Organizing Political Parties

Representation, Participation, and Power

Author: Susan E. Scarrow,Paul D. Webb,Thomas Poguntke

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192528815

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 9436

Political party organizations play large roles in democracies, yet their organizations differ widely, and their statutes change much more frequently than constitutions or electoral laws. How do these differences, and these frequent changes, affect the operation of democracy? This book seeks to answer these questions by presenting a comprehensive overview of the state of party organization in nineteen contemporary democracies. Using a unique new data collection, the book's chapters test propositions about the reasons for variation and similarities across party organizations. They find more evidence of within-country similarity than of cross-national patterns based on party ideology. After exploring parties' organizational differences, the remaining chapters investigate the impact of these differences. The volume considers a wide range of theories about how party organization may affect political life, including the impact of party rules on the selection of female candidates, the links between party decision processes and the stability of party programmes, the connection between party finance sources and public trust in political parties, and whether the strength of parties' extra-parliamentary organization affects the behaviour of their elected legislators. Collectively these chapters help to advance comparative studies of elections and representation by inserting party institutions and party agency more firmly into the centre of such studies. Comparative Politics is a series for researchers, teachers, and students of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit: www.ecprnet.eu. The series is edited by Emilie van Haute, Professor of Political Science, Université libre de Bruxelles; Ferdinand Müller-Rommel, Director of the Center for the Study of Democracy, Leuphana University; and Susan Scarrow, Chair of the Department of Political Science, University of Houston.

Democracy and the Cartelization of Political Parties

Author: Richard S. Katz,Peter Mair

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192562002

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 2444

Political parties have long been recognized as essential institutions of democratic governance. Both the organization of parties, and their relationships with citizens, the state, and each other have evolved since the rise of liberal democracy in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Going into the 21st century, it appears that parties losing popular support, putting both parties, and potentially democracy, in peril. This book traces the evolution of parties from the model of the mass party, through the catch-all party model, to argue that by the late 20th century the principal governing parties and (and their allied smaller parties - collectively the political 'mainstream') were effectively forming a cartel, in which the form of competition might remain, and indeed even appear to intensify, while its substance was increasingly hollowed out. The spoils of office were increasingly shared rather than restricted to the temporary winners; contentious policy questions were kept off the political agenda, and competition shifted from large questions of policy to minor questions of managerial competence. To support this cartel, the internal arrangements of parties changed to privilege the party in public office over the party on the ground. The unintended consequence has been to stimulate the rise of extra-cartel challengers to these cozy arrangements in the form of anti-party-system parties and populist oppositions on the left, but especially on the right. Comparative Politics is a series for researchers, teachers, and students of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit: www.ecprnet.eu. The series is edited by Emilie van Haute, Professor of Political Science, Université libre de Bruxelles; Ferdinand Müller-Rommel, Director of the Center for the Study of Democracy, Leuphana University; and Susan Scarrow, John and Rebecca Moores Professor of Political Science, University of Houston.

Inequality After the Transition

Political Parties, Party Systems, and Social Policy in Southern and Postcommunist Europe

Author: Ekrem Karakoç

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192561650

Category: Political Science

Page: 392

View: 7441

After the Transition is an all-encompassing examination of the origins, increase, and persistence of inequality in new democracies. It challenges the conventional thinking found in much of the democratization-inequality literature, and offers a new theory. It speaks simultaneously to literature of democratization, party systems, social policy, and inequality to explain why democracies are not able to fulfill their promise to the disadvantaged and why they cannot achieve income equality. It investigates social policy programs such as pensions, unemployment benefits, and other social transfers in Poland and the Czech Republic in Post-Communist Europe, and Turkey and Spain in Southern Europe. The volume traces the origins and development of social policy, from the formation of nation-states to the present, and considers how different political regimes, whether totalitarian; post-totalitarian; or authoritarian, designed welfare policies to prioritize civil servants and the working classes in formal sectors at the expense of the majority poor. It then demonstrates how these legacies perpetuate and widen disparities in access to welfare policies, and thus income inequality in countries where low mobilization by the poor and unstable party systems prevail. This study employs interviews with Polish, Czech, Turkish, and Spanish union leaders; bureaucrats; and business people while also conducting an original survey in Turkey to dissect the linkage between organized groups and parties. Employing a multi-method approach, two paired case studies on these countries also demystify why and how new populist parties have successfully appealed to voters and affected the trajectory of social policy, party systems and inequality. Comparative Politics is a series for researchers, teachers, and students of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit: www.ecprnet.eu. The series is edited by Emilie van Haute, Professor of Political Science, Université libre de Bruxelles; Ferdinand Müller-Rommel, Director of the Center for the Study of Democracy, Leuphana University; and Susan Scarrow, John and Rebecca Moores Professor of Political Science, University of Houston.

Party Reform

The Causes, Challenges, and Consequences of Organizational Change

Author: Anika Gauja

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198717164

Category:

Page: 224

View: 9323

Party Reform is a new comparative study of the politics of party organization. The book provides a novel perspective in party scholarship and develops the concept of 'reform' as distinct from evolutionary and incremental processes of party change. As an outcome, reform is captured in deliberate and often very public changes to parties' organizational rules and processes. As a process, it offers a party the opportunity to 're-brand' and publicly alter its image, to emphasize certain strategic priorities over others, and to alter relationships of power within the party. Analyzing the last ten years of party reform across a handful of established democracies including Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada and Germany, the book examines what motivates political parties to undertake organizational reforms and how they go about this process. Party Reform reveals how parties' perceptions of the social trends in which they operate shape reform agendas, and how this relates to competitive demands and pressures from within the party for organizational change. In addition to the motivations for reform, the book is equally concerned with the process of reform. The book demonstrates that declining party memberships have had a fundamental effect on the way in which political parties 'sell' organizational reform: as part of a broader rhetoric of democratization, of re-engagement, and of modernization delivered to diverse audiences - both internal and external to the party. The chapters focus particularly on four key reform initiatives that begin to blur the traditional boundaries of party: the introduction of primaries, the changing meaning of party membership, issues-based online policy development, and community organizing campaigns. Using these cutting-edge developments as primary examples, this book provides a framework for understanding why, and how, reforms occur, and what the consequences might be - in terms of how we think about modern political parties as vehicles for participation and representation. Comparative Politics is a series for researchers, teachers, and students of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit: www.ecprnet.eu. The series is edited by Emilie van Haute, Professor of Political Science, Universite libre de Bruxelles; Ferdinand Muller-Rommel, Director of the Center for the Study of Democracy, Leuphana University; and Susan Scarrow, Chair of the Department of Political Science, University of Houston.

Parteiorganisation im Wandel

Gesellschaftliche Verankerung und organisatorische Anpassung im europäischen Vergleich

Author: Thomas Poguntke

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322963918

Category: Political Science

Page: 310

View: 1012

Politische Parteien haben im wesentlichen zwei Wege, dauerhafte und zweiseitige Verbindungen zu den Bürgern herzustellen und zu unterhalten: über die eigene Mitgliederorganisation und durch eine Vernetzung mit intermediären Organisationen und Nebenorganisationen. Die eigene Mitgliederorganisation stellt einen wichtigen, direkten Transmissionskanal dar, da sie den Parteien erlaubt, durch ihre Mitglieder für ihre politischen Ziele in der Gesellschaft zu werben und andererseits politische Stimmungen und Präferenzen der Bevölkerung wahrzunehmen und in politisches Handeln umzusetzen. Die Vernetzung mit den verschiedenen Arten kollateraler Organisationen erfüllt prinzipiell die gleichen Funktionen, allerdings laufen diese Prozesse über externe, teilweise unabhängige Organisationen vermittelt ab. In der Studie wird der Frage nachgegangen, wie sich diese "Linkages" zwischen Parteien und Bürgern in Westeuropa seit 1960 verändert haben. Untersucht werden 78 Parteien in 11 westeuropäischen Ländern. Im Mittelpunkt stehen dabei die Entwicklung der Mitgliederzahlen und Veränderungen in der organisatorischen Verknüpfung zwischen den Entscheidungsgremien politischer Parteien und den verschiedenen Arten kollateraler Organisationen. Hierbei zeigt sich, daß Ausmaß und Intensität der gesellschaftlichen Verankerung politischer Parteien in Westeuropa deutlich schwächer geworden sind. Bemerkenswert ist außerdem, daß neue Parteien über fast keine gesellschaftlichen Bindungen verfügen.

The Gendered Effects of Electoral Institutions

Political Engagement and Participation

Author: Miki Caul Kittilson,Leslie A. Schwindt-Bayer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199608601

Category: Political Science

Page: 175

View: 7205

The Gendered Effects of Electoral Institutions argues that in most countries women continue to lag behind men in an array of political orientations and activities. Understanding this, and why some countries have been more successful than others in decreasing gender gaps, is imperative for producing stronger and more representative democracies.

MODERN COMPARATIVE POLITICS

APPROACHES, METHODS AND ISSUES

Author: SAMIRENDRA N. RAY

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 9788120314887

Category: Political Science

Page: 316

View: 4502

Designed primarily as an introductory textbook for graduate and senior undergraduate students offering comparative politics as a compulsory course, this finely integrated text is by far the most comprehensive, yet concise and critical analysis of the contending approaches, methods, and models and the theory-building efforts made in the second half of this century. The book provides a lucid and up-to-date presentation of the ramifications of the governmental process and political dynamics, issues and problems relating to the structure, function, process and operation of governmental and political organizations in a genuinely comparative perspective.

Women and Political Participation

A Reference Handbook

Author: Barbara C. Burrell

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1851095926

Category: Political Science

Page: 277

View: 8395

An illuminating analysis of the long and ongoing struggle of women in America to gain political equality and bring about change in public policy.

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics

Author: Susan Carol Stokes

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199278480

Category: Political Science

Page: 1021

View: 1796

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics offers a critical survey of the field of empirical political science through the collection of a set of chapters written by 48 top scholars in the discipline of comparative politics

Ökonomische Theorie der Demokratie

Author: Anthony Downs

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783165290523

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 303

View: 7454

English summary: It was Anthony Downs' objective to create a model dealing with voter and government behavior. In order to do so, he established goals which governments, parties and lobbyists as well as the voters can pursue. To motivate all those concerned, he introduced the self-interest axiom and called for rationality in order to attain these goals. With the help of marginal analysis, each voter determines his/her party differential, which will help to determine each voter's choice at the ballot box and to decide which party's rule will give him/her greater utility in the future. Downs describes how crucial the concept of ideology is to his theory. He maintains that a two-party democracy could not provide stable and effective government unless there is a large measure of ideological consensus amongst its citizens, and that political parties encouraged voters to be irrational by remaining vague and ambiguous. German description: Anthony Downs' inzwischen klassisches Demokratie-Modell des Wahler- und Regierungsverhaltens orientiert sich an der okonomischen Theorie. Er nimmt an, dass politische Parteien und Wahler in der Verfolgung bestimmter, deutlich spezifizierter Ziele optimal handeln. So treffen die Wahler unter Ungewissheit uber den Wahlvorgang und die zukunftige Regierungsbildung ihre Wahl nach dem mutmasslichen Nutzen. Die Regierung versucht, mit Hilfe der Manipulation des Budgets ihre Wiederwahl zu erreichen.Ideologien der Parteien auf der einen Seite, Interessengruppen auf der anderen stellen den Wahlern bzw. der Regierung Informationen zur rationalen Entscheidungsfindung zur Verfugung. Dabei wird deutlich, dass Mehrparteiensysteme und Verhaltniswahlrecht jedes Wahl-Kalkul unlosbar werden lassen. Auf die weiteren Folgerungen fur Demokratie-Forschung und -Verstandnis geht Downs im letzten Teil seines Werkes ausfuhrlich ein.

Sexus und Herrschaft

Die Tyrannei des Mannes in unserer Gesellschaft

Author: Kate Millett

Publisher: Kiepenheuer & Witsch

ISBN: 3462411209

Category: Social Science

Page: 496

View: 6109

»Sexus und Herrschaft« ist Kate Milletts erstes Buch. Es erschien 1969 und machte die Autorin über Nacht berühmt. Übersetzungen in zahlreiche Sprachen folgten. Kate Millett stellt in ihrem Buch die These auf, daß Sexualität ein politisches Instrument ist und der Koitus, die scheinbar intimste Beziehung zwischen den Geschlechtern, dem Patriarchat zur Unterdrückung und Demütigung der Frau dient. Als Beleg für ihre These analysiert sie die Werke von Autoren wie D. H. Lawrence, Henry Miller, Norman Mailer, Jean Genet. Das Buch gehört seit seinem Erscheinen zu den Standardwerken der Frauenbewegung.

The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics

Author: Todd Landman,Neil Robinson

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446206556

Category: Political Science

Page: 560

View: 357

'Editors Landman and Robinson have compiled an excellent tour d'horizon of comparative politics. Distinguished contributors explore theoretical and methodological issues as well as examine the critical substantive domains that animate today's comparativists. Graduate students and academics will want to keep this volume on their book shelf' - Professor Mark Irving Lichbach, University of Maryland 'The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics is a major new resource for scholars of comparative politics, and of political science more generally. The Handbook covers the field with admirable thoroughness, but does not sacrifice depth for breadth. The chapters are written by notable scholars who provide rich discussions of their topics, and help to move the sub-discipline forward' - B. Guy Peters, Professor, University of Pittsburgh The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics presents; in one volume, an authoritative overview of the theoretical, methodological and substantive elements of comparative political science. The 28 specially commissioned chapters, written by renowned comparative scholars, guide the reader through the central issues and debates, presenting a state-of-the-art guide to the past, present and possible futures of the field. The Handbook is divided into three parts. The first considers comparative methodologies and reviews the interactions between various sub-fields of comparative politics: political economy; political sociology; area studies; international relations; and institutional analysis. The second section examines nine 'classic' issues of concern to comparativists, including government formation, political behaviour and democratization. In the final section, nine new and emerging areas of comparative research are considered, such as terrorism, electoral corruption, human rights and regional integration. The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics is an essential resource for researchers in political science, political sociology, political economy, international relations, area studies and all other fields with a comparative political dimension.

The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Politics

Author: Georgina Waylen,Karen Celis,Johanna Kantola,S. Laurel Weldon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199324042

Category: Political Science

Page: 888

View: 2721

As a field of scholarship, gender and politics has exploded over the last fifty years and is now global, institutionalized, and ever expanding. The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Politics brings to political science an accessible and comprehensive overview of the key contributions of gender scholars to the study of politics and shows how these contributions produce a richer understanding of polities and societies. Like the field it represents, the handbook has a broad understanding of what counts as political and is based on a notion of gender that highlights masculinities as well as femininities, thereby moving feminist debates in politics beyond the focus on women. It engages with some of the key aspects of political science as well as important themes in gender and feminist research (such as sexuality and body politics), thereby forging a dialogue between gender studies in politics and mainstream political science. The handbook is organized in sections that look at sexuality and body politics; political economy; civil society; participation, representation and policymaking; institutions, states and governance as well as nation, citizenship and identity. The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Politics contains and reflects the best scholarship in its field.

The Europeanization of National Political Parties

Power and Organizational Adaptation

Author: Professor of Political Science Thomas Poguntke,Thomas Poguntke,Nicholas Aylott,Elisabeth Carter,Robert Ladrech,Kurt Richard Luther

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134143540

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 9476

This is a detailed exploration of how national political parties have responded to the increasing relevance of European governance. The Europeanization of National Political Parties is the first empirical study to examine the effects of the European Union on the internal organizational dynamics of national political parties. It draws on the results of a major, cross-national project and is based on documentary analysis and some 150 interviews with senior party actors in six EU member states: Austria, Britain, France, Germany, Spain and Sweden. Situated in the context of the debate on Europeanization, the contributors illustrate that national political parties have been surprisingly well equipped to handle the challenges of the increasing importance of multi-level governance in Europe. Following a rigorous analytical framework, the country studies examine thirty relevant political parties and systematically address a clearly defined set of empirical questions. The volume ends with two comparative chapters that analyze the findings from a cross-national perspective and that offer theoretical insights into the problems of party government amid increasing European integration. This text will appeal to all those researching in the fields of European studies, political science and comparative politics.

Social Democracy

A Comparative Account of the Left-Wing Party Family

Author: Hans Keman

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351679422

Category: Political Science

Page: 244

View: 4840

The Social Democratic party family is a central part of political life in the West. This book focuses on this party family as well as a unique political force in the industrialised world. It provides a critical comparative survey of when, where, how and why Social Democracy developed within established capitalist democracies. The book explains the electoral fortunes of Social Democratic parties, the influence of the party system dynamics and co-operation between parties in government. It examines the ideological tensions within Social Democratic parties between socialists and reformists and its ramifications for pursuing a ‘better and kinder’ world. This study also discusses the recent state of affairs and its mission in the 21st century. The book features a comparative analysis of 21 cases from Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and the United States. It will be of key interest to students and scholars of public policy, comparative politics, party politics and democracy studies.

Comparative Politics Today

A World View

Author: G. Bingham Powell,Russell J. Dalton,Kaare Strøm

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780205097517

Category: Comparative government

Page: 722

View: 3803

This introduction to comparative politics contains theoretical chapters that exlore the 'purpose of government'. The theoretical section is followed by 12 individual country studies.

The Oxford Handbook of American Political Parties and Interest Groups

Author: L. Sandy Maisel,Jeffrey M. Berry

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019160920X

Category: Political Science

Page: 720

View: 4707

The Oxford Handbook of American Political Parties and Interest Groups is a major new volume that will help scholars assess the current state of scholarship on parties and interest groups and the directions in which it needs to move. Never before has the academic literature on political parties received such an extended treatment. Twenty nine chapters critically assess both the major contributions to the literature and the ways in which it has developed. With contributions from most of the leading scholars in the field, the volume provides a definitive point of reference for all those working in and around the area. Equally important, the authors also identify areas of new and interesting research. These chapters offer a distinctive point of view, an argument about the successes and failures of past scholarship, and a set of recommendations about how future work ought to develop. This volume will help set the agenda for research on political parties and interest groups for the next decade. The Oxford Handbooks of American Politics are a set of reference books offering authoritative and engaging critical overviews of the state of scholarship on American politics. Each volume focuses on a particular aspect of the field. The project is under the General Editorship of George C. Edwards III, and distinguished specialists in their respective fields edit each volume. The Handbooks aim not just to report on the discipline, but also to shape it as scholars critically assess the scholarship on a topic and propose directions in which it needs to move. The series is an indispensable reference for anyone working in American politics. General Editor for The Oxford Handbooks of American Politics: George C. Edwards III

The American Anomaly

U.S. Politics and Government in Comparative Perspective

Author: Raymond A. Smith

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135079129

Category: Political Science

Page: 236

View: 2705

Seymour Martin Lipset pronounced over a decade ago, "Someone who knows only one country knows no country." It is well established that students learn the intricacies of American politics better when they are presented in a comparative context. In today’s globalized society and workforce, it is all the more important for students to understand that the American political system is in many ways the exception and not the rule. Introductory textbooks on American government, however, rarely emphasize in sufficient depth how the United States compares to other political systems. And introductions to comparative politics infrequently situate the United States in their analysis. The American Anomaly systematically analyzes the U.S. political system by way of comparison with other countries, especially other industrialized democracies. It is organized into four sections, respectively covering the constitutional order, governmental institutions, political participation, and public policy. Extended case studies in each chapter draw on all the major regions of the world. Thoroughly revised throughout, the third edition includes: Updates throughout to reflect recent developments, including battles for control of Congress and the White House in 2010 and 2012, the challenges and successes of the Obama presidency, and political developments including the rise of the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street. The addition of a ready-reference glossary defining key terms, along with a key terms list at the end of each chapter. Updates to examples from other countries, such as changes to the European Union in light of the Eurozone crisis, the weakening of the Mexican state due to surges in drug-related crime, and the growth of China’s global role. A substantive update to the domestic policy and foreign policy chapters. A significant update on online/web-based activism, with particular regard to the expanding role of social media. New tables and charts in each chapter. A companion website also offers overview slides, links, and other supporting features.

Women and Power in Parliamentary Democracies

Cabinet Appointments in Western Europe, 1968-1992

Author: Rebecca Howard Davis

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 9780803217072

Category: Political Science

Page: 137

View: 2764

Margaret Thatcher, Mary Robinson, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Edith Cresson, and Simone Veil?these contemporary world leaders are as noteworthy for their gender as they are for the political directions they have provided. Indeed, female government leaders are so rare as to be almost an intellectual curiosity. ø Why is this the case? Why do women, who make up more than half of the world?s population, occupy so few positions at the highest levels of political power? Why are women making inroads in government in some countries while not in others? And what difference does women?s presence?or absence?make in terms of policy outcomes? ø Davis addresses these questions by examining women?s access to power through appointive channels in Western European parliamentary and parliamentary-type systems. Tracing women?s participation from 1968 to 1992 in fifteen countries, she accounts for the variation from high levels of women?s representation in Norway and Sweden to low levels in Italy and Britain. ø Little research on women and elections extends beyond the United States and Britain. Even less exists on women?s access to power through appointive channels. By comparatively examining the elite recruitment of women through appointments, this work fills a critical gap.