Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture

Author: Mark Nathan Cohen,George J. Armelagos

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780813044897

Category: Science

Page: 618

View: 9502

Presents data from nineteen different regions before, during, and after agricultural transitions, analyzing populations in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and South America while primarily focusing on North America. A wide range of health indicators are discussed, including mortality, episodic stress, physical trauma, degenerative bone conditions, isotopes, and dental pathology.

Bones of Complexity

Bioarchaeological Case Studies of Social Organization and Skeletal Biology

Author: Haagen D. Klaus,Amanda R. Harvey,Mark N. Cohen

Publisher: Bioarchaeological Interpretati

ISBN: 9780813062235

Category: Social Science

Page: 510

View: 6642

This volume examines the various interrelationships between social structures, skeletal biology, and health outcomes in antiquity. Bringing together studies by physical anthropologists, archaeologists, and economists, the volume attempts to gain a better understanding of the potential effects of social complexity on human biology from ancient Egypt to South America.

Ancient Health

Skeletal Indicators of Agricultural and Economic Intensification

Author: Mark Nathan Cohen,Gillian Margaret Mountford Crane-Kramer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780813030821

Category: Social Science

Page: 432

View: 3866

Twenty years ago Mark Nathan Cohen coedited a collection of essays that set a new standard in using paleopathology to identify trends in health associated with changes in prehistoric technology, economy, demography, and political centralization. Ancient Health expands and celebrates that work. Confirming earlier conclusions that human health declined after the adoption of farming and the rise of civilization, this book greatly enlarges the geographical range of paleopathological studies by including new work from both established and up-and-coming scholars. Moving beyond the western hemisphere and western Eurasia, this collection involves studies from Chile, Peru, Mexico, the United States, Denmark, Britain, Portugal, South Africa, Israel, India, Vietnam, Thailand, China, and Mongolia. Adding great significance to this volume, the author discusses and successfully rebuts the arguments of the "osteological paradox" that long have challenged work in the area of quantitative paleopathology, demonstrating that the "paradox" has far less meaning than its proponents argue.

Bioarchaeological Analyses and Bodies

New Ways of Knowing Anatomical and Archaeological Skeletal Collections

Author: Pamela K. Stone

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319711148

Category: Social Science

Page: 239

View: 1585

This volume features bioarchaeological research that interrogates the human skeleton in concert with material culture, ethnographic data and archival research. This approach provides examples of how these intersections of inquiry can be used to consider the larger social and political contexts in which people lived and the manner in which they died. Bioarchaeologists are in a unique position to develop rich interpretations of the lived experiences of skeletonized individuals. Using their skills in multiple contexts, bioarchaeologists are also situated to consider the ethical nature and inherent humanity of the research collections that have been used because they represent deceased for whom there are records identifying them. These collections have been the basis for generating basic information regarding the human skeletal transcript. Ironically though, these collections themselves have not been studied with the same degree of understanding and interpretation that is applied to archaeological collections.

Bioarchaeology

An Integrated Approach to Working with Human Remains

Author: Debra L. Martin,Ryan P. Harrod,Ventura R. Pérez

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461463785

Category: Social Science

Page: 262

View: 1148

Bioarchaeology is the analysis of human remains within an interpretative framework that includes contextual information. This comprehensive and much-needed manual provides both a starting point and a reference for archaeologists, bioarchaeologists and others working in this integrative field. The authors cover a range of bioarchaeological methods and theory including: Ethical issues involved in dealing with human remains Theoretical approaches in bioarchaeology Techniques in taphonomy and bone analysis Lab and forensic techniques for skeletal analysis Best practices for excavation techniques Special applications in bioarchaeology With case studies from bioarchaeological research, the authors integrate theoretical and methodological discussion with a wide range of field studies from different geographic areas, time periods, and data types, to demonstrate the full scope of this important field of study.

Social Bioarchaeology

Author: Sabrina C. Agarwal,Bonnie A. Glencross

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444390520

Category: Social Science

Page: 496

View: 705

Illustrates new methodological directions in analyzing human social and biological variation Offers a wide array of research on past populations around the globe Explains the central features of bioarchaeological research by key researchers and established experts around the world

Life and Death on the Nile

A Bioethnography of Three Ancient Nubian Communities

Author: George J. Armelagos,Dennis P. Van Gerven

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780813054452

Category: History

Page: 266

View: 2389

George J. Armelagos spent thirty years at various sites in Sudan searching for ancient Nubian civilizations that gave rise to what we now know as the upper Nile civilizations. Most of these sites are now underwater, due to being inundated when the Aswan Dam was built on the Upper Nile and flooded the ancient cities of Wadi Halfa and Kulubnarti. While hundreds of articles have been written about the research at these sites, this monograph, where Armelagos invited his former student Dennis Van Gerven to collaborate with him, represents the first attempt to explore all of the biocultural relationships between the villages, the people, and the region.

The Global History of Paleopathology

Pioneers and Prospects

Author: Jane E. Buikstra,Charlotte Roberts

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195389808

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 798

View: 9610

The first comprehensive global history of the discipline of paleopathology

Across the Alps in Prehistory

Isotopic Mapping of the Brenner Passage by Bioarchaeology

Author: Gisela Grupe,Andrea Grigat,George C. McGlynn

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319415506

Category: Science

Page: 255

View: 419

At the heart of this book is the matter of how isotopic landscapes combined with data mining enriches insights on prehistoric migration and cultural transfer. Isotopic mapping is an indispensable tool for the assessment of mobility and trade in the past, but is limited by eco-geographic redundancies. An interdisciplinary research group focuses on the archaeological isotopic landscape of a reference region of outstanding importance, namely the transalpine migration route via the Brenner Pass which has been in use since the Mesolithic. Over the period of several cultural epochs, cremation was either the most common or exclusive burial custom practiced. For the first time, a systematic and large scale investigation of cremated remains was being conducted in the field of prehistoric migration research.87Sr/86Sr, 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/207Pb and – if applicable - also δ18O were measured in human and animal skeletal finds, an isotopic map was established, and innovative methods of data mining and similarity research have been applied to accomplish this novel approach to studying prehistoric migration and culture transfer. The book has interdisciplinary appeal and scholars working in bioarchaeology, physical anthropology and computer applications in life sciences will find it of particular interest.

The Archaeology of Human Bones

Author: Simon Mays

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136971777

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 3593

The Archaeology of Human Bones provides an up to date account of the scientific analysis of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites. This completely revised edition reflects the latest developments in scientific techniques for studying human skeletons and the latest applications of those techniques in archaeology. In particular, the sections on ancient DNA and bone stable isotopes have been comprehensively updated, and two completely new chapters have been introduced, covering metric study of the postcranial skeleton and ethical dimensions of the study of human remains. The Archaeology of Human Bones introduces students to the anatomy of bones and teeth, utilising a large number of images. It analyzes the biasing effects of decay and incomplete recovery on burial data from archaeological sites, and discusses what we may learn about burial rites from human remains. Subsequent chapters focus on demographic analysis of earlier populations, normal skeletal variation, disease and injury, isotopic and DNA analysis of bone, the study of cremated bone and ethical aspects of working with ancient human remains. Current scientific methods are explained, alongside a critical discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. The ways in which scientific analyses of human skeletal remains can contribute to tackling major archaeological or historical issues is illustrated by means of examples drawn from studies from around the world. Technical jargon is kept to a minimum, and each chapter contains a summary of the main points that a student should grasp and a list of further reading targeted to enable students to follow up major issues covered in the book. Featuring case studies from around the world and with copious illustrations, The Archaeology of Human Bones continues to be a crucial work for students of archaeology.

Bioarchaeology

The Contextual Analysis of Human Remains

Author: Jane E Buikstra,Lane A Beck

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315432919

Category: Social Science

Page: 628

View: 9147

The core subject matter of bioarchaeology is the lives of past peoples, interpreted anthropologically. Human remains, contextualized archaeologically and historically, form the unit of study. Integrative and frequently inter-disciplinary, bioarchaeology draws methods and theoretical perspectives from across the sciences and the humanities. Bioarchaeology: The Contextual Study of Human Remains focuses upon the contemporary practice of bioarchaeology in North American contexts, its accomplishments and challenges. Appendixes, a glossary and 150 page bibliography make the volume extremely useful for research and teaching.

Bioarchaeology

Author: Clark Spencer Larsen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052183869X

Category: History

Page: 656

View: 2926

A synthetic treatment of the study of human remains from archaeological contexts for current and future generations of bioarchaeologists.

Children and Childhood in Bioarchaeology

Bioarchaeological Interpretations of the Human Past: Local, Regional, and Global Perspectives

Author: Sabrina C. Agarwal

Publisher: Bioarchaeological Interpretati

ISBN: 9780813056807

Category: Social Science

Page: 412

View: 826

A central theme of this volume is that future work on the lives of children in antiquity should be built on a strong foundation of biocultural research that draws from, and integrates more successfully, multiple sub-disciplines, including skeletal biology and physiology, archaeology, socio-cultural anthropology.

Advances in Human Palaeopathology

Author: Ron Pinhasi,Simon Mays

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047072417X

Category: Social Science

Page: 408

View: 1345

This volume presents a truly integrated methodological and biocultural approach to the expanding discipline of human palaeopathology. The book provides researchers and practitioners with a comprehensive guide to the main methods and techniques that are currently available for studying diseases and related conditions from human skeletal remains. It also describes the ways in which these methods can be applied to the reconstruction of health and disease in the past. The first part of the book deals with the survival of palaeopathological evidence and provides an up-to-date account of some of the latest techniques for studying disease in ancient remains. These include imaging techniques, such as radiography and CT scanning, and biochemical and histological analyses. Part two discusses the diagnosis and interpretation of particular classes of disease. The emphasis here is on what can be learnt by taking a biocultural or holistic approach to the study of disease frequencies at a population level. Combines theoretical, methodological and diagnostic aspects with key biocultural approaches. Includes overviews of the latest applicable techniques from molecular biology, biochemistry, histopathology and medical imaging. Written by an international team of experts. This book is an invaluable resource for biological anthropologists and archaeologists who study health and disease in past populations. It is also of interest to medical researchers dealing with epidemiological, diagnostic and pathophysiological aspects of diseases, who need a perspective upon the ways in which particular diseases affected earlier generations. Praise from the reviews: “... This book offers an impressive amount of information for both students and more advanced researchers. Its value lies in the vast expertise the contributors have to offer, with all of them being experts with long-standing careers in their respective fields, as well as the geographical distribution of examples that are given to illustrate specific diseases... outstanding and it truly is an important resource for anyone interested in palaeopathology.” PALEOPATHOLOGY NEWSLETTER “The strengths of the book are numerous, but I am especially impressed with the clarity of presentation... I strongly recommend the book, and plan on using it in my classes as assigned reading to emphasize the very complex nature of diagnosis and its essential role of providing baseline information for interpreting health profiles of ancient populations.” THE QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BIOLOGY “It may be asked if we really need yet another book on paleopathology, especially because there are many acclaimed sources available. In this case, the answer must be a resounding ‘‘Yes!’’...Visually and textually, this volume is of exceptional value for guiding future generations of paleopathologists.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY "Pinhasi and Mays have produced an excellent, balanced compilation that reflects what is currently happening in paleopathology research and that nicely addresses paleopathology as both discipline and tool, highlighting technical advanced and schooling us on how disease manifests in the human skeleton. This is valuable resource that students and professionals interested in human paloepathology should consider adding to their libraries." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY

Breathing New Life Into the Evidence of Death

Contemporary Approaches to Bioarchaeology

Author: Aubrey Baadsgaard,Alexis T. Boutin,Jane E. Buikstra

Publisher: School for Advanced Research on the

ISBN: 9781934691489

Category: Social Science

Page: 340

View: 9375

Taking cues from current theoretical perspectives and capitalizing on the strengths of new and sophisticated methods of analysis, this book showcases the vibrancy of bioarchaeological research and its potential for bringing 'new life' to the field of mortuary archaeology and the study of human remains.

The Neolithic Demographic Transition and its Consequences

Author: Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel,Ofer Bar-Yosef

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402085397

Category: Social Science

Page: 542

View: 8693

The transition from hunting and gathering to farming – the Neolithic Revolution – was one of the most signi cant cultural processes in human history that forever changed the face of humanity. Natu an communities (15,100–12,000Cal BP) (all dates in this chapter are calibrated before present) planted the seeds of change, and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) (ca. 12,000–ca. 8,350Cal BP) people, were the rst to establish farming communities. The revolution was not fully realized until quite late in the PPN and later in the Pottery Neolithic (PN) period. We would like to ask some questions and comment on a few aspects emphas- ing the linkage between biological and cultural developments during the Neolithic Revolution. The biological issues addressed in this chapter are as follows: × Is there a demographic change from the Natu an to the Neolithic? × Is there a change in the overall health of the Neolithic populations compared to the Natu an? × Is there a change in the diet and how is it expressed? × Is there a change in the physical burden/stress people had to bear with? × Is there a change in intra- and inter-community rates of violent encounters? From the cultural perspective the leading questions will be: × What was the change in the economy and when was it fully realized? × Is there a change in settlement patterns and site nature and organization from Natu an to Neolithic? × Is there a change in human activities and division of labor?

Antiquity

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Archaeology

Page: N.A

View: 9543

Includes section "Reviews."

A Companion to Paleopathology

Author: Anne L. Grauer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119111633

Category: Science

Page: 628

View: 8951

This title offers a broad overview of the field that has evolved over the last few decades into an exploration of disease processes in the human skeleton.

Archaeological Human Remains

Global Perspectives

Author: Barra Odonnabhain,María Cecilia Lozada Cerna

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319063707

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 7807

This volume addresses the directions that studies of archaeological human remains have taken in a number of different countries, where attitudes range from widespread support to prohibition. Overlooked in many previous publications, this diversity in attitudes is examined through a variety of lenses, including academic origins, national identities, supporting institutions, archaeological context and globalization. The volume situates this diversity of attitudes by examining past and current tendencies in studies of archaeologically-retrieved human remains across a range of geopolitical settings. In a context where methodological approaches have been increasingly standardized in recent decades, the volume poses the question if this standardization has led to a convergence in approaches to archaeological human remains or if significant differences remain between practitioners in different countries. The volume also explores the future trajectories of the study of skeletal remains in the different jurisdictions under scrutiny.

Life in Neolithic Farming Communities

Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation

Author: Ian Kuijt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306471663

Category: Social Science

Page: 325

View: 5027

Drawing on both the results of recent archaeological research and anthropological theory, leading experts synthesize current thinking on the nature of and variation within Neolithic social arrangements. The authors analyze archaeological data within a range of methodological and theoretical perspectives to reconstruct key aspects of ritual practices, labor organization, and collective social identity at the scale of the household, community, and region.