Plant Variation and Evolution

Author: David Briggs,Stuart Max Walters

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110760222X

Category: Science

Page: 600

View: 4159

A long-awaited fourth edition of a classic text, now fully revised and updated for the molecular era.

Colloquium on Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms--Toward a New Synthesis--50 Years After Stebbins

Author: Francisco Jos_ Ayala,Walter M. Fitch,Michael I. Chegg

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309070791

Category: Plants

Page: 128

View: 599

Annotation In 1950, Stebbins (d. 2000) published Variation and Evolution in Plants, which extended the synthetic theory of evolution or "the modern synthesis" to plants. These 17 papers are drawn from a National Academy of Sciences colloquium held in January 2000 on the 50th anniversary of the publication of Stebbins' classic. Following a Stebbins appreciation talk (originally slotted for his own words), papers branch into sections on: early evolution and the origin of cells, virus and bacterial models, protoctist models (having to do with RNA editing), population variation, and trends and patterns in plant evolution. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com).

Genetics and the Origin of Species

Author: Theodosius Dobzhansky,Theodosius Grigorievich Dobzhansky

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231054751

Category: Science

Page: 364

View: 3810

Featuring an introduction by Stephen Jay Gould, "Genetics and the Origin of Species" presents the first edition of Dobzhansky's groundbreaking and now classic inquiry into what has emerged as the most important single area of scientific inquiry in the twentieth century: biological theory of evolution. Genetics and the Origin of Species went through three editions (1937, 1941, and 1951) in which the importance accorded natural selection changed radically.

Biological Approaches and Evolutionary Trends in Plants

Author: Shoichi Kawano

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323150748

Category: Science

Page: 430

View: 940

Biological Approaches and Evolutionary Trends in Plants is a collection of papers presented at the Fourth International Symposium of Plant Biosystematics held on July 10-14, 1989 in Kyoto, Japan. Contributors, some are world's leading plant biologists, discuss the findings in evolutionary biology and issues in plant biosystematics in light of the evidence and ideas brought forward at various levels of biological organization, from molecule to cell, individual, population, species, and community levels. This volume is organized into four sections encompassing 22 chapters and begins with an overview of discoveries concerning parapatric differentiation of weed populations, including adaptive evolution in herbicide resistant biotypes and complex evolutionary patterns in weed-crop complexes of various groups. The next section explores molecular approaches in plant biosystematics, focusing on amino acid sequencing of proteins; restriction-site variations of cpDNA, mitDNA, rDNA, etc.; and chromosome-banding patterns revealed by differential staining. The discussion shifts to a wave of research in plant population biology and evolutionary ecology since the 1970s and its impact on biology and biosystematics. The book considers various aspects of reproductive biology and evolutionary changes in significant reproductive parameters and attempts to demographically quantify these parameters. The final chapter is devoted to the use of functional phylogenetic systematics for predictive ecology. This book will be of interest to plant biologists and scientists and researchers in fields such as biochemistry, botany, microbiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology.

Plant Diversity and Evolution

Genotypic and Phenotypic Variation in Higher Plants

Author: Robert J. Henry

Publisher: Cabi

ISBN: 9780851999043

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 822

Importance of plant diversity; Relationships between the families of flowering plants; Diversity and evolution of gymnosperms; Chloroplast genomes of plants; The mitochondrial genome of higher plants: a target for natural adaptation; Reticulate evolution in higher plants; Crucifer evolution in the post-genomic era; Genetic variation in plant populations: assessing cause an pattern; Evolution of the flower; Diversity in plant cell walls; Diversity in secondary metabolism in plants; Ecological importance of species diversity; Genomic diversity in nature and domestication; Conserving genetic diversity in plants of environmental, social or economic importance.

Plant Resistance to Herbivores and Pathogens

Ecology, Evolution, and Genetics

Author: Robert S. Fritz,Ellen L. Simms

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226265537

Category: Science

Page: 590

View: 5098

Far from being passive elements in the landscape, plants have developed many sophisticated chemical and mechanical means of deterring organisms that seek to prey on them. This volume draws together research from ecology, evolution, agronomy, and plant pathology to produce an ecological genetics perspective on plant resistance in both natural and agricultural systems. By emphasizing the ecological and evolutionary basis of resistance, the book makes an important contribution to the study of how phytophages and plants coevolve. Plant Resistance to Herbivores and Pathogens not only reviews the literature pertaining to plant resistance from a number of traditionally separate fields but also examines significant questions that will drive future research. Among the topics explored are selection for resistance in plants and for virulence in phytophages; methods for studying natural variation in plant resistance; the factors that maintain intraspecific variation in resistance; and the ecological consequences of within-population genetic variation for herbivorous insects and fungal pathogens. "A comprehensive review of the theory and information on a large, rapidly growing, and important subject."—Douglas J. Futuyma, State University of New York, Stony Brook

Population Biology

Ecological and Evolutionary Viewpoints

Author: K. Wöhrmann,S.K. Jain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642744745

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 9579

Fascinated by the diversity of living organisms, humans have always been curious about its origin. Darwin was the first to provide the scholary and persuasive thesis for gradual evolution and speciation under natural selection. Although we now have much information on evolution, we still don't understand it in detail. Many questions still remain open due to the complexity and multiplicity of interacting factors. Several approaches mainly arising from population ecology and genetics are presented in this book in order to help understand genetic variation and evolution.

Adaptation and Natural Selection

A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought

Author: George Christopher Williams

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400820108

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 1152

Biological evolution is a fact--but the many conflicting theories of evolution remain controversial even today. In 1966, simple Darwinism, which holds that evolution functions primarily at the level of the individual organism, was threatened by opposing concepts such as group selection, a popular idea stating that evolution acts to select entire species rather than individuals. George Williams's famous argument in favor of the Darwinists struck a powerful blow to those in opposing camps. His Adaptation and Natural Selection, now a classic of science literature, is a thorough and convincing essay in defense of Darwinism; its suggestions for developing effective principles for dealing with the evolution debate and its relevance to many fields outside biology ensure the timelessness of this critical work.

Multiplicity in Unity

Plant Subindividual Variation and Interactions with Animals

Author: Carlos M. Herrera

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226327957

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 3820

Plants produce a considerable number of structures of one kind, like leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds, and this reiteration is a quintessential feature of the body plan of higher plants. But since not all structures of the same kind produced by a plant are identical—for instance, different branches on a plant may be male or female, leaf sizes in the sun differ from those in the shade, and fruit sizes can vary depending on patterns of physiological allocation among branches—a single plant genotype generally produces a multiplicity of phenotypic versions of the same organ. Multiplicity in Unity uses this subindividual variation to deepen our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary factors involved in plant-animal interactions. On one hand, phenotypic variation at the subindividual scale has diverse ecological implications for animals that eat plants. On the other hand, by choosing which plants to consume, these animals may constrain or modify plant ontogenetic patterns, developmental stability, and the extent to which feasible phenotypic variants are expressed by individuals. An innovative study of the ecology, morphology, and evolution of modular organisms, Multiplicity in Unity addresses a topic central to our understanding of the diversity of life and the ways in which organisms have coevolved to cope with variable environments.

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases

Author: Michel Tibayrenc

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128001534

Category: Medical

Page: 686

View: 2247

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases, Second Edition, discusses the constantly evolving field of infectious diseases and their continued impact on the health of populations, especially in resource-limited areas of the world. Students in public health, biomedical professionals, clinicians, public health practitioners, and decisions-makers will find valuable information in this book that is relevant to the control and prevention of neglected and emerging worldwide diseases that are a major cause of global morbidity, disability, and mortality. Although substantial gains have been made in public health interventions for the treatment, prevention, and control of infectious diseases during the last century, in recent decades the world has witnessed a worldwide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, increasing antimicrobial resistance, and the emergence of many new bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The economic, social, and political burden of infectious diseases is most evident in developing countries which must confront the dual burden of death and disability due to infectious and chronic illnesses. Takes an integrated approach to infectious diseases Includes contributions from leading authorities Provides the latest developments in the field of infectious disease

The Role of Chromosomal Change in Plant Evolution

Author: Donald A. Levin

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195138603

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 1327

The application of new molecular technology has greatly increased our understanding of the role of chromosomal change in plant evolution. There is now a broad database on genome size variation within and among species and a wide array of nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic markers. There is avariety of literatures addressing this subject but much of it is scattered. This book created a contemporary synthesis or work in this area and addresses issues such as herogeneity, polyploidy, chromosomal rearrangements within species and phenotypic consequences of chromosome doubling.

Animal Cytology and Evolution

Author: M. J. D. White

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521292276

Category: Science

Page: 961

View: 550

Chromosomes as supermolecular systems; The mitotic mechanism in evolution Endomitosis and endopolyploidy; Giant chromosomes the polytene type; Giant chromosomes the lampbrush type; The mechanism of meiosis; Chromosomes rearrangements occourrence and mechanisms; Chromosomal polymorphism in natural populations; Supernumerary chromosomes; Chromosomal rearrangements and speciaton evolution of the meiotic mechanism. The evolution of aberrant genetic systems; The cytology of interspecific hybrid;. The evolution of sex determination; Haplodiploidy; Thelytoky.

Variable Plants and Herbivores in Natural and Managed Systems

Author: Robert F. Denno,Mark S. McClure

Publisher: Academic Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 717

View: 7221

Variable Plants and Herbivores in Natural and Managed Systems examines individual, population, species, and community responses of herbivores to plant variation, with emphasis on insects, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. It is divided into five parts encompassing 18 chapters that discuss variability as a mechanism of defense used by plants against their parasites and the effects of variability on herbivores at several different levels of complexity. After a brief discussion on plant-herbivore interactions, the first part of this book considers sources of within-plant variation and effects on the ...

What Darwin Got Wrong

Author: Jerry Fodor,Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini

Publisher: Profile Books

ISBN: 1847651909

Category: Science

Page: 262

View: 8464

Jerry Fodor and Massimo Piatelli-Palmarini, a distinguished philosopher and scientist working in tandem, reveal major flaws at the heart of Darwinian evolutionary theory. They do not deny Darwin's status as an outstanding scientist but question the inferences he drew from his observations. Combining the results of cutting-edge work in experimental biology with crystal-clear philosophical argument they mount a devastating critique of the central tenets of Darwin's account of the origin of species. The logic underlying natural selection is the survival of the fittest under changing environmental pressure. This logic, they argue, is mistaken. They back up the claim with evidence of what actually happens in nature. This is a rare achievement - the short book that is likely to make a great deal of difference to a very large subject. What Darwin Got Wrong will be controversial. The authors' arguments will reverberate through the scientific world. At the very least they will transform the debate about evolution.

The Evolution of Plants

Author: Kathy Willis,Jennifer McElwain

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019929223X

Category: Nature

Page: 398

View: 7342

Blends evidence from the fossil record and data from biomolecular studies to tell the story of plant evolution from the earliest forms of life to the present day. Its straightforward explanations and clear illustrations provide the most accessible introduction to plant evolution available.

Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Author: Esteban Domingo,Colin R. Parrish,John J. Holland

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080564968

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 3293

New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts

Plant Evolution in the Mediterranean

Author: John D. Thompson

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198515332

Category: Science

Page: 293

View: 365

"Plant Evolution in the Mediterranean is an account of plant evolutionary ecology. The central theme is differentiation, both among and within species in the flora of the Mediterranean basin"--Provided by publisher.

Plant Biosystematics

Author: William F. Grant

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483273709

Category: Nature

Page: 690

View: 8845

Plant Biosystematics is a compendium of papers from a symposium titled "Plant Biosystematics: Forty Years Later" held in Montreal in July 1983. This collection reviews the current field of biosystematics, particularly the evolution of natural biota, and how plant biosystematics can contribute to the welfare of humans. One paper reviews biosystematics, compares new approaches, and discusses the latest trend in comparative, molecular evolution of genes. One author discusses the cytology and biosystematics concerning the discontinuities and genetic independence occurring in the evolutionary process. Another author discusses chromosome pairing in species and hybrids that includes models of chromosome pairing in diploids. The text also describes chromosome banding and biosystematics, as well as the problems of chromosome banding that should be addressed to in future research. With estimates of the number of species being threatened with extinction numbering around 20,000 one paper address the issue of conservation and biosystematics. The author suggests that more biological information should be published to avoid duplication of effort, and possibly drive scientists to have their views more widely felt. Agriculturists, botanists, conservationists, environmentalists, and researchers in the field of botany, conservation, and plant genealogy will find this book valuable.