Prehistoric Textiles

The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean

Author: E. J. W. Barber

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691002248

Category: Social Science

Page: 471

View: 8822

This pioneering work revises our notions of the origins and early development of textiles in Europe and the Near East. Using innovative linguistic techniques, along with methods from palaeobiology and other fields, it shows that spinning and pattern weaving began far earlier than has been supposed. Prehistoric Textiles made an unsurpassed leap in the social and cultural understanding of textiles in humankind's early history. Cloth making was an industry that consumed more time and effort, and was more culturally significant to prehistoric cultures, than anyone assumed before the book's publication. The textile industry is in fact older than pottery--and perhaps even older than agriculture and stockbreeding. It probably consumed far more hours of labor per year, in temperate climates, than did pottery and food production put together. And this work was done primarily by women. Up until the Industrial Revolution, and into this century in many peasant societies, women spent every available moment spinning, weaving, and sewing. The author, Elizabeth Wayland Barber, demonstrates command of an almost unbelievably disparate array of disciplines--from historical linguistics to archaeology and paleobiology, from art history to the practical art of weaving. Her passionate interest in the subject matter leaps out on every page. Barber, a professor of linguistics and archaeology, developed expert sewing and weaving skills as a small girl under her mother's tutelage. One could say she had been born and raised to write this book. Because modern textiles are almost entirely made by machines, we have difficulty appreciating how time-consuming and important the premodern textile industry was. This book opens our eyes to this crucial area of prehistoric human culture.

Prehistoric Textiles

The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean

Author: E. J. W. Barber

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780691035970

Category: Social Science

Page: 471

View: 5680

This pioneering work revises our notions of the origins and early development of textiles in Europe and the Near East. Using innovative linguistic techniques, along with methods from palaeobiology and other fields, it shows that spinning and pattern weaving began far earlier than has been supposed. Prehistoric Textiles made an unsurpassed leap in the social and cultural understanding of textiles in humankind's early history. Cloth making was an industry that consumed more time and effort, and was more culturally significant to prehistoric cultures, than anyone assumed before the book's publication. The textile industry is in fact older than pottery--and perhaps even older than agriculture and stockbreeding. It probably consumed far more hours of labor per year, in temperate climates, than did pottery and food production put together. And this work was done primarily by women. Up until the Industrial Revolution, and into this century in many peasant societies, women spent every available moment spinning, weaving, and sewing. The author, Elizabeth Wayland Barber, demonstrates command of an almost unbelievably disparate array of disciplines--from historical linguistics to archaeology and paleobiology, from art history to the practical art of weaving. Her passionate interest in the subject matter leaps out on every page. Barber, a professor of linguistics and archaeology, developed expert sewing and weaving skills as a small girl under her mother's tutelage. One could say she had been born and raised to write this book. Because modern textiles are almost entirely made by machines, we have difficulty appreciating how time-consuming and important the premodern textile industry was. This book opens our eyes to this crucial area of prehistoric human culture.

The Mediterranean Context of Early Greek History

Author: Nancy H. Demand

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444342347

Category: History

Page: 328

View: 4337

The Mediterranean Context of Early Greek History reveals the role of the complex interaction of Mediterranean seafaring and maritime connections in the development of the ancient Greek city-states. Offers fascinating insights into the origins of urbanization in the ancient Mediterranean, including the Greek city-state Based on the most recent research on the ancient Mediterranean Features a novel approach to theories of civilization change - foregoing the traditional isolationists model of development in favor of a maritime based network Argues for cultural interactions set in motion by exchange and trade by sea

Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology

Examining Technology Through Production and Use

Author: Jeffrey R. Ferguson

Publisher: University Press of Colorado

ISBN: 9781607320234

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 8998

Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology is a guide for the design of archaeological experiments for both students and scholars. Experimental archaeology provides a unique opportunity to corroborate conclusions with multiple trials of repeatable experiments and can provide data otherwise unavailable to archaeologists without damaging sites, remains, or artifacts. Each chapter addresses a particular classification of material culture-ceramics, stone tools, perishable materials, composite hunting technology, butchering practices and bone tools, and experimental zooarchaeology-detailing issues that must be considered in the development of experimental archaeology projects and discussing potential pitfalls. The experiments follow coherent and consistent research designs and procedures and are placed in a theoretical context, and contributors outline methods that will serve as a guide in future experiments. This degree of standardization is uncommon in traditional archaeological research but is essential to experimental archaeology. The field has long been in need of a guide that focuses on methodology and design. This book fills that need not only for undergraduate and graduate students but for any archaeologist looking to begin an experimental research project.

The Fleece & Fiber Sourcebook

More Than 200 Fibers, from Animal to Spun Yarn

Author: Carol Ekarius,Deborah Robson

Publisher: Storey Publishing

ISBN: 1603427643

Category: Crafts & Hobbies

Page: 448

View: 1553

This one-of-a-kind encyclopedia shines a spotlight on more than 200 animals and their wondrous fleece. Profiling a worldwide array of fiber-producers that includes northern Africa’s dromedary camel, the Navajo churro, and the Tasmanian merino, Carol Ekarius and Deborah Robson include photographs of each animal’s fleece at every stage of the handcrafting process, from raw to cleaned, spun, and woven. The Fleece & Fiber Sourcebook is an artist’s handbook, travel guide, and spinning enthusiast’s ultimate reference source all in one.

Cannabis and the Soma Solution

Author: Chris Bennett

Publisher: Trine Day

ISBN: 1936296322

Category: Social Science

Page: 480

View: 7621

Seeking to identify the plant origins of the early sacramental beverages Soma and Haoma, this study draws a connection between the psychoactive properties of these drinks and the widespread use of cannabis among Indo-Europeans during this time. Exploring the role of these libations as inspiration for the Indian Rig Veda and the Persian Avestan texts, this examination discusses the spread of cannabis use across Europe and Asia, the origins of the Soma and Haoma cults, and the shamanic origins of modern religion.

Superintelligence

Paths, Dangers, Strategies

Author: Nick Bostrom

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191666831

Category: Computers

Page: 272

View: 4524

The human brain has some capabilities that the brains of other animals lack. It is to these distinctive capabilities that our species owes its dominant position. Other animals have stronger muscles or sharper claws, but we have cleverer brains. If machine brains one day come to surpass human brains in general intelligence, then this new superintelligence could become very powerful. As the fate of the gorillas now depends more on us humans than on the gorillas themselves, so the fate of our species then would come to depend on the actions of the machine superintelligence. But we have one advantage: we get to make the first move. Will it be possible to construct a seed AI or otherwise to engineer initial conditions so as to make an intelligence explosion survivable? How could one achieve a controlled detonation? To get closer to an answer to this question, we must make our way through a fascinating landscape of topics and considerations. Read the book and learn about oracles, genies, singletons; about boxing methods, tripwires, and mind crime; about humanity's cosmic endowment and differential technological development; indirect normativity, instrumental convergence, whole brain emulation and technology couplings; Malthusian economics and dystopian evolution; artificial intelligence, and biological cognitive enhancement, and collective intelligence. This profoundly ambitious and original book picks its way carefully through a vast tract of forbiddingly difficult intellectual terrain. Yet the writing is so lucid that it somehow makes it all seem easy. After an utterly engrossing journey that takes us to the frontiers of thinking about the human condition and the future of intelligent life, we find in Nick Bostrom's work nothing less than a reconceptualization of the essential task of our time.

Before the Flood

The Biblical Flood as a Real Event and How It Changed the Course of Civilization

Author: Ian Wilson

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1466867388

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 7902

In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights. The great Biblical flood so described in Genesis has long been a subject of fascination and speculation. In the 19th century the English archbishop James Ussher established it as having happened in the year 2348 B.C., calculating what was then taken as the age of the earth and working backward through the entire series of Biblical "begats." Proof of the flood, which is an element of so many creation myths, began in earnest when archaeology started connecting physical evidence with Biblical story. The dream of proving the Bible as literal truth has proven irresistible, producing both spurious claims and serious scholarship. As best-selling historian Ian Wilson reveals in this fascinating new book, evidence of a catastrophic event has been building steadily, culminating in the work of William Ryan and Walter Pitman. Several years ago Ryan and Pitman had posited that around 5600 BC there had an inundation in the Black Sea of such proportions that it turned the freshwater lake into a saltwater lake by connecting it to the Mediterranean. Were that true, they estimated that there would be signs of civilization 300 feet below the surface of the Black Sea. In September 2000, using his famous underwater equipment, Robert Ballard (of SS Titanic fame) explored parts of the Black Sea near the Turkish shore and found the remains of wood houses. There had been a flood, and whether God's wrath or not it had destroyed everything around it for hundreds of miles, killing tens of thousands of people. Exploring all the archeological evidence, Wilson explains how the Black Sea flood and the Biblical flood have to be connected. In particular, Wilson argues, learnedly and persuasively, that the center of the civilized world was further to the West than previously thought-not in Egypt or Mesopotamia but in what is today Northern Turkey. The earliest, antediluvian civilizations may have migrated east into those places we have come to call the cradles of civilization, forced by the Black Sea flood to create new settlements. Scrupulous in its details and compelling in its sweep, Before the Flood is narrative detective history at its most provocative, contributing a vital new chapter to the debate about the Bible and origins of the modern world.

Ancient Textiles

Production, Crafts and Society

Author: Marie-Louise Nosch,C. Gillis

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 1782974393

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 5758

An understanding of textiles and the role they played in the past is important for anyone interested in past societies. Textiles served and in fact still do as both functional and symbolic items. The evidence for ancient textiles in Europe is split quite definitely along a north-south divide, with an abundance of actual examples in the north, but precious little in the south, where indirect evidence comes from such things as vase painting and frescoes. This volume brings together these two schools to look in more detail at textiles in the ancient world, and is based on a conference held in Denmark and Sweden in March 2003. Section one, Production and Organisation takes a chronological look through more than four thousand years of history; from Syria in the mid-third millennium BC, to Seventeenth Century Germany. Section two, Crafts and Technology focuses on the relationship between the primary producer (the craftsman) and the secondary receiver (the archaeologist/conservator). The third section, Society, examines the symbolic nature of textiles, and their place within ancient societal groups. Throughout the book emphasis is placed on the universality of textiles, and the importance of information exchange between scholars from different disciplines. A small book on finds First Aid for the Excavation of Archaeological Textiles is included as an Appendix.

Perishable Material Culture in Prehistory

Investigating the Missing Majority

Author: Linda M. Hurcombe

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317814541

Category: Social Science

Page: 292

View: 1864

Perishable Material Culture in Prehistory provides new approaches and integrates a broad range of data to address a neglected topic, organic material in the prehistoric record. Providing news ideas and connections and suggesting revisionist ways of thinking about broad themes in the past, this book demonstrates the efficacy of an holistic approach by using examples and cases studies. No other book covers such a broad range of organic materials from a social and object biography perspective, or concentrates so fully on approaches to the missing components of prehistoric material culture. This book will be an essential addition for those people wishing to understand better the nature and importance of organic materials as the ’missing majority’ of prehistoric material culture.

Anatolian Interfaces

Hittites, Greeks and their Neighbours

Author: Billie Jean Collins,Mary R. Bachvarova,Ian Rutherford

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 178297475X

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 1150

The papers in this collection are the product of the conference "Hittites, Greeks and Their Neighbors in Ancient Anatolia: An International Conference on Cross-Cultural Interaction," hosted by Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. They cover an impressive range of issues relating to the complex cultural interactions that took place on Anatolian soil over the course of two millennia, in the process highlighting the difficulties inherent in studying societies that are multi-cultural in their make-up and outlook, as well as the role that cultural identity played in shaping those interactions. Topics include possible sources of tension along the Mycenaean-Anatolian interface; the transmission of mythological and religious elements between cultures; the change across time and space in literary motifs as they are adapted to new milieus and new audiences; the ways in which linguistic data can refine our understanding of the interrelations between the various peoples who lived in Anatolia; and the role that the Anatolian kingdoms of the first millennium played as cultural filters and conduits through which North Syrian or Near Eastern ideas or materials were transmitted to the Greeks.

Naked Truths

Women, Sexuality and Gender in Classical Art and Archaeology

Author: Ann Olga Koloski-Ostrow,Claire L. Lyons,with an epilogue by Natalie Boymel Kampen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134603851

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 3098

The articles in Naked Truths demonstrate the application of feminist theory to a diverse repertory of classical art: they offer topical and controversial readings on the material culture of the ancient Mediterranean. This volume presents a timely, provocative and beautifully illustrated re-evaluation of how the issues of gender, identity and sexuality reveal 'naked truths' about fundamental human values and social realities, through the compelling symbolism of the body.

Vitreous Materials in the Late Bronze Age Aegean

Author: Caroline M. Jackson,Emma C. Wager

Publisher: Oxbow Books Limited

ISBN: 9781842172612

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 9300

The explosion of research in the field of ancient and historic glasses has opened up glass studies in recent years. However, our deeper understanding of the technology and provenance of Bronze Age Egyptian and Roman glasses in the Mediterranean has not been mirrored by our studies of glasses and other vitreous materials found in the Late Bronze Age Aegean. There are few studies which collate the material culture of the region and still fewer which explore the patterning of vitreous materials in the landscape. Our knowledge of where the material originated and who used it is still incomplete. Therefore, in 2005 a group of scholars in the fields of glass studies and Aegean prehistory came together as part of the Sheffield Centre for Aegean Archaeology's Round Table discussions to bring the subject up to date. The central themes to this discussion were based upon provenance, occurrence and the role of vitreous materials in the Late Bronze Age Mediterranean. Nine papers are presented from the discussions by experts in Bronze Age glass and faience and Aegean specialists, who examine a fascinating and diverse selection of topics surrounding the production, movement, use and role of vitreous materials in the Late Bronze Age Aegean. The contributions from John Bennet, Karen Foster, Paul Nicholson, George Nightingale, Marina Panagiotaki, Mark Peters, Thilo Rehren, Sue Sherratt and Mike Tite bring together our current understanding of these materials and their role in the societies who used them.

History of Humanity: From the third millennium to the seventh century B.C.

Author: Sigfried J. de Laet,Ahmad Hasan Dani

Publisher: Unesco

ISBN: 9789231028113

Category: Civilization

Page: 569

View: 8730

The second volume covers the first two and a half thousand years of recorded history, from the start of the Bronze Age 5,000 years ago to the beginnings of the Iron Age. Written by a team of over sixty specialists, this volume includes a comprehensive bibliography and a detailed index.

Technē

Craftsmen, Craftswomen and Craftsmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age : Proceedings of the 6th International Aegean Conference

Author: Robert Laffineur,Philip P. Betancourt

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Art, Aegean

Page: 548

View: 7240

Performance, Power and the Art of the Aegean Bronze Age

Author: Senta C. German

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 118

View: 841

Are we to believe that Late Minoan Crete was over-run with dancers and bull leapers? As Senta German shows, dancing and bull-leaping were the most prevalent themes of Late Bronze Age glyptic art although, aside from their demonstration of a social and perhaps symbolic activity, they also had a much deeper function in Late Minoan society. German examines archaeological and art-historical evidence and uses it to create a typology of performance art (performativty, performative art and social drama). She questions the role of gender, class and age as social categories within this art and concludes that the seals, as `vehicles of the value-laden message of performace at the palaces', were symbolic of power centred around palatial life.

Introduction to Aegean Art

Author: Philip P. Betancourt

Publisher: Institute for Aegean Prehistory Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Art

Page: 212

View: 4042

This Textbook is a compilation of the author's more than 35 years of teaching and excavation experience in the field of Aegean Bronze Age art history and archaeology. It is geared toward an audience of undergraduate and graduate students as an introduction to the Bronze Age art objects and architecture that have been uncovered on Crete, the Greek peninsula, and the Cycladic Islands.

Aegaeum

Annales D'archéologie Égéenne de L'Université de Liège

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Aegean Sea Region

Page: N.A

View: 5633