times. In particular, he examines a series of processes and events—from the 1990 Gulf War to the rise of the Islamic State—that help explain NATO’s continuing relevance. “This book does an excellent job of chronicling key events that have led to NATO’s ongoing presence in international relations as a key provider of global security.” — Ryan C. Hendrickson, author of Diplomacy and War at NATO: The Secretary General and Military Action after the Cold War

Theorising NATO

New perspectives on the Atlantic alliance

Author: Mark Webber,Adrian Hyde-Price

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317329759

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 4790

Scholarship on NATO is often preoccupied with key episodes in the development of the organisation and so, for the most part, has remained inattentive to theory. This book addresses that gap in the literature. It provides a comprehensive analysis of NATO through a range of theoretical perspectives that includes realism, liberalism and constructivism, and lesser-known approaches centred on learning, public goods, securitisation and risk. Focusing on NATO’s post-Cold War development, it considers the conceptualisation, purpose and future of the Alliance. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of international organisation, international relations, security and European Politics.

NATO's Security Discourse After the Cold War

Representing the West

Author: Andreas Behnke

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415584531

Category: Political Science

Page: 230

View: 4899

This book analyses the way in which the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) defines the West after the end of the Cold War and the demise of its constitutive 'Other', the Soviet Union. The book offers a theoretical critique of liberal approaches to security, and focuses on NATO's construction of four geo-cultural spaces that are the sites of particular dangers or threats, which cause these spaces to be defined as the 'enemy' of the West. While this forges a collective Western identity, effectively achieved in the 1990s, the book also includes an analysis of NATO's involvement in the War on Terror - an involvement in which the Alliance fails to define a coherent West, thereby undermining the very source of its long-standing political cohesion. Contributing to theoretical development within Critical Security Studies, Behnke draws on a variety of approaches to provide an analytical framework that examines the political as well as philosophical problems associated with NATO's performance of security and identity, concluding that in the modern era of globalized, non-territorialized threats and dangers, NATO's traditional spatial understanding of security is no longer effective given the new dynamics of Western security. NATO's Security Discourse after the Cold War will be of great interest to students and researchers of International Relations, Critical Security Studies and International Organizations.

Masters of the Universe?

NATO's Balkan Crusade

Author: Tariq Ali

Publisher: Verso

ISBN: 9781859847527

Category: History

Page: 429

View: 6190

NATO's war on Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999 was unleashed in the name of democracy and human rights. This view was challenged by the world's three largest countries, India, China and Russia, who saw the bombing of Serbia and Kosovo as a naked attempt to assert US dominance in an unstable world. In the West, the media networks were joined by substantial sectors of left/liberal opinion in supporting the war. Nonetheless, a wide variety of figures emerged to challenge the prevailing consensus. Their work, gathered here for the first time, forms a collection of key statements and anti-war writings from some of democracy's most eloquent dissidents—Noam Chomsky, Harold Pinter, Edward Said and many others—who provide carefully researched examinations of the real motives for the US action, dissections and critiques of the ideology of 'humanitarian warfare', and chartings of the unnecessary tragedy of a region laid to waste in the pursuance of Great power politics. This reader presents some of the most important texts on NATO's Balkan crusade and forms a major intervention in the debate on global geo-political strategy after the cold war. Contributors include Giovanni Arrighi, Robin Blackburn, Alex Callinicos, David Chandler, Régis Debray, John Gittings, Peter Gowan, Diana Johnstone, Oskar Lafontaine, Harold Pinter, Robert Redeker, Edward Said, Ellen Wood, Susan Woodward, Yevgeny Yevtushenko and Slavoj Zizek.

NATO's Secret Armies

Operation GLADIO and Terrorism in Western Europe

Author: Daniele Ganser

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135767858

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 6562

This fascinating new study shows how the CIA and the British secret service, in collaboration with the military alliance NATO and European military secret services, set up a network of clandestine anti-communist armies in Western Europe after World War II. These secret soldiers were trained on remote islands in the Mediterranean and in unorthodox warfare centres in England and in the United States by the Green Berets and SAS Special Forces. The network was armed with explosives, machine guns and high-tech communication equipment hidden in underground bunkers and secret arms caches in forests and mountain meadows. In some countries the secret army linked up with right-wing terrorist who in a secret war engaged in political manipulation, harrassement of left wing parties, massacres, coup d'états and torture. Codenamed 'Gladio' ('the sword'), the Italian secret army was exposed in 1990 by Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti to the Italian Senate, whereupon the press spoke of "The best kept, and most damaging, political-military secret since World War II" (Observer, 18. November 1990) and observed that "The story seems straight from the pages of a political thriller." (The Times, November 19, 1990). Ever since, so-called 'stay-behind' armies of NATO have also been discovered in France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Austria, Greece and Turkey. They were internationally coordinated by the Pentagon and NATO and had their last known meeting in the NATO-linked Allied Clandestine Committee (ACC) in Brussels in October 1990.

Governing Disorder

UN Peace Operations, International Security, and Democratization in the Post–Cold War Era

Author: Laura Zanotti

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271072261

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 4478

The end of the Cold War created an opportunity for the United Nations to reconceptualize the rationale and extent of its peacebuilding efforts, and in the 1990s, democracy and good governance became legitimizing concepts for an expansion of UN activities. The United Nations sought not only to democratize disorderly states but also to take responsibility for protecting people around the world from a range of dangers, including poverty, disease, natural disasters, and gross violations of human rights. National sovereignty came to be considered less an entitlement enforced by international law than a privilege based on states’ satisfactory performance of their perceived obligations. In Governing Disorder, Laura Zanotti combines her firsthand experience of UN peacebuilding operations with the insights of Michel Foucault to examine the genealogy of post–Cold War discourses promoting international security. Zanotti also maps the changes in legitimizing principles for intervention, explores the specific techniques of governance deployed in UN operations, and identifies the forms of resistance these operations encounter from local populations and the (often unintended) political consequences they produce. Case studies of UN interventions in Haiti and Croatia allow her to highlight the dynamics at play in the interactions between local societies and international peacekeepers.

Image Warfare in the War on Terror

Author: N. Roger

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137297859

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

View: 5050

Roger examines how developments in new media technologies, such as the internet, blogs, camera/video phones, have fundamentally altered the way in which governments, militaries, terrorists, NGOs, and citizens engage with images. He argues that there has been a paradigm shift from techno-war to image warfare, which emerged on 9/11.

Political Aspirations and Perils of Security

Unpacking the Military Strategy of the United Nations

Author: H. Edström,D. Gyllensporre

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137008725

Category: Political Science

Page: 265

View: 835

This book comprises of a range of case studies of military strategy, based on UN documents, observing and concluding the effectiveness of each individual case. Edstrom and Gyllensporre analyse the UN's military strategy, its consequences and its potential to fulfil political ambitions.

The Cambridge History of the Cold War

Author: Melvyn P. Leffler,Odd Arne Westad

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521837197

Category: History

Page: 643

View: 2070

This volume examines the origins and early years of the Cold War in the first comprehensive historical reexamination of the period. A team of leading scholars shows how the conflict evolved from the geopolitical, ideological, economic and sociopolitical environments of the two world wars and interwar period.

Soviet Fates and Lost Alternatives

From Stalinism to the New Cold War

Author: Stephen F. Cohen

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231520425

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 4983

In this wide-ranging and acclaimed book, Stephen F. Cohen challenges conventional wisdom about the course of Soviet and post-Soviet history. Reexamining leaders from Nikolai Bukharin, Stalin's preeminent opponent, and Nikita Khrushchev to Mikhail Gorbachev and his rival Yegor Ligachev, Cohen shows that their defeated policies were viable alternatives and that their tragic personal fates shaped the Soviet Union and Russia today. Cohen's ramifying arguments include that Stalinism was not the predetermined outcome of the Communist Revolution; that the Soviet Union was reformable and its breakup avoidable; and that the opportunity for a real post-Cold War relationship with Russia was squandered in Washington, not in Moscow. This is revisionist history at its best, compelling readers to rethink fateful events of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries and the possibilities ahead. In his new epilogue, Cohen expands his analysis of U.S. policy toward post-Soviet Russia, tracing its development in the Clinton and Obama administrations and pointing to its initiation of a "new Cold War" that, he implies, has led to a fateful confrontation over Ukraine.

Turkey and the West

Fault Lines in a Troubled Alliance

Author: Kemal Kirisci

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815730012

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 8685

Turkey: A necessary ally in a troubled region With the new administration in office, it is not clear whether the U.S. will continue to lead and sustain a global liberal order that was already confronted by daunting challenges. These range from a fragile European Union rocked by the United Kingdom’s exit and rising populism to a cold war-like rivalry with Russia and instability in the Middle East. A long-standing member of NATO, Turkey stands as a front-line state in the midst of many of these challenges. Yet, Turkey is failing to play a more constructive role in supporting this order--beyond caring for nearly 3 million refugees, mostly coming from the fighting in Syria--and its current leadership is in frequent disagreement with its Western allies. This tension has been compounded by a failed Turkish foreign policy that aspired to establish its own alternative regional order in the Middle East. As a result, many in the West now question whether Turkey functions as a dependable ally for the United States and other NATO members. Kemal Kirişci’s new book argues that, despite these problems, the domestic and regional realities are now edging Turkey toward improving its relations with the West. A better understanding of these developments will be critical in devising a new and realistic U.S. strategy toward a transformed Turkey and its neighborhood. Western policymakers must keep in mind three on-the-ground realities that might help improve the relationship with Turkey. First, Turkey remains deeply integrated within the transatlantic community, a fact that once imbued it with prestige in its neighborhood. It is this prestige that the recent trajectory of Turkish domestic politics and foreign policy has squandered; for it to be regained, Turkey needs to rebuild cooperation with the West. The second reality is that chaos in the neighborhood has resulted in the loss of lucrative markets for Turkish exports—which, in return, increases the value to Turkey of Western markets. Third, Turkish national security is threatened by developments in Syria and an increasingly assertive Russia, enhancing the strategic value of Turkey’s “troubled alliance” with the West. The big question, however, is whether rising authoritarianism in Turkey and the government’s anti-Western rhetoric will cease and Turkey’s democracy restored before the current fault lines can be overcome and constructive re-engagement between the two sides can occur. In light of these realities, this book discusses the challenges and opportunities for the new U.S. administration as well as the EU of re-engaging with a sometimes-troublesome, yet long-time ally.

Return to Cold War

Author: Robert Legvold

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1509501924

Category: Political Science

Page: 144

View: 9051

The 2014 crisis in Ukraine sent a tottering U.S.-Russian relationship over a cliff - a dangerous descent into deep mistrust, severed ties, and potential confrontation reminiscent of the Cold War period. In this incisive new analysis, leading expert on Soviet and Russian foreign policy, Robert Legvold, explores in detail this qualitatively new phase in a relationship that has alternated between hope and disappointment for much of the past two decades. Tracing the long and tortured path leading to this critical juncture, he contends that the recent deterioration of Russia-U.S. relations deserves to be understood as a return to cold war with great and lasting consequences. In drawing out the commonalities between the original cold war and the current confrontation, Return to Cold War brings a fresh perspective to what is happening between the two countries, its broader significance beyond the immediate issues of the day, and how political leaders in both countries might adjust their approaches in order, as the author urges, to make this new cold war "as short and shallow as possible."

Where is Nato Going?

Author: Martin Smith

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317997980

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 717

Since the end of the Cold War, and especially since September 11 2001, the future of NATO has been the subject of intense debate. This book brings together a group of international relations specialists in order to offer fresh perspectives on the Alliance’s current and future purposes and roles. Rather than revisiting long-standing debates in areas such as NATO enlargement, the contributors focus instead on relevant contemporary issues. These include the prospects for NATO ‘going global’, NATO’s role in the US-led ‘war on terror’ and the challenges posed by the transatlantic ‘capabilities gap’ and the emergence of a military dimension to the European Union. The paradox facing NATO today is that, whilst it is busier than it has ever been before, it still does not appear, to many observers, to have found a viable core role or roles in the contemporary international security arena. By exploring key issues and debates on NATO’s current agenda, this book helps us to better understand the prospects for its long-term survival and viability. This book was previously published as a special issue of the leading journal, Contemporary Security Policy.

Opening NATO's Door

How the Alliance Remade Itself for a New Era

Author: Ronald D. Asmus

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231502397

Category: History

Page: 415

View: 9006

How and why did NATO, a Cold War military alliance created in 1949 to counter Stalin's USSR, become the cornerstone of new security order for post-Cold War Europe? Why, instead of retreating from Europe after communism's collapse, did the U.S. launch the greatest expansion of the American commitment to the old continent in decades? Written by a high-level insider, Opening NATO's Door provides a definitive account of the ideas, politics, and diplomacy that went into the historic decision to expand NATO to Central and Eastern Europe. Drawing on the still-classified archives of the U.S. Department of State, Ronald D. Asmus recounts how and why American policy makers, against formidable odds at home and abroad, expanded NATO as part of a broader strategy to overcome Europe's Cold War divide and to modernize the Alliance for a new era. Asmus was one of the earliest advocates and intellectual architects of NATO enlargement to Central and Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism in the early 1990s and subsequently served as a top aide to Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and Deputy Secretary Strobe Talbott, responsible for European security issues. He was involved in the key negotiations that led to NATO's decision to extend invitations to Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, the signing of the NATO-Russia Founding Act, and finally, the U.S. Senate's ratification of enlargement. Asmus documents how the Clinton Administration sought to develop a rationale for a new NATO that would bind the U.S. and Europe together as closely in the post-Cold War era as they had been during the fight against communism. For the Clinton Administration, NATO enlargement became the centerpiece of a broader agenda to modernize the U.S.-European strategic partnership for the future. That strategy reflected an American commitment to the spread of democracy and Western values, the importance attached to modernizing Washington's key alliances for an increasingly globalized world, and the fact that the Clinton Administration looked to Europe as America's natural partner in addressing the challenges of the twenty-first century. As the Alliance weighs its the future following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the U.S. and prepares for a second round of enlargement, this book is required reading about the first post-Cold War effort to modernize NATO for a new era.

Global Allies

Comparing US Alliances in the 21st Century

Author: Michael Wesley

Publisher: ANU Press

ISBN: 1760461180

Category: Political Science

Page: 143

View: 5103

The global system of alliances that the United States built after the Second World War underpinned the stability and prosperity of the postwar order. But during the 20th century, the multilateral NATO alliance system in Europe and the bilateral San Francisco alliance system in Asia rarely interacted. This changed in the early 21st century, as US allies came together to fight and stabilise conflicts in the Middle East and Central Asia. This volume presents the first-ever comparative study of US alliances in Europe and Asia from the perspectives of US allies: the challenges, opportunities and shifting dynamics of these fundamental pillars of order. This volume is essential reading for those interested in contemporary and future regional and global security dynamics.

The Legacy of the Cold War

Perspectives on Security, Cooperation, and Conflict

Author: Vojtech Mastny,Zhu Liqun

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739187902

Category: History

Page: 398

View: 7468

In The Legacy of the Cold War Vojtech Mastny and Zhu Liqun bring together scholars to examine the worldwide effects of the Cold War on international security. Focusing on regions where the Cold War made the most enduring impact―the Euro-Atlantic area and East Asia―historians, political scientists, and international relations scholars explore alliances and other security measures during the Cold War and how they carry over into the twenty-first century.

NATO Beyond 9/11

The Transformation of the Atlantic Alliance

Author: E. Hallams,L. Ratti,B. Zyla

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230391222

Category: Political Science

Page: 347

View: 4458

This collection reflects on the significance of the 9/11 terrorist attacks for the transatlantic alliance. Offering an analysis of NATO's evolution since 2001, it examines key topics such as the alliance's wars in Afghanistan, its military operation in Libya, global partnerships, burden-sharing and relations with the US and Russia.

The American Trajectory

Divine Or Demonic?

Author: David Ray Griffin

Publisher: SCB Distributors

ISBN: 0999874705

Category: Christianity and politics

Page: N.A

View: 5601

"Traces the trajectory of the American Empire from its founding through to the end of the 20th century. This book demonstrates the falsity of the claim for American exceptionalism, a secular version of the old idea that America has been divinely founded and guided. The American Trajectory contains many episodes that many readers will find surprising: That the sinking of the Lusitania was anticipated, both by Churchill and Wilson, as a means of inducing America's entry into World War I; that the attack on Pearl Harbor was neither unprovoked nor a surprise; that during the "Good War" the US government plotted and played politics with a view to becoming the dominant empire; that there was no need to drop atomic bombs on Japan either to win the war or to save American lives; that US decisions were central to the inability of the League of Nations and the United Nations to prevent war; that the United States was more responsible than the Soviet Union for the Cold War; that the Vietnam War was far from the only US military adventure during the Cold War that killed great numbers of civilians; that the US government organized false flag attacks that deliberately killed Europeans; and that America's military interventions after the dissolution of the Soviet Union taught some conservatives (such as Andrew Bacevich and Chalmers Johnson) that the US interventions during the Cold War were not primarily defensive. The conclusion deals with the question of how knowledge by citizens of how the American Empire has behaved could make America better and how America, which had long thought of itself as the Redeemer Nation, might redeem itself."--Provided by publisher.

Beyond NATO

A New Security Architecture for Eastern Europe

Author: Michael E. O'Hanlon

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815732589

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 1159

In this new Brookings Marshall Paper, Michael O’Hanlon argues that now is the time for Western nations to negotiate a new security architecture for neutral countries in eastern Europe to stabilize the region and reduce the risks of war with Russia. He believes NATO expansion has gone far enough. The core concept of this new security architecture would be one of permanent neutrality. The countries in question collectively make a broken-up arc, from Europe’s far north to its south: Finland and Sweden; Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus; Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan; and finally Cyprus plus Serbia, as well as possibly several other Balkan states. Discussion on the new framework should begin within NATO, followed by deliberation with the neutral countries themselves, and then formal negotiations with Russia. The new security architecture would require that Russia, like NATO, commit to help uphold the security of Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, and other states in the region. Russia would have to withdraw its troops from those countries in a verifiable manner; after that, corresponding sanctions on Russia would be lifted. The neutral countries would retain their rights to participate in multilateral security operations on a scale comparable to what has been the case in the past, including even those operations that might be led by NATO. They could think of and describe themselves as Western states (or anything else, for that matter). If the European Union and they so wished in the future, they could join the EU. They would have complete sovereignty and self-determination in every sense of the word. But NATO would decide not to invite them into the alliance as members. Ideally, these nations would endorse and promote this concept themselves as a more practical way to ensure their security than the current situation or any other plausible alternative.