Operations Research Methods

As Applied to Political Science and the Legal Process

Author: Stuart S. Nagel,Marian Neef

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated


Category: Social Science

Page: 76

View: 3024

Discusses basic concepts and methods associated with the application of operations research toward arriving at an optimum mix, level, or choice.

Resources for Nursing Research

An Annotated Bibliography

Author: Cynthia Clamp,Stephen Gough,Lucy Land

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1847877362

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 8670

'The 4th edition of this extensive text is an outstanding resource prepared by nurses (and a librarian) for nurses. In a structured and helpful style it presents thousands of items from the literature - published papers, reports, books and electronic resources - as a clear, accessible, and most of all useful collection. The efforts to signpost and lead the reader to the sought-for information are effective and well-conceived, and the "How to use this book" section is remarkably simple...the book should be found in every nursing and health library, every research institute and centre, and close to many career researchers' desks' - RCN Research This latest edition of Resources for Nursing Research provides a comprehensive bibliography of sources on nursing research, and includes references for books, journal papers and Internet resources. Designed to act as a 'signpost' to available literature in the area, this Fourth Edition covers the disciplines of nursing, health care and the social sciences. Entries are concise, informative and accessible, and are arranged under three main sections: · 'Sources of Literature' covers the process of literature searching, including using libraries and other tools for accessing literature · 'Methods of Inquiry' includes an introduction to research, how to conceptualize and design nursing and health research, measurement and data collection, and the interpretation and presentation of data · 'The Background to Research in Nursing' encompasses the development of nursing research; the profession's responsibilities; the role of government; funding; research roles and careers; and education for research. Fully revised and updated, the Fourth Edition includes just under 3000 entries, of which 90% are new. It has extensive coverage of US, UK literature and other international resources. This new edition will be an essential guide for all those with an interest in nursing research, including students, teachers, librarians, practitioners and researchers.

The Method and Culture of Comparative Law

Essays in Honour of Mark Van Hoecke

Author: Maurice Adams,Dirk Heirbaut

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1782254935

Category: Law

Page: 328

View: 4298

Awareness of the need to deepen the method and methodology of legal research is only recent. The same is true for comparative law, by nature a more adventurous branch of legal research, which is often something researchers simply do, whenever they look at foreign legal systems to answer one or more of a range of questions about law, whether these questions are doctrinal, economic, sociological, etc. Given the diversity of comparative research projects, the precise contours of the methods employed, or the epistemological issues raised by them, are to a great extent a function of the nature of the research questions asked. As a result, the search for a unique, one-size-fits-all comparative law methodology is unlikely to be fruitful. That however does not make reflection on the method and culture of comparative law meaningless. Mark Van Hoecke has, throughout his career, been interested in many topics, but legal theory, comparative law and methodology of law stand out. Building upon his work, this book brings together a group of leading authors working at the crossroads of these themes: the method and culture of comparative law. With contributions by: Maurice Adams, John Bell, Joxerramon Bengoetxea, Roger Brownsword, Seán Patrick Donlan, Rob van Gestel and Hans Micklitz, Patrick Glenn, Jaap Hage, Dirk Heirbaut, Jaakko Husa, Souichirou Kozuka and Luke Nottage, Martin Löhnig, Susan Millns, Toon Moonen, Francois Ost, Heikki Pihlajamäki, Geoffrey Samuel, Mathias Siems, Jørn Øyrehagen Sunde, Catherine Valcke and Matthew Grellette, Alain Wijffels.

Quantitative Social Research Methods

Author: Kultar Singh

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0761933832

Category: Social Science

Page: 431

View: 4277

Quantitative Social Research Methods explores the entire spectrum of quantitative social research methods and their application, with special reference to the development sector. It provides detailed coverage of all statistical research and analysis method with an emphasis on multivariate analysis techniques, such as regression discriminant analysis, logistic regression, factor, factor, cluster, correspondence and conjoint analysis. The book is thematically arranged in two sections: the first section introduces development research techniques, explores the genesis and scope of social research, research processes and then goes on to explain univariate, bivariate and multivariate data analysis with the help of software packages such as SPSS and STATA. The second focuses on the application of social and development research methods in the development sector. It explores research method application and the issues relevant to aspects of development such as population, health and nutrition, poverty and rural development, education, water and sanitation, and environment and natural resource management.

Interpretation and Method

Empirical Research Methods and the Interpretive Turn

Author: Dvora Yanow,Peregrine Schwartz-Shea

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317467361

Category: Political Science

Page: 552

View: 8082

Exceptionally clear and well-written chapters provide engaging discussions of the methods of accessing, generating, and analyzing social science data, using methods ranging from reflexive historical analysis to critical ethnography. Reflecting on their own research experiences, the contributors offer an inside, applied perspective on how research topics, evidence, and methods intertwine to produce knowledge in the social sciences.

Books in Series

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780835221092

Category: Monographic series

Page: 1756

View: 2771

Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science

Author: Stephen Van Evera

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801454441

Category: Political Science

Page: 144

View: 5784

Stephen Van Evera greeted new graduate students at MIT with a commonsense introduction to qualitative methods in the social sciences. His helpful hints, always warmly received, grew from a handful of memos to an underground classic primer. That primer evolved into a book of how-to information about graduate study, which is essential reading for graduate students and undergraduates in political science, sociology, anthropology, economics, and history—and for their advisers. •How should we frame, assess, and apply theories in the social sciences? "I am unpersuaded by the view that the prime rules of scientific method should differ between hard science and social science. Science is science." •A section on case studies shows novices the ropes. •Van Evera contends the realm of dissertations is often defined too narrowly “Making and testing theories are not the only games in town. . . . If everyone makes and tests theories but no one ever uses them, then what are they for?" •In "Helpful Hints on Writing a Political Science Ph.D. Dissertation," Van Evera focuses on presentation, and on broader issues of academic strategy and tactics. •Van Evera asks how political scientists should work together as a community. “All institutions and professions that face weak accountability need inner ethical rudders that define their obligations in order to stay on course."

Using Microcomputers in Research

Author: Thomas W. Madron,C. Neal Tate,Robert G. Brookshire

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated

ISBN: 9780803924574

Category: Social Science

Page: 88

View: 774

Using Microcomputers in Research may be used in conjunction with the earlier Microcomputer Methods for Social Scientists (QASS 40) -- together they provide a lucid and comprehensive introduction to microcomputing in the social sciences. This book is organized around the research process, taking the reader through the processes of writing the research proposal, gathering data, analysing and manipulating data, and writing the research report.

Introduction to Criminal Justice Research Methods

An Applied Approach

Author: Gennaro F. Vito,Julie C. Kunselman,Richard A. Tewksbury

Publisher: Charles C Thomas Pub Limited

ISBN: 9780398087982

Category: Law

Page: 262

View: 6231

This third edition is designed as an introduction to research methods in criminal justice techniques. The detailed information that is generated by research is a management tool that has become a significant part of criminal justice operations. The text discusses the purposes, process, and uses of research that focus on identifying what information is already known about a particular topic or question. Ethical issues in criminal justice research are reviewed, as is investigating the validity and reliability of crime data sources. Also offered is an introduction to research design--the plan or blueprint for a complete research project. The principles of sampling are thoroughly discussed as is survey research, a common form of gathering information in the criminal justice setting. A review of the concept of scaling and some common methods of scale construction are introduced. Additional major topics include qualitative interviews and observational studies in qualitative research, as well as a wide variety of research techniques that comprise evaluation research. The definitions and examples provided in the book will help students and practitioners to both comprehend research articles and reports and to conduct their own research. Each of the authors brings specific areas of expertise to the text, and they are familiar with the research process and have worked together on several published studies. The text is designed primarily for persons with little or no research background and provides real-world examples and clear definitions of terms and concepts.

Faculty Personnel

A Directory of the Instructional Staffs of the Member Schools

Author: American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business

Publisher: N.A


Category: Business teachers

Page: N.A

View: 5449

Interdisciplinary Bayesian Statistics

EBEB 2014

Author: Adriano Polpo,Francisco Louzada,Laura L. R. Rifo,Julio M. Stern,Marcelo Lauretto

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319124544

Category: Mathematics

Page: 366

View: 8314

Through refereed papers, this volume focuses on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm; their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist Statistics counterparts; and the appropriate application of Bayesian foundations. This research in Bayesian Statistics is applicable to data analysis in biostatistics, clinical trials, law, engineering, and the social sciences. EBEB, the Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics, is held every two years by the ISBrA, the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, one of the most active chapters of the ISBA. The 12th meeting took place March 10-14, 2014 in Atibaia. Interest in foundations of inductive Statistics has grown recently in accordance with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives. Scientists need to deal with the ever more difficult choice of the optimal method to apply to their problem. This volume shows how Bayes can be the answer. The examination and discussion on the foundations work towards the goal of proper application of Bayesian methods by the scientific community. Individual papers range in focus from posterior distributions for non-dominated models, to combining optimization and randomization approaches for the design of clinical trials, and classification of archaeological fragments with Bayesian networks.

Sie belieben wohl zu scherzen, Mr. Feynman!

Abenteuer eines neugierigen Physikers

Author: Richard P. Feynman

Publisher: Piper ebooks

ISBN: 3492969445

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 7615

Der Nobelpreisträger als mitreißender Geschichtenerzähler Dieses unglaublich witzige Buch dreht sich rund um den Menschen Feynman, der mit Anekdoten und Geschichten aus der Schulzeit, aus seiner Zeit in Los Alamos und schließlich als Professor aufwartet. Aber auch die Motivation Richard P. Feynmans, zu den höchsten Gipfeln der Wissenschaft vorzudringen, wird aus diesen Geschichten deutlich: unersättliche Neugier und geistige Unabhängigkeit. »Der Kernphysiker Hans Bethe beschrieb Dr. Feynman eins als ›Zauberer‹. Er hatte Recht. Es bedarf in gewissem Maß der Zauberei, um Wissenschaft so unterhaltsam, überzeugend und einfach zu machen, wie Feynman das getan hat.« Bill Gates in seinem Vorwort

Introduction to Biomedical Engineering Technology, Second Edition

Author: Laurence J. Street

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466508914

Category: Medical

Page: 391

View: 9202

Medical devices are often very complex, but while there are differences in design from one manufacturer to another, the principles of operation and, more importantly, the physiological and anatomical characteristics on which they operate are universal. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering Technology, Second Edition explains the uses and applications of medical technology and the principles of medical equipment management to familiarize readers with their prospective work environment. Written by an experienced biomedical engineering technologist, the book describes the technological devices, various hardware, tools, and test equipment used in today’s health-care arena. Photographs of representative equipment; the technical, physiological, and anatomical basis for their function; and where they are commonly found in hospitals are detailed for a wide range of biomedical devices, from defibrillators to electrosurgery units. Throughout, the text incorporates real-life examples of the work that biomedical engineering technologists do. Appendices supply useful information such as normal medical values, a list of regulatory bodies, Internet resources, and information on training programs. Thoroughly revised and updated, this second edition includes more examples and illustrations as well as end-of-chapter questions to test readers’ understanding. This accessible text supplies an essential overview of clinical equipment and the devices that are used directly with patients in the course of their care for diagnostic or treatment purposes. The author’s practical approach and organization, outlining everyday functions and applications of the various medical devices, prepares readers for situations they will encounter on the job. What’s New in This Edition: Revised and updated throughout, including a wider range of devices, full-color anatomy illustrations, and more information about test equipment New, integrated end-of-chapter questions More real-life examples of Biomedical Engineering Technologist (BMET) work, including the adventures of "Joe Biomed" and his colleagues New appendices with information about normal medical values, regulatory bodies, educational programs in the United States and Canada, international BMET associations, Internet resources, and lists of test equipment manufacturers More illustrations

Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprise Phenomenon: Antecedents, Processes, Impact across Cultures and Contexts

Author: Marzena Starnawska,Agnieszka Brzozowska

Publisher: WSB-NLU

ISBN: 8395108206

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 126

View: 6121

Social entrepreneurship3, as a field of research, has gained enormous interest of academics in management and entrepreneurship literature for almost 30 years now. Also, scholars in other intellectual domains like economics, finance, marketing, political science, sociology and few others, have found it fascinating. As a term, it is common in public discourses and has found interest among policy makers, corporations, media, different groups of practitioners and professionals. As a phenomenon it is not new, although the SE term has been only recently coined (Banks, 1972; Drucker, 1979). For far more than two centuries great individuals and groups have tried to tackle the societal challenges, using economic means, such as the Rochdale Pioneers who inspired cooperative ideals, and Florence Nightingale – an English nurse and social activist, who changed the patient care landscape (Nicholls, 2006). Many of the ventures and actions of social initiatives can be traced to the earlier, medieval or even ancient times. Today, social initiatives and social enterprise have emerged in particular countries and regions as a result of their historical institutional trajectories, and “social enterprise landscape ZOO” (Young & Brewer, 2016) has become very heterogeneous. The interest of management and entrepreneurship research into the phenomenon has resulted in an unprecedented increase in scholarly output. The historical analysis of SE research (Moss, Lumpkin & Short, 2017) published in key journals and databases shows an increase from one paper to 45 papers published per year between 1990 and 2010. SE centers established in universities like Oxford, Harvard and Cambridge have designed degree programmes, dedicated textbooks, and separate SE conferences, special journals like Social Enterprise Journal, Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and many more have been introduced for educational and publication purposes. SE has become popular as a response to the inabilities of governments and business to solve pressing social problems, including poverty, social exclusion, and environmental issues. All of the above are manifested in the diversity of different SE initiatives. Thus, we express our interest to explain and predict SE and social enterprise as phenomena, to identify related antecedents and outcomes, but also to look into the box of SE processes. This special issue attempts to respond to this interest. Diverse methodological approaches including descriptive, explanatory or exploratory ones are included in the papers in this issue. SE phenomenon is studied on an individual, organizational, and even a macro level. Different data is employed: current or archival data, primary or secondary, referring to different country settings such as Taiwan, Poland, Italy and England. Through the inclusion of such diverse perspectives and context, this issue works as a holistic approach to the phenomenon under analysis. In the following sections of this paper, we first provide a succinct overview of SE as a phenomenon and research field. We summarize the definitional debate and point to valuable theoretical frameworks for studying SE. Next, we introduce individual authors’ contributions to the issue and, finally, we propose further suggestions for future research. Theoretical and analytical approaches in social entrepreneurship and social enterprise studies SE and social enterprise research is strongly practice (i.e., phenomenon) driven and based on anecdotal evidence as the majority of studies are based on exemplary case studies (Alvord, Brown & Letts, 2014; Mair & Marti, 2006; Starnawska, 2016a). Most research is descriptive and not contextualized in theory (Dacin, Dacin & Tracey, 2011), with the exception of some theoretical frameworks we propose further. Many studies evidence small sample cases (Perrini & Vurro, 2006; Tracey & Jarvis, 2007; Sharir & Lerner, 2006; Weerawardena & Mort, 2006). However, large sample studies are rare. For example, Shaw and Carter’s (2007) study is an exception based on a large sample of interviews, and there are two large panel and population studies like Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) or Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED). There is no doubt about the lack of large-scale studies and databases of social enterprise and social entrepreneurs too (Dacin et al., 2011). Hockerts and Wustenhagen (2010) call for more longitudinal, even long-term retrospective studies, paralleling to the need for studies on more common large sample research empirical studies. Research infrastructure on SE is weak (Lee, Battilana & Wang, 2014). This is the result of the lack of databases on social enterprise and social entrepreneurs. Also, there is still a lack of coherent, clear and universal research methods that encompass the SE phenomenon. There are some discussions about the subject of SE field of research. Dacin and authors (2011) argue that “defining social entrepreneurship through individual-level characteristics, processes will inevitably lead to more discussion and debate about how these characteristics should be.” Therefore, although individual level analysis is a universal subject of research, for outlining the scope of the SE phenomenon, the study of entrepreneurs individual features may lead again, like in conventional entrepreneurship research, to unresolved debate about what constitutes the core of SE. The majority of individual-level studies in this field focus on entrepreneurial intentions, which are conducted in the GEM project and north-American PSED. The studies on entrepreneurial personality or specific social entrepreneurial traits are limited (Stephan & Drencheva, 2017). There is also limited work on values, motives, identity or skills of these. Stephen and Drencheva (2017) suggest that this is due to practitioners narratives of “hero” social entrepreneurs who manage to combat multiple barriers (Borstein, 2004; Leadbeater, 1997). Also, organizational level studies, lead to confusion. As mentioned earlier, there are various SE operation models, specific for particular countries and regions, determined by historical and institutional trajectories (Defourny & Nyssens, 2012; Ciepielewska-Kowalik, Pieliński, Starnawska & Szymańska, 2015). Therefore, the heterogeneity of SE is omnipresent, and it is impossible to approach the “social enterprise zoo” (Young & Brewer, 2016) like a homogenous population of organizations. The overview of research infrastructure provided by Lee and authors (2014) shows that the majority of key texts in academic literature is focused on an organizational level (76%) whereas only 16 % employ an individual level. These two distinct streams in the SE literature reflect the two groups of studies undertaken in the SE field. The former individual level focused work is characteristic for mature intermediate studies. Lee and authors (2014) employ this category from Edmondson and McManus (2007) explaining that such studies build on existing research and constructs, and therefore allow for testing causal patterns. Whereas organization-level work belongs to a nascent studies group which treats the studied subject as novel, not explained and makes an effort to explore new constructs and patterns. There are some research opportunities as theoretical contexts are concerned. It is suggested for the SE field to incorporate network related theories, institutional theory and structuration theory (Mair & Marti, 2006; Dacin et al., 2011; Short, Moss & Lumpkin, 2009). The network theories include social capital and stakeholder theory. Social enterprise embeddedness in the local community is more pronounced when compared with commercial entrepreneurship (Starnawska, 2017). The importance of building relationships and relying on a social network of entrepreneurs is essential for leveraging resources and building legitimacy across different sectors and different logics. It is also visible that the SE community is being strengthened by many global Foundations, like Ashoka or Skoll, which aim to support them. Moreover, in the end, a network approach can help to explain the potential for generating social impact. The institutional approach suggestion helps to provide insights into the need of SE legitimation as a separate field or sub-field of entrepreneurship practice and research. This theoretical framework also responds to the institutional barriers entrepreneurs face, and this is of particular importance for SE organizations that are set between conflicting logics. This includes the emergence of social enterprise in a variety of settings and can be, for example, explained by a social movement’s theory. Also, it helps to add to the understanding of the institutionalization of SE as a field of research and practice, and what powers and institutional actors are at play. Moreover, social innovations generate institutional change, and social entrepreneurs can be analyzed as institutional entrepreneurs (Mair & Matri, 2006; Starnawska, 2017). The focus on the concept of a social entrepreneur as an institutional agent is in line with the structure-agency debate and provides opportunities for discussion on the transformative, change the potential of SE. The institutional and social capital approaches, provide arguments for more engagement of the academic community to employ more interpretivist lenses, through social constructionist approaches, which requires more in-depth and more longitudinal data collection and analysis, with more qualitative approaches, to study the complex and contextual phenomenon of SE (Starnawska, 2016b, 2018). Research streams in social entrepreneurship and social enterprise There are two streams of thought in the current SE research field which are not explicitly distinguished by the academic community. There is a growing pressure to make it a distinct and legitimate field of inquiry. Nicholls (2010) finds SE as at a pre-paradigmatic stage and therefore the SE field of research and practice is undergoing a process of maturation (Nicolopoulou, 2014). Other researchers seem not to follow this way of thinking and do not regard the SE field as a domain of its own right, with its own theories (Dacin, Dacin &Tracey, 2011). This latter, critical approach stems from the already existing fragmentation of the entrepreneurship field, and it questions what additional value to the theory can be provided by studying another, separate field of SE. Most of the current SE research has focused so far on the definitional debate (Dacin, Dacin & Matear, 2010), especially in terms of scope and purpose as a subject of activity (Nicolopoulou, 2014). As Dacin and others (2010) summarize, the common issue in all SE definitions is the social aim, but it is still debatable what the “social” element in the concept of SE is (Nicholls, 2006), and there is still some discussions about what is meant by the “entrepreneurship” element. The very juxtaposition of the “social” and “entrepreneurship” generates some essentialist debates between relevant homo politicus and homo economicus (Nyborg, 2000). A high number of definitional debates have been determined by geographical, political and social antecedents, acknowledging the key role of institutional and historical contexts for social enterprise and SE emergence. These contexts vary between countries, regions, continents. Overall, three main academic schools of thought on social enterprise have developed (Dees & Anderson, 2006; Defourny & Nyssens, 2012): social innovation, earned income, and the EMES approach. The first school deals mainly with the notion and phenomenon of social entrepreneurship, whereas the second and the third with the notion and phenomenon of social enterprise. Social innovation focuses on social innovators as individual heroes, change makers and leaders. Here the discourses are focused on “change agency” and “leadership” (Baron, 2007; Nicolopoulou, 2014) and reflect entrepreneurship approaches dominant in the mainstream literature. A lot of this discussion is generated thanks to the Ashoka Foundation promoting its fellows and similar other foundations promoting the discourse on individual change makers (Bornstein, 2004). In this area, there is intense academic work referring to SE (social entrepreneurship). The second school, on “earned income,” emphasizes the capability of social enterprise to achieve social aims through earned income. This approach also has roots in America, where in the late 80’s there was a need for non-profit organizations to generate revenues to realize their own social mission and to survive in the market at the same time (Dees & Anderson, 2012). This approach has also dominated the UK agenda of social enterprise, working on non-profits to move away from grant dependency (Tracey, Philips & Haugh, 2005). Following the effort of scholars from different countries, an EMES project under the leadership of Defourny and Nyssens (2013) put forward nine Weberian “ideal type” criteria, reflecting: social, economic and governance dimensions of an “ideal social enterprise” which altogether constitute a constellation of guiding directions for comparative purposes. The EMES spin-off project called International Comparative Social Enterprise Models (ICSEM) has gathered together researchers from more than 50 countries worldwide who have proposed social enterprise models for their countries, to consider their institutional trajectories4. A recent attempt at universal typology of social enterprise models has been recently proposed by Defourny and Nyssens (2016) as a key finding from the ICSEM project: entrepreneurial non-profit organizations, social business, social cooperative and public sector social enterprise. Both schools, the second and the third, refer to social enterprise as a notion referring to different types of social enterprises, employing it as an “umbrella” concept encompassing a diverse population of organizations set in different institutional contexts. Some scholars claim that the literature needs to link the gap between “social” and “entrepreneurship” (Chell, 2007) whereas others consider SE as a version of entrepreneurship (Martin & Osberg, 20007; Nicolopoulou, 2014). There is no agreement on the domain (field of research), boundaries, and definitions (Short, Moss & Lumpkin, 2009; Dacin, Dacin & Matear, 2010; Peredo & McLean, 2006). The challenges in theory development lie in SE discourses which are conventional and propose idealistic visionary narratives (Steyaert & Dey, 2010). Thus, moving away from exemplary cases of social enterprise and their leaders, may lead researchers to more critical and advanced approaches to the studies in the field, including the examples on the borders and the margins of the practice field, but also discovering “unsuccessful stories.” What is also problematic is that there is a widespread positive image of SE as a phenomenon in academic literature (Dey, 2010, p.121) and the existence of a “high profile” SE with its roots in entrepreneurship studies, as pursued in business schools, feeding on business rhetoric and practices, and emphasizing scaling and vision, as important elements (O’Connor, 2010, pp. 79-82). Contributions The papers in this special issue provide insights into SE and social enterprise across different institutional contexts and countries while employing different methodological approaches and different theoretical frameworks. They help us understand the diversity of the SE phenomenon, and their methodological approaches manifest a richness of research methods that can be applied in the SE field. All of the authors recognize the unique contextualization of social enterprise and SE development in the field of practice and research The first paper authored by Lamberto Zollo, Ricardo Rialti, Cristiano Ciappei and Andrea Boccardi (2018) “Bricolage and social entrepreneurship to address emergent social needs: A “deconstructionist” perspective” employ Derrida’s (1976, 1988) deconstructionist approach to provide insights into bricolage in a SE context. The researchers employ a retrospective longitudinal case study of an Italian SE organization which is one of the oldest non-profit organizations in the world, yet it still impacts upon the social and healthcare landscape in Italy – Misericordia. This organization exemplifies how everyday emergencies are dealt with, which makes it a suitable setting for studying social entrepreneurial solutions and social bricolage as a response manner. The case is chosen as an extreme one (Pettigrew, 1990) against the background of the exploratory nature of the study and the limited research on bricolage in an SE context. They make attempts to see if the bricolage concept can be applied in the SE context. This exploratory case analysis is done through the usage of historical and current data from archival sources, current literature including magazines, reports, communication tools, and transcripts from semi-structured interviews held with Misericordia people. The authors provide a conceptual typology of social bricolage as an entrepreneurial solution to social needs. Five strategies are identified: a rigid efficient arrangement, a flexible and effective arrangement, an inertial momentum arrangement, an elusive arrangement and a structural delay arrangement; as different institutional and entrepreneurial solutions to social needs. The findings show how Misericordia employs these strategies. The contribution of this paper is a conceptual framework on the bricolage approach in addressing emerging social needs. The paper deepens our understanding of possible applications of the bricolage concept in SE studies. It broadens the literature on entrepreneurship and, in particular, SE working with the application of a bricolage approach. The second paper by Tanja Collavo (2018) – “Unpacking social entrepreneurship: Exploring the definition chaos and its consequences in England” focuses on the organizational level factors determining definitional confusion in SE and social enterprise. Also, the paper aims to explore what the consequences of this state of the art are for social entrepreneurs, social investors, social enterprises and policy makers. The study setting is England, where the SE sector has had a long tradition and has been subject to influences from different actors and organizations in the USA and the EU. The author makes efforts to empirically find out what the long-term effects of this definitional diversity are on multiple stakeholders. The paper uses an exploratory case study approach, where England is treated as a case. For this purpose the author analyses historical secondary data, taken from the period 1995-2016, including archival data such as newspapers, magazines, academic papers, reports produced by government and national think-tanks, to trace the development of the sector in England and factors leading to the current definitional debate. This historical approach is further employed in a complementary analysis of archives and content from 69 archived interviews held with different stakeholders from the sector such as employees of sector intermediaries, representatives of charities, social entrepreneurs, academics, and representatives of businesses. The findings help the author to outline three dominant schools of thought in practitioner’s discourse: one school on social enterprises as businesses, another on social entrepreneurs as innovators and the last as a community-related phenomenon. These are in line with the 3 schools of thought suggested in the literature on social enterprise (Defourny & Nyssens, 2013) who, apart from social innovation and the “earned income” school, put forward the aforementioned EMES approach. However, it is interesting to see that the model proposed for England represents an “earned income” school approach (Tracey, Philips & Haugh, 2005; Teasdale, 2012). In further findings, the author resumes 3 categories of opinions on how the definitional debate impacts the sector. For some, this debate brings opportunities, as it generates inclusiveness and interest in social enterprise. For others, it is a negative phenomenon, as it generates disagreements in the sector, hardens access to funding and creates confusion in making public policies. The study shows that the definitional debate in England raises discussions in practice, and shows that research and practice face similar challenges. The next paper by Huei-Ching Liu, Ching Yin Ip and Chaoyun Liang (2018) “A new runway for journalists: On the intentions of journalists to start social enterprises” focuses on the entrepreneurial intentions of present and former journalists towards starting a social enterprise. The authors set their hypotheses in the context of the similarities between entrepreneurs and journalists, and analyze how personal traits, creativity and social capital determine the entrepreneurial intentions of journalists. Their research is based on an on-line survey run in social media groups for journalists and covers valid answers from a sample of 401 participants. The findings show no significant influence of personality traits, and the authors explain that this is due to the construction of the research hypotheses based on classic entrepreneurship literature. Another important finding is that creativity and bridging social capital has a positive significant influence on social entrepreneurial intentions. The latter is an essential message as creativity is vital in overcoming the institutional barriers (Dacin et al., 2010) that SE faces. Also, social capital is an important element in SE development, which itself is more strongly emphasized in SE literature, recognizing the role of stakeholders in social enterprise, and a strong pronouncement of embeddedness of social enterprise in a social context. The study throws light on social entrepreneurial intentions among journalists, whom themselves constitute an interesting population. Assigning the role of social entrepreneurs to journalists leads to advocacy functions for many societal challenges. It can influence social impact thanks to potentially higher media coverage of social issues. Although the main findings are in line with the mainstream literature on entrepreneurial intentions towards conventional entrepreneurship, the subject and setting of the study in Taiwan is a very inspiring and interesting context, when discussing who social entrepreneurs are. The last paper by Katarzyna Bachnik and Justyna Szumniak-Samolej (2018) “Social initiatives in food consumption and distribution as part of sustainable consumption and sharing economy” aims to describe and characterize social initiatives in food consumption and distribution in Poland. They present their study on the purposive sample of social initiatives in food consumption and the distribution area. In particular, reference is made to goals, operating models (“ways of acting”) and their linkages to sustainable consumption and sharing economy. Four mini-cases of social initiatives in this area, established between 2013- 2016 and located in two main cities in Poland: Cracow and Warsaw, are purposively chosen as the subject of the study. These initiatives are chosen in accordance with sustainability and sharing economy criteria, presented in the paper. The authors use existing secondary data together with related social media and website content material for the case analysis. The described social ventures are grass-roots initiatives, resulting from the bottom up activity of individuals and groups. The key findings of this paper show a variety in their organizational and legal forms, varying from an initiative undertaken by volunteers, a project undertaken by students, to an informal group that set up a non-profit organization. Also, the evidence shows diverse linkages to sustainable consumption and sharing economy across the mini cases. These are involved in purchases of healthy food, promotion of responsible food consumption, being sensitive to food waste issues, motivations to care for the greater good and for nature and for others. The sharing economy dimension is visible not only through sharing food with others but also sharing on the level of building trust and community. The authors plan to undertake a study of organizational and individual behaviors in further quantitative research followed by in-depth interviews with representatives of initiatives in sustainable consumption and sharing economy, to provide more generalizable conclusions. Their mini-case study of secondary data shows the urging need for more empirical, wider scale studies. However, it needs to be emphasized that many of these initiatives are novel ones, and reflect new social movements, and are not significant in numbers. Therefore, it comes as no surprise why some research on social enterprise is still anecdotal and SE organizations and ventures are slowly occupying the SE landscape in Poland, i.e., moving towards a variety of sustainability and responsibility related initiatives, beyond a pure welfare focus. When, in western European countries, social cooperative enterprise initiatives have become quite abundant, representing new-movements in food, environmental, cultural, educational spheres, in many central and eastern European countries, the rebirth of civil society into social initiatives and social enterprise needs more time for development (Ravensburg, Lang, Poledrini & Starnawska, 2017). Future research In this part of the paper, we deliver summarizing suggestions for future research directions while recognizing the research gaps identified by authors in this issue. We aim to propose new ideas that can deliver insights into the SE phenomenon. The papers provide findings and conclusions relevant to the practice and research field, and emphasize the value of retrospective case studies; employing the analysis of historical data; the ongoing need of case- and small-scale studies of SE ventures and organizations in contexts where the SE phenomenon is not common; the potential of large-scale studies on individuals and their social entrepreneurial intentions; and the strong potential in the qualitative content analysis of practitioners’ discourses as a methodological tool in studying the SE phenomenon. In their work, Zollo, Rialti, Ciappei and Boccardi (2018) propose a theoretical framework encompassing the typology of social bricolage, depending on social needs and the institutions entrepreneurs cope with, and depending on entrepreneurial and institutional solutions to these social needs. This framework is studied in exploratory, longitudinal case analysis. This study has relevance for SE researchers as it provides a systematic overview of social bricolage approaches to emerging social needs. The chosen exploratory retrospective approach is also a valuable example of how archival data can be employed in a complementary manner with current primary data while studying social enterprise with long traditions. For further research, it is required to validate the proposed framework in other SE organizations and to study the assumption that bricolage is a significant opportunity for social entrepreneurs to address emergent social needs. This paper also works as an exemplary work of retrospective, longitudinal studies on SE organizations. The arguments put forward by Hockerts and Wüstenhagen (2010) regarding the need for such studies, may refer to work on historical and current data as well. Covallo (2018) shows how qualitative analysis of existing secondary data can contribute to the understanding of the complexity of SE. This methodological approach is rather uncommon and it shows that analyses of current texts of narratives, discourses and, rhetoric, can provide a deeper understanding of the SE phenomenon, as socially constructed. This can also show the power and interplays between a variety of institutional actors (Nicholls, 2010). A new stream of literature is emerging and this work is an exemplary example of how narrations of social enterprise can shape SE culture. For tracing the nature of the SE phenomenon, narratives from different actors could be heard to understand the complexity of the studied subject. In this sense, the recognition of practitioners’ voices broadens the spectrum of studied populations. It is of particular importance, as social enterprise has not been legally framed in many institutional country contexts. For many countries, social enterprise models have been recognized (Defourny & Nyssens, 2013), but Covallo (2018) takes a parallel step to analyze practitioners’ and other stakeholders’ discourses on what social enterprise is. Additionally, T. Covallo’s work serves as an exciting example of how qualitative content data analysis can be employed in future studies, in the light of the scarcity of widely available data on SE, and interesting and valuable findings can be generated thanks to the existing discourses and narratives. The research of Liu, Ip and Liang (2018) confirms existing mainstream literature on conventional entrepreneurship. Their evidence from the journalist community in Taiwan shows that personal traits have no significant impact upon social entrepreneurial intentions. However creativity and bridging social capital are recognized as significant variables. The research is of particular interest, as it does not refer to entrepreneurial intentions among students or graduates or general populations, but is limited to the population of active and former journalists. Further research could potentially explain social entrepreneurial intentions in other professions and be next stage research leading to comparative analyses. The results of this research show the importance of bridging social capital which has practical implications at policy and practitioner level. To extend the SE community, other professional groups can become more and more involved in the societal challenges, which in the end can lead to higher start-up rates of social enterprises, but also strengthen many of them with professional expertise. The findings also confirm the need to employ more network related theories for SE future studies. Bachnik and Szumniak-Sulej (2018) provide insights into Polish social initiatives in food consumption and distribution, against the background of the understudied nature of the phenomenon. The authors select a purposive sample of diverse cases of such initiatives and provide a descriptive overview of their goals, organization, and links with sustainable consumption and sharing economy. The paper works as exemplary evidence, that the majority of social venture studies are based on small samples of anecdotal evidence, as highlighted at the beginning of the paper. Therefore, having based their research on secondary data, the authors call for further research including primary data collection and more longitudinal observation. As these initiatives are still novel and grass-roots ventures, further qualitative and exploratory approaches would be required. As the authors claim, the responsible consumption and sharing economy have become very popular in digital community, and consumer attitudes have a significant impact upon the sustainability of such initiatives. The work presented in this issue confirms the need for more insightful qualitative studies set in varied institutional contexts, and at the same time for more large-scale studies on populations of nascent or existing social entrepreneurs or social enterprises. In the case of the former, more constructivist and network related approaches can be of further value (Starnawska, 2016a, 2018). In the case of the latter, researchers from different institutional contexts could make attempts at setting the foundations of comparative studies across countries (e.g., Ravensburg et al., 2017) but on large social enterprise populations. Also, with the growing legitimacy of SE in an educational setting (Starnawska, 2018), there lies great potential in evaluating social entrepreneurial attitudes among students and graduates and other populations such as different professions. In parallel, the work presented in this issue shows excellent opportunities in analyzing historical data, since SE is not a novel phenomenon.

Water Auditing and Water Conservation

Author: Jeff Sturman,Goen Ho,Kuruvilla Mathew

Publisher: IWA Publishing

ISBN: 1900222523

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 1670

Water auditing is a method of quantifying water flows and quality in simple or complex systems, with a view to reducing water usage and often saving money on otherwise unnecessary water use. There is an increasing awareness around the globe of the centrality of water to our lives. This awareness crosses political and social boundaries. In many places people have difficult access to drinking water. Often it is polluted. Water auditing is a mechanism for conserving water, which will grow in significance in the future as demand for water increases. Water Auditing and Water Conservation is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students in environmental engineering and science programs, water auditors and professionals in the water field, especially those motivated by quantitative water conservation needs. There is a strong emphasis on principles, and on the relationship of water auditing with associated activities like environmental auditing, environmental management systems, resource conservation, flow measurement, water quality and legal frameworks. Alongside the theoretical materials we integrate field experience from professionals. Chapters outline the processes and issues at stake in a variety of typical applications (arenas) in which water auditing are conducted. These include buildings (interior and exterior), landscape, external commercial applications requiring irrigation, aquatic centres, material transport by water, cooling systems and non-metal manufacturing (e.g. paper manufacture). This book will lead the prospective water auditor to a sufficiently thorough knowledge of water auditing to be able to apply the principles to many situations and make recommendations for water conservation measures.

Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464963509

Category: Medical

Page: 3453

View: 6936

Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine. The editors have built Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Grounded theory

Grundlagen qualitativer Sozialforschung

Author: Anselm L. Strauss,Juliet M. Corbin

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783621272650

Category: Grounded theory

Page: 227

View: 3780

Studierende und Forscher verschiedener Disziplinen, die am Entwickeln einer Theorie interessiert sind, stellen sich nach der Datenerhebung oft die Frage: Wie komme ich zu einer Theorie, die sich auf die empirische Realität gründet? Die Autoren beantworten diese und andere Fragen, die sich bei der qualitativen Interpretation von Daten ergeben. Auf klare und einfache Art geschrieben vermittelt das Buch Schritt für Schritt die grundlegenden Kenntnisse und Verfahrensweisen der "grounded theory" (datenbasierte Theorie), so daß es besonders für Personen interessant ist, die sich zum ersten Mal mit der Theorienbildung anhand qualitativer Datenanalyse beschäftigen. Das Buch gliedert sich in drei Teile. Teil I bietet einen Überblick über die Denkweise, die der "grounded theory" zugrunde liegt. Teil II stellt die speziellen Techniken und Verfahrensweisen genau dar, wie z.B. verschiedene Kodierungsarten. In Teil III werden zusätzliche Verfahrensweisen erklärt und Evaluationskriterien genannt.

Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology

Author: Mehdi Khosrow-Pour,Mehdi Khosrowpour

Publisher: IGI Global Snippet

ISBN: 9781605660264

Category: Computers

Page: 523

View: 8107

"This set of books represents a detailed compendium of authoritative, research-based entries that define the contemporary state of knowledge on technology"--Provided by publisher.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Zeit

Author: Stephen Hawking

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644008612

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 7228

Ist das Universum unendlich oder begrenzt? Hat die Raumzeit einen Anfang, den Urknall? Dehnt sie sich aus? Wird sie wieder in sich zusammenstürzen? Liefe die Zeit dann rückwärts? Welchen Platz im Universum nehmen wir ein? Und ist in den atemberaubenden Modellen der Kosmologen noch Platz für einen Gott? – Es sind existenzielle Fragen, mit denen sich Stephen Hawking befasst, Fragen, die Forschung und Lehre in den Zentren der modernen Physik ebenso bestimmen wie die Diskussion von Geisteswissenschaftlern. Dieses Meisterwerk eines Jahrhundert-Genies hat unsere Weltsicht verändert. Zugleich hat Stephen Hawking damit neue Maßstäbe für die Erklärung komplexer physikalischer Zusammenhänge gesetzt. In diesem Buch, weltweit inzwischen über zehn Millionen Mal verkauft, ist das Credo des großen Physikers enthalten und lebendig. «Der Physiker Stephen Hawking ist im Begriff, die Formel zu finden, die das Universum erklärt.» ZEIT-Magazin

Issues in Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464964688

Category: Political Science

Page: 1244

View: 9211

Issues in Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning. The editors have built Issues in Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.