Physics and Dynamics of Clouds and Precipitation

Author: Pao K. Wang

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110731075X

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2190

This key new textbook provides a state-of-the-art view of the physics of cloud and precipitation formation, covering the most important topics in the field: the microphysics, thermodynamics and cloud-scale dynamics. Highlights include: the condensation process explained with new insights from chemical physics studies; the impact of the particle curvature (the Kelvin equation) and solute effect (the Köhler equation); homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation from recent molecular dynamic simulations; and the hydrodynamics of falling hydrometeors and their impact on collision growth. 3D cloud-model simulations demonstrate the dynamics and microphysics of deep convective clouds and cirrus formation, and each chapter contains problems enabling students to review and implement their new learning. Packed with detailed mathematical derivations and cutting-edge stereographic illustrations, this is an ideal text for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and also serves as a reference for academic researchers and professionals working in atmospheric science, meteorology, climatology, remote sensing and environmental science.

Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation

Author: H.R. Pruppacher,J.D. Klett

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306481006

Category: Science

Page: 954

View: 5982

Cloud physics has achieved such a voluminous literature over the past few decades that a significant quantitative study of the entire field would prove unwieldy. This book concentrates on one major aspect: cloud microphysics, which involves the processes that lead to the formation of individual cloud and precipitation particles. Common practice has shown that one may distinguish among the following addi tional major aspects: cloud dynamics, which is concerned with the physics respon sible for the macroscopic features of clouds; cloud electricity, which deals with the electrical structure of clouds and the electrification processes of cloud and precipi tation particles; and cloud optics and radar meteorology, which describe the effects of electromagnetic waves interacting with clouds and precipitation. Another field intimately related to cloud physics is atmospheric chemistry, which involves the chemical composition ofthe atmosphere and the life cycle and characteristics of its gaseous and particulate constituents. In view of the natural interdependence of the various aspects of cloud physics, the subject of microphysics cannot be discussed very meaningfully out of context. Therefore, we have found it necessary to touch briefly upon a few simple and basic concepts of cloud dynamics and thermodynamics, and to provide an account of the major characteristics of atmospheric aerosol particles. We have also included a separate chapter on some of the effects of electric fields and charges on the precipitation-forming processes.

The Physics of Rainclouds

Author: Fletcher,Neville H. Fletcher,P. Squires,E. G. Bowen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521154796

Category: Science

Page: 410

View: 1025

This book examines cloud physics.

Physics and Chemistry of Clouds

Author: Dennis Lamb,Johannes Verlinde

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139500945

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6622

Clouds affect our daily weather and play key roles in the global climate. Through their ability to precipitate, clouds provide virtually all of the fresh water on Earth and are a crucial link in the hydrologic cycle. With ever-increasing importance being placed on quantifiable predictions – from forecasting the local weather to anticipating climate change – we must understand how clouds operate in the real atmosphere, where interactions with natural and anthropogenic pollutants are common. This textbook provides students – whether seasoned or new to the atmospheric sciences – with a quantitative yet approachable path to learning the inner workings of clouds. Developed over many years of the authors' teaching at Pennsylvania State University, Physics and Chemistry of Clouds is an invaluable textbook for advanced students in atmospheric science, meteorology, environmental sciences/engineering and atmospheric chemistry. It is also a very useful reference text for researchers and professionals.

Cloud Dynamics

Author: Robert A. Houze, Jr.

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080959954

Category: Science

Page: 573

View: 3346

Clouds play a critical role in the Earth's climate, general atmospheric circulation, and global water balance. Clouds are essential elements in mesoscale meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, air pollution, atmosphericradiation, and weather forecasting, and thus must be understood by any student or researcher in the atmospheric sciences. Cloud Dynamics provides a skillful and comprehensive examination of the nature of clouds--what they look like and why, how scientists observe them, and the basic dynamics and physics that underlie them. The book describes the mechanics governing each type of cloud that occurs in Earth's atmosphere, and the organization of various types of clouds in larger weather systems such as fronts, thunderstorms, and hurricanes.This book is aimed specifically at graduate students, advanced undergraduates, practicing researchers either already in atmospheric science or moving in from a related scientific field, and operational meteorologists. Some prior knowledge of atmospheric dynamics and physics is helpful, but a thorough overview of the necessary prerequisites is supplied. Key Highlights of This Text Provides a complete treatment of clouds integrating the analysis of air motions with cloud structure, microphysics, and precipitation mechanics Describes and explains the basic types of clouds and cloud systems that occur in the atmosphere-fog, stratus, stratocumulus, altocumulus, altostratus, cirrus, thunderstorms, tornadoes, waterspouts, orographically induced clouds, mesoscale convection complexes, hurricanes, fronts, and extratropical cyclones Presents a photographic guide, presented in the first chapter, linking the examination of each type of cloud with an image to enhance visual retention and understanding Summarizes the fundamentals, both observational and theoretical, of atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics, cloud microphysics, and radar meteorology, allowing each type of cloud to be examined in depth Integrates the latest field observations, numerical model simulations, and theory Supplies a theoretical treatment suitable for the advanced undergraduate or graduate level

High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering, Garching/Munich 2007

Transactions of the Third Joint HLRB and KONWIHR Status and Result Workshop, Dec. 3-4, 2007, Leibniz Supercomputing Centre, Garching/Munich, Germany

Author: Siegfried Wagner,Matthias Steinmetz,Arndt Bode,Matthias Brehm

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540691820

Category: Mathematics

Page: 717

View: 4843

For the fourth time, the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) and the Com- tence Network for Technical, Scienti c High Performance Computing in Bavaria (KONWIHR) publishes the results from scienti c projects conducted on the c- puter systems HLRB I and II (High Performance Computer in Bavaria). This book reports the research carried out on the HLRB systems within the last three years and compiles the proceedings of the Third Joint HLRB and KONWIHR Result and Reviewing Workshop (3rd and 4th December 2007) in Garching. In 2000, HLRB I was the rst system in Europe that was capable of performing more than one Tera op/s or one billion oating point operations per second. In 2006 it was replaced by HLRB II. After a substantial upgrade it now achieves a peak performance of more than 62 Tera op/s. To install and operate this powerful system, LRZ had to move to its new facilities in Garching. However, the situation regarding the need for more computation cycles has not changed much since 2000. The demand for higher performance is still present, a trend that is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. Other resources like memory and disk space are currently in suf cient abundance on this new system.

Cloud Dynamics

Author: L.T. Matveev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027717375

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 3184

During recent decades a new field of study in atmospheric science has made its appearance - the dynamics of clouds. As the name implies, the subject matter of cloud dynamics includes the causes of cloud formation and the temporal development of clouds. At first, effort was concentrated mainly on devising models of the structure and development of convective clouds, and thus there exists considerable literature on this [9, 69, 88, 330, 411]. Although convective clouds are of great significance (thunder storm formation and very intense turbulence are associated with these clouds), they are observed much less frequently than other cloud types. For instance, the frequency of occurrence of strati form (frontal) clouds and wave clouds over the U.S.S.R. and Western Europe is more than 90% [2-4]. During the last 20 or 30 years there has been considerable success in studying the dynamics of stratiform clouds. Fundamental laws (equations) describing the formation, development, and dis sipation of these clouds (and also of fog) have been formulated, and also laws describing the formation of humidity and temperature fields in a turbulent medium. Hydrodynamic models of clouds and fog constructed on the basis of these equations have made it pos sible to formulate the fundamental regularities in the formation and evolution of large-scale cloud fields, and also to ascertain the structural features of clouds of various kinds. These topics are covered in Chapters 1-4 of this monograph.

Clouds and Storms

The Behavior and Effect of Water in the Atmosphere

Author: F. H. Ludlam

Publisher: Penn State University Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 405

View: 449

Water in the atmosphere and its influence on the motion of the atmosphere--the physics of clouds and precipitation--are comprehensively treated here in this final work by a master of the subject. Frank Ludlam's broad background and illuminating style have combined to produce an integrated picture of atmospheric processes, tying together the many interrelated aspects of dynamical meteorology, synoptic meteorology, and cloud physics. This book presents a synthesis of cloud physics, ranging from the microphysics which control particle growth through the large-scale dynamics of the atmosphere controlling air motion. The physical processes, from radiation to the interaction of cloud droplets, along with methods and interpretations of measurements, are discussed in a precise, compact style. The mathematical analysis is clear, and the exposition conveys a three-dimensional picture of airflow in an unusually lucid manner. Numerous line drawings, map analyses, and photographs aid the reader in visualizing the processes and phenomena discussed. This book is a reference and text for all atmospheric scientists and scholars in related fields as well as a guidebook for those who would like to understand something of the nature and the complexity of weather and climate. It will help the specialist put his specialty in perspective; it will help the forecaster relate weather to large-scale dynamics. And through his extraordinary style, Frank Ludlam was capable of conveying to all readers his joy in the beauty of a sunset.

Dynamics of Multiscale Earth Systems

Author: Horst J. Neugebauer,Clemens Simmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540417966

Category: Science

Page: 357

View: 2088

Today, earth and life scientists are increasingly confronted with the puzzling complexity of phenomena enmeshed in a seemingly boundless web of interrelations. To deal with this complexity and to further our ability to analyze and predict system behavior, science is learning to transcend reliance on averages and ‘permanence’ and to consider the fundamental multiple-scale character of phenomena. The contributions collected here detail techniques of multi-scale and fractal analysis that enhance the study of geo-complexity. They represent a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding the geological history of a section of the Lower Rhine River. They have in common the underlying question of how our qualitative modelling of natural phenomena do or do not prove the existence of representative averages.

Storm and Cloud Dynamics

Author: William R. Cotton,George Bryan,Susan C. van den Heever

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080916651

Category: Science

Page: 820

View: 9666

This book focuses on the dynamics of clouds and of precipitating mesoscale meteorological systems. Clouds and precipitating mesoscale systems represent some of the most important and scientifically exciting weather systems in the world. These are the systems that produce torrential rains, severe winds including downburst and tornadoes, hail, thunder and lightning, and major snow storms. Forecasting such storms represents a major challenge since they are too small to be adequately resolved by conventional observing networks and numerical prediction models. * Provides a complete treatment of clouds integrating the analysis of air motions with cloud structure, microphysics, and precipitation mechanics * Describes and explains the basic types of clouds and cloud systems that occur in the atmosphere-fog, stratus, stratocumulus, altocumulus, altostratus, cirrus, thunderstorms, tornadoes, waterspouts, orographically induced clouds, mesoscale convection complexes, hurricanes, fronts, and extratropical cyclones * Summarizes the fundamentals, both observational and theoretical, of atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics, cloud microphysics, and radar meteorology, allowing each type of cloud to be examined in depth * Integrates the latest field observations, numerical model simulations, and theory * Supplies a theoretical treatment suitable for the advanced undergraduate or graduate level, as well as post-graduate

Principles of Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry

Author: Richard M. Goody

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195093629

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 9360

This text is an introduction to the basic principles of atmospheric physics and chemistry where all aspects of the lower and middle atmospheres, except for large-scale dynamics, are jointly treated as ultimate consequences of the solar radiation falling on the planet.

Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Microphysics of Clouds

Author: Vitaly I. Khvorostyanov,Judith A. Curry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107016037

Category: Science

Page: 800

View: 1905

This book advances understanding of cloud microphysics and provides a unified theoretical foundation for modeling cloud processes, for researchers and advanced students.

Precipitation Modeling and Quantitative Analysis

Author: Xiaofan Li,Shouting Gao

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400723818

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 7770

The book examines surface rainfall processes through cloud-resolving modeling and quantitative analysis of surface rainfall budget and summarizes modeling and analysis results in recent seven years. The book shows validation of precipitation modeling against observations and derives a set of diagnostic precipitation equations. The book provides detailed discussions of the applications of precipitation equations to the examination of effects of sea surface temperature, vertical wind shear, radiation, and ice clouds on torrential rainfall processes in the tropics and mid-latitudes, and to the studies of sensitivity of precipitation modeling to uncertainty of the initial conditions and to the estimate of precipitation efficiency. The book can be used as a text book for graduate students and will be beneficial to researchers and forecasters for precipitation process studies and operational forecasts.

The Planet Earth

Author: D. R. Bates

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483164691

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 4288

The Planet Earth, Second Edition focuses on the advances in geophysical sciences and fundamental laws of nature. This edition introduces a new chapter (Chapter 17), which discusses Van Allen radiation belts. The rest of the chapters have also been modified and updated with additions on the work and achievements of the International Geophysical Year (IGY); Mohole project; continental drift and polar wandering; exosphere; state of the theory of magnetic storms and aurorae; and possibility of extra-terrestrial sources of life. Topics also deliberated in this book include origin, age, and possible ultimate fate of the earth; general circulation of the atmosphere and oceans; aurorae and magnetic storms; and genesis of life. This publication is a good reference for students and researchers conducting work on geophysics.

Physical Processes in Clouds and Cloud Modeling

Author: Alexander P. Khain,Mark Pinsky

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108646956

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1048

This book presents the most comprehensive and systematic description currently available of both classical and novel theories of cloud processes, providing a much-needed link between cloud theory, observation, experimental results, and cloud modeling. This volume shows why and how modern models serve as a major tool of investigation of cloud processes responsible for atmospheric phenomena, including climate change. It systematically describes classical as well as recent advancements in cloud physics, including cloud-aerosol interaction; collisions of particles in turbulent clouds; and the formation of multiphase cloud particles. As the first of its kind to serve as a practical guide for using state-of-the-art numerical cloud models, major emphasis is placed on explaining how microphysical processes are treated in modern numerical cloud resolving models. The book will be a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and numerical model designers in cloud physics, atmospheric science, meteorology, and environmental science.

The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection

Author: R.K. Smith

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401588287

Category: Science

Page: 498

View: 5431

An up-to-date summary of our understanding of the dynamics and thermodynamics of moist atmospheric convection, with a strong focus on recent developments in the field. The book also reviews ways in which moist convection may be parameterised in large-scale numerical models - a field in which there is still some controversy - and discusses the implications of convection for large-scale flow. Audience: The book is aimed at the graduate level and research meteorologists as well as scientists in other disciplines who need to know more about moist convection and its representation in numerical models.

Cloud and Precipitation Microphysics

Principles and Parameterizations

Author: Jerry M. Straka

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139478830

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4855

This book focuses specifically on bin and bulk parameterizations for the prediction of cloud and precipitation at various scales - the cloud scale, mesoscale, synoptic scale, and the global climate scale. It provides a background to the fundamental principles of parameterization physics, including processes involved in the production of clouds, ice particles, liquid water, snow aggregate, graupel and hail. It presents full derivations of the parameterizations, allowing readers to build parameterization packages, with varying levels of complexity based on information in the book. Architectures for a range of dynamical models are given, in which parameterizations form a significant tool for investigating large non-linear numerical systems. Model codes are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521883382. Written for researchers and advanced students of cloud and precipitation microphysics, this book is also a valuable reference for all atmospheric scientists involved in models of numerical weather prediction.

Atmospheric Physics

Author: Julio V. Iribarne,H.-R. Cho

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400989520

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 3596

The extraordinary growth and development of atmospheric sciences during the last dec ades, and the concern for certain applied problems, such as those related to the environ ment, have prompted the introduction of college and university courses in this field. There is consequently a need for good textbooks. A few appropriate books have appeared in the last few years, aimed at a variety of levels and having different orientations. Most of them are of rather limited scope; in par ticular, a number of them are restricted to the field of dynamics and its meteorological applications. There is still a need for an elementary, yet comprehensive, survey of the terrestrial atmosphere. This short volume attempts to fill that need. This book is intended as a textbook that can be used for a university course at a second or third year level. It requires only elementary mathematics and such knowledge of physics as should be acquired in most first-year general physicS courses. It may serve in two ways. A general review of the field is provided for students who work or plan to work in other fields (such as geophysics, geography, environmental sciences, space research), but are interested in acquiring general information; at the same time, it may serve as a general and elementary introduction for students who will later specialize in some area of atmospheric science.

The Earth's Atmosphere

Its Physics and Dynamics

Author: Kshudiram Saha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540784276

Category: Science

Page: 367

View: 6081

The author has sought to incorporate in the book some of the fundamental concepts and principles of the physics and dynamics of the atmosphere, a knowledge and understanding of which should help an average student of science to comprehend some of the great complexities of the earth-atmosphere system, in which a thr- way interaction between the atmosphere, the land and the ocean tends to maintain an overall mass and energy balance in the system through physical and dynamical processes. The book, divided into two parts and consisting of 19 chapters, introduces only those aspects of the subject that, according to the author, are deemed essential to meet the objective in view. The emphasis is more on clarity and understanding of physical and dynamical principles than on details of complex theories and ma- ematics. Attempt is made to treat each subject from ?rst principles and trace its development to present state, as far as possible. However, a knowledge of basic c- culus and differential equations is sine qua non especially for some of the chapters which appear later in the book.