Roman Britain and the North-western Provinces
Author: Hella Eckardt
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
This volume explores Rome's northern provinces through the portable artefacts people used and left behind. Objects are crucial to our understanding of the past, and can be used to explore interlinking aspects of identity. For example, can we identify incomers? How are exotic materials (such as amber and ivory) and objects depicting 'the exotic' (e.g. Africans) consumed? Do regional styles exist below the homogenizing influence of Roman trade? How do all these aspects of identity interact with others, such as status, gender, and age? In this innovative study, the author combines theoretical awareness and a willingness to engage with questions of social and cultural identity with a thorough investigation into the well-published but underused material culture of Rome's northern provinces. Pottery and coins, the dominant categories of many other studies, have here been largely excluded in favour of small portable objects such as items of personal adornment, amulets, and writing equipment. The case studies included were chosen because they relate to specific, often interlinking aspects of identity such as provincial, elite, regional, or religious identity. Their meaning is explored in their own right and in depth, and in careful examination of their contexts. It is hoped that these case studies will be of use to archaeologists working in other periods, and indeed to students of material culture generally by making a small contribution to a growing corpus of academic and popular books that develop interpretative, historical narratives from selected objects.
Literacies and Material Culture
Author: Hella Eckardt
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
In this book, Hella Eckardt offers new insights into literacy in the Roman world by examining the tools that enabled writing, such as inkwells, styli and tablets. Literacy was an important skill in the ancient world and power could be and often was, exercised through texts. Eckardt explores how writing equipment shaped practices such as posture and handwriting and her careful analysis of burial data shows considerable numbers of women and children interred with writing equipment, notably inkwells, in an effort to display status as well as age and gender. The volume offers a comprehensive review of recent approaches to literacy during Roman antiquity and adds a distinctive material turn to our understanding of this crucial skill and the embodied practices of its use. At the heart of this study lies the nature of the relationship between the material culture of writing and socio-cultural identities in the Roman period.
Author: Stefanie Hoss,Alissa Whitmaore
Publisher: Oxbow Books
Category: Social Science
Small finds – the stuff of everyday life – offer archaeologists a fascinating glimpse into the material lives of the ancient Romans. These objects hold great promise for unravelling the ins and outs of daily life, especially for the social groups, activities, and regions for which few written sources exist. Focusing on amulets, brooches, socks, hobnails, figurines, needles, and other “mundane” artefacts, these 12 papers use small finds to reconstruct social lives and practices in the Roman Northwest provinces. Taking social life broadly, the various contributions offer insights into the everyday use of objects to express social identities, Roman religious practices in the provinces, and life in military communities. By integrating small finds from the Northwest provinces with material, iconographic, and textual evidence from the whole Roman empire, contributors seek to demystify Roman magic and Mithraic religion, discover the latest trends in ancient fashion (socks with sandals!), explore Roman interactions with Neolithic monuments, and explain unusual finds in unexpected places. Throughout, the authors strive to maintain a critical awareness of archaeological contexts and site formation processes to offer interpretations of past peoples and behaviors that most likely reflect the lived reality of the Romans. While the range of topics in this volume gives it wide appeal, scholars working with small finds, religion, dress, and life in the Northwest provinces will find it especially of interest. Small Finds and Ancient Social Practices grew out of a session at the 2014 Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference.
Author: Laurence Professor of Classical Archaeology Martin Millett,Alison Moore,Associate Professor in Roman Studies Louise Revell,Freelance Academic Editor and Sessional Lecturer Alison Moore
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Great Britain
Roman Britain is a critical area of research within the provinces of the Roman empire. It has formed the context for many of the seminal publications on the nature of imperialism and cultural change. Roman rule had a profound impact culture of Iron Age Britain, with new forms of material culture, and new forms of knowledge. On the other hand, there is evidence that such impacts were not uniform, leading to questions of resistance and continuity of pre-existing cultural forms. Within the last 15-20 years, the study of Roman Britain has been transformed through an enormous amount of new and interesting work which is not reflected in the main stream literature. The new archaeological work by a young generation has moved away from the narrative historical approach towards one much more closely focused on the interpretation of material. It has produced new interpretations of the material and a new light on the archaeology of the province, grounded in a close reading of the material evidence as collected by previous scholars and exploiting the rich library of publications on Romano-British studies. For the first time, this volume draws together the various scholars working on new approaches to Roman Britain to produce a comprehensive study of the present state and future trajectory of the subject. Arranged thematically and focussed primarily on the archaeological evidence, the volume challenges more traditional narrative approaches and explores new theoretical perspectives in order to better understand the archaeology of the province and its place within the wider context of the Roman Empire.
Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Author: Hella Eckardt
Publisher: Monique Mergoil
Lampe - Öllampe - Beleuchtung.
Author: Regine Müller
Publisher: Archaeopress Archaeology
This volume includes the archaeological and archaeometrical analysis of the lead finds from the Roman Republican military fort of Sanisera in northern Minorca. The fort was built after the Roman conquest of the island in 123 BC and abandoned during the last third of the 1st century BC. By correlating typological-archaeological and scientific methods, the site's unusual large number of lead objects/artefacts are examined within their find context and reviewed for superregional connections to contemporary sites within the Mediterranean. Furthermore, based upon the results of the find analyses as well as the examination of written sources, the site's embedding within the historical context of the development of the late Roman Republic and early Imperial times is presented, especially in respect to the conquest of the Mediterranean and the consolidation of the Roman authority there. - Die vorliegende Arbeit umfasst die archäologische und archäometrische Analyse der Bleifunde der römisch-republikanischen Militäranlage von Sanisera im Norden Menorcas. Die Anlage entstand nach 123 v. Chr. in Folge der Eroberungen der Baleareninseln und wurde spätestens im letzten Drittel des 1. Jh. v. Chr. aufgegeben. Anhand der Korrelation typologisch-archäologischer und naturwissenschaftlicher Methoden wird hier die ungewöhnlich hohe Anzahl von Bleifunden aus der Anlage innerhalb ihres Fundkontextes analysiert und auf überregionale Verbindungen zu kontemporären Fundorten im Mittelmeerraum überprüft. Darüber hinaus erfolgt - basierend auf den Ergebnissen der Fundanalyse sowie der Auswertung von Schriftquellen - die Einbindung der Anlage in den historischen Kontext der späten römischen Republik und frühen Kaiserzeit, besonders im Zusammenhang mit der Eroberung des Mittelmeerraums und der Konsolidierung der römischen Vorherrschaft dort.
The Early Historical Period: Ad1-1000
Author: Paul M. Booth,Anne Dodd,Mark Robinson
Publisher: Oxford Archaeological Unit
Category: Social Science
The gravel terraces of the river Thames have revealed a wealth of archaeological information about the evolution of the landscape of the region, the development of the settlement pattern, and past human occupation. Much of this has come to light in the course of gravel quarrying, which has been so extensive that the Thames Valley now provides one of the richest resources of archaeological data in the country. This volume provides an up to date overview of the archaeological evidence from the valley for the late Iron Age, Roman and Anglo-Saxon periods, broadly speaking the first millennium AD. The area studied in detail comprises the Upper Thames Valley, from the source of the river to the Goring Gap, and the Middle Thames Valley, from the Goring Gap to the start of the tidal zone at Teddington Lock. A summary of evidence for the character of the river and the vegetation and environment of its floodplain is followed by a detailed account of the evolving settlement pattern as currently understood from archaeological evidence. The authors then consider what archaeology can reveal about the late Iron Age, Roman and Anglo-Saxon populations of the valley, and their changing lifestyles, culture, identities and beliefs. This is followed by a review of the evidence for production, trade, transport and communication, and the archaeology of power and politics. The volume concludes with a discussion of the state of knowledge today and its limitations, and emerging themes and problem areas for future research.
Erinnerungen einer Nation
Author: Neil MacGregor
Living with Objects and Interiors
Author: Ellen Swift
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing Company
This important book puts forward a new interpretation of Roman decorative art, focusing on the function of decoration in the social context. It examines the three principal areas of social display and conspicuous consumption in the Roman world: social space, entertainment, and dress, and discusses the significance of the decoration of objects and interiors within these contexts, drawing on examples from the early Imperial period to Late Antiquity, including mosaics and other interior décor, silver plate, glass and pottery vessels, and jewellery and other dress accessories. Swift demonstrates the importance of decoration in creating and maintaining social networks and identities and fostering appropriate social behaviour, and its role in perpetuating social convention and social norms.
Author: Joan Pilsbury Alcock
Publisher: Tempus Pub Limited
The authoritative and accessible look at life in Roman Britain begins with a brief overview of the province in its historical context. The book then concentrates on the social history of the 400 years of Roman occupation with thematically arranged chapters on fucisign on administration; life in the army; religion; recreation; housing; food and drink; personal lifestyle; and art and decoration. Drawing on both the latest archaeological evidence and testimony from classical writers. the author recreates the lifestyles of those who lived in this part of a once great empire. With over 100 illustrations of sites, artefacts and reconstructions, and a comprehensive further reading section, this book will appeal to anyone interested in the Roman Period in Britain.
Facts and Fictions of the Dark Ages
Author: Guy Halsall
Publisher: OUP Oxford
King Arthur is probably the most famous and certainly the most legendary medieval king. From the early ninth century through the middle ages, to the Arthurian romances of Victorian times, the tales of this legendary figure have blossomed and multiplied. And in more recent times, there has been a continuous stream of books claiming to have discovered the 'facts' about, or to unlock the secret or truth behind, the 'once and future king'. Broadly speaking, there are two Arthurs. On the one hand is the traditional 'historical' Arthur, waging a doomed struggle to save Roman civilization against the relentless Anglo-Saxon tide during the darkest years of the Dark Ages. On the other is the Arthur of myth and legend - accompanied by a host of equally legendary people, places, and stories: Lancelot, Guinevere, Galahad and Gawain, Merlin, Excalibur, the Lady in the Lake, the Sword in the Stone, Camelot, the Round Table. The big problem with all this is that 'King Arthur' might well never have existed. And if he did exist, it is next to impossible to say anything at all about him. As this challenging new look at the Arthur legend makes clear, all books claiming to reveal 'the truth' behind King Arthur can safely be ignored. Not only the 'red herrings' in the abundant pseudo-historical accounts, even the 'historical' Arthur is largely a figment of the imagination: the evidence that we have - whether written or archaeological - is simply incapable of telling us anything detailed about the Britain in which he is supposed to have lived, fought, and died. The truth, as Guy Halsall reveals in this fascinating investigation, is both radically different - and also a good deal more intriguing.
Neue Studien zur Lage und den räumlichen Bezügen
Author: Julia Budei
Publisher: Studia Archaeologica Palatina
English summary: Even before the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar, there had been sustained contact between the Celtic peoples of Gaul and the Romans and this cultural contact intensified as Gaul became a Roman province. One aspect of the mixing of Celtic and Roman traditions that was unique to the northwest provinces of the Roman Empire is the development of the Gallo-Roman ambulatory temples, a temple that emerged alongside a new Gallo-Roman pantheon. Using new methods for understanding the construction and awareness of space, Julia Budei's offers a new examination into this type of temple and how it operated in the process of creating a new cultural form that borrowed from both Roman and Celtic traditions. German description: Schon vor der Einnahme Galliens begann ein durch Kulturkontakte initiierter Prozess der Romanisierung, aus dem eine gallo-romische Variante der Provinzialkultur hervorging, die romische und keltische Traditionen vereinte. Vor allem im Bereich der Religion ist die kulturelle Vermischung und Neuformung deutlich zu erkennen. Neben einem gallo-romischen Pantheon entsteht ein vollig neuer Typus des Heiligtums, der nur in den nordwestlichen Provinzen des imperium Romanum zu finden ist: der gallo-romische Umgangstempel. Diese Tempelgattung wird in Julia Budeis Studie unter Gesichtspunkten untersucht, die in der provinzialromischen Forschung erst seit Kurzem Anwendung finden. Zu ihnen gehoren die genaue Betrachtung der Lage der Bauten innerhalb der Landschaft sowie ihre raumlichen Bezuge. Uber diese Aspekte konnen neue Erkenntnisse in Bezug auf die Wahrnehmung des Raumes und der entstandenen Religion gewonnen werden. Zudem bietet sich durch die Untersuchung eine neue Perspektive auf die Frage der Romanisierung und die haufig gestellte Frage nach der Gewichtung der romischen und keltischen Traditionen innerhalb der neuen Kultur.
Author: Corning Museum of Glass,David Whitehouse
Category: Antiques & Collectibles
Author: Martin Henig
With the help of over 100 illustrations, many of them little known, Dr Henig shows that the art produced in Britannia - particularly in the golden age of Late Antiquity - not only rivals that of other provinces but deserves comparison with the art of metropolitan Rome. After showing how a distinctive style emerged from the fusion of the Celtic and Roman traditions, he details the vital part played by art in the daily life of both the army and the civilian population. He also distinguishes carefully between the work of foreign artists in Britain, Romano-British and Romano-Gaulish provincial art (as well as other provincial styles) and the native British work of the period.
Author: Peter J. Woodward,Susan M. Davies,Alan H. Graham
Category: Excavations (Archaeology)
Author: Trudie E. Fraser
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Ltd
This investigation is concerned with the accuracy of Hadrians reputation as a prolific builder in the western provincial cities. The pursuit of this not only reveals more of Hadrians personal building, but also that all construction work during this period is shown to have contributed to a general perception of intense and continuous building during Hadrians reign. The study takes in all the available Hadrianic evidence for the western provinces, not only of civic building, but also of road building and military building. In addition this study offers a comparison between building during the reigns of Hadrian, Trajan and Antoninus Pius allowing a clearer perspective of Hadrianic building. All the available epigraphic, archaeological and numismatic evidence has been sought, especially of building initiated by provincial and local administrative officials, in an endeavour to understand the effect of the implementation of Hadrians military and urbanisation policies. As urbanisation was in its infancy in many of these western provinces, an examination was conducted of the availability of building supplies and its ability to support civic building programmes. Hadrians personal contribution in this regard has been a major consideration and all building, including road building, generated by imperial military policy has been detailed. Since a satisfactory conclusion of Hadrianic building could not be reached in isolation, a comparison was made of similar building and public works during the reigns of Hadrians predecessor and successor, Trajan and Antoninus Pius. In the final analysis, even though the type and extent of building varied considerably between the various provinces, it is clear that the volume of civic Hadrianic building works exceeded Trajanic by more than thirty percent and Antonine building by fifty percent. The author concludes that Hadrian fully deserved his reputation as a builder and benefactor given by the ancient sources, if not of every city, certainly of many cities in the western provinces.