Principles of Brain Evolution

Author: Georg F. Striedter

Publisher: Sinauer Associates Incorporated

ISBN: 9780878938209

Category: Science

Page: 436

View: 2335

Aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this textbook describes some of the basic principles affecting brain evolution. The author refers to data from a wide array of vertebrates while minimizing technical jargon. Particular attention has been paid to the ways in which changes in brain structure impact function and behavior. The volume concludes with a discussion on how mammal brains diverged from other brains and how Homo sapiens evolved a very large and special brain.

Evolutionary Neuroscience

Author: Jon H. Kaas

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123751683

Category: Science

Page: 1038

View: 8760

Evolutionary Neuroscience is a collection of articles in brain evolution selected from the recent comprehensive reference, Evolution of Nervous Systems (Elsevier, Academic Press, 2007). The selected chapters cover a broad range of topics from historical theory to the most recent deductions from comparative studies of brains. The articles are organized in sections focused on theories and brain scaling, the evolution of brains from early vertebrates to present-day fishes, amphibians, reptiles and birds, the evolution of mammalian brains, and the evolution of primate brains, including human brains. Each chapter is written by a leader or leaders in the field, and has been reviewed by other experts. Specific topics include brain character reconstruction, principles of brain scaling, basic features of vertebrate brains, the evolution of the major sensory systems, and other parts of brains, what we can learn from fossils, the origin of neocortex, and the evolution of specializations of human brains. The collection of articles will be interesting to anyone who is curious about how brains evolved from the simpler nervous systems of the first vertebrates into the many different complex forms now found in present-day vertebrates. This book would be of use to students at the graduate or undergraduate levels, as well as professional neuroscientists, cognitive scientists, and psychologists. Together, the chapters provide a comprehensive list of further reading and references for those who want to inquire further. • The most comprehensive, authoritative and up-to-date single volume collection on brain evolution • Full color throughout, with many illustrations • Written by leading scholars and experts

Brain Evolution and Cognition

Author: Gerhard Roth

Publisher: Wiley-Spektrum

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 597

View: 1617

Can one fully understand the mechanisms of brain evolution? Why have some brains become large and complex, and others small and simple, while still others have remained the same for hundreds of millions of years? Where, how, and why did cognition evolve? Is there any definable relationship between cognitive function and brain structure and function? These are just some of the questions posed by the contributing authors of this unique book. By bringing together two intrinsically related topics-the structural evolution of the brain and the concomitant evolution of cognitive functions-Brain Evolution and Cognition addresses the much debated topic of brain evolution, cognitive functions, and the relationship between them. Uniting information on structural brain variability and cognitive aspects in one text, this book provides a survey of the current status of what is known about animal cognition and its relationship to the underlying diversity of brain structures. This volume cuts across boundaries by introducing data on various species and also: * Reviews developmental and adult brain organization in an evolutionary context * Presents case studies of vertebrate brain evolution * Offers an overview of cognition from neural basis to behavior * Is accessible to a broad range of readers with its nontechnical writing style * Includes lavish illustrations for a clear and concise presentation of concepts With contributions by world-renowned leaders in their fields, Brain Evolution and Cognition is an indispensable reference for neuroanatomists, neuroethologists, evolutionary biologists, developmental biologists, neurologists, neuroscientists, zoologists, and cognitive and behavioral psychologists.

Principles of Human Evolution

Author: Robert Andrew Foley,Roger Lewin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111868799X

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 3614

Principles of Human Evolution presents an in-depth introduction to paleoanthropology and the study of human evolution. Focusing on the fundamentals of evolutionary theory and how these apply to ecological, molecular genetic, paleontological and archeological approaches to important questions in the field, this timely textbook will help students gain a perspective on human evolution in the context of modern biological thinking. The second edition of this successful text features the addition of Robert Foley, a leading researcher in Human Evolutionary Studies, to the writing team. Strong emphasis on evolutionary theory, ecology and behavior and scores of new examples reflect the latest evolutionary theories and recent archaeological finds. More than a simple update, the new edition is organized by issue rather than chronology, integrating behavior, adaptation and anatomy. A new design and new figure references make this edition more accessible for students and instructors. New author, Robert Foley – leading figure in Human Evolutionary Studies – joins the writing team. Dedicated website – www.blackwellpublishing.com/lewin – provides study resources and artwork downloadable for Powerpoint presentations. Beyond the Facts boxes – explore key scientific debates in greater depth. Margin Comments – indicate the key points in each section. Key Questions – review and test students’ knowledge of central chapter concepts and help focus the way a student approaches reading the text. New emphasis on ecological and behavioral evolution – in keeping with modern research. Fully up to date with recent fossil finds and interpretations; integration of genetic and paleoanthropological approaches.

Evolving Brains

Author: John Allman

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 9780716760382

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 3561

How did the human brain with all its manifold capacities evolve from basic functions in simple organisms that lived nearly a billion years ago? John Allman addresses this question in Evolving Brains, a provocative study of brain evolution that introduces readers to some of the most exciting developments in science in recent years.

Brain Evolution by Design

From Neural Origin to Cognitive Architecture

Author: Shuichi Shigeno,Yasunori Murakami,Tadashi Nomura

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431564691

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 9013

This book presents a new, detailed examination that explains how elegant brains have been shaped in evolution. It consists of 19 chapters written by academic professionals in neuroscience, opening with the origin of single-celled creatures and then introducing primordial types in invertebrates with the great abundance of the brains of vertebrates. Important topics are provided in a timely manner, because novel techniques emerged rapidly—as seen, for examples, in the next-generation sequencers and omics approaches. With the explosion of big data, neural-related genes and molecules is now on the radar. In fact, Europe’s big science and technology projects, a €1 billion plan called the Human Brain Project and the Blue Brain Project to understand mammalian brain networks, have been launched in recent years. Furthermore, with the rise of recently advanced artificial intelligence, there is great enthusiasm for understanding the evolution of neural networks. The views from brain evolution in nature provide an essential opportunity to generate ideas for novel neuron- and brain-inspired computation. The ambition behind this book is that it will stimulate young scientists who seek a deeper understanding in order to find the basic principles shaping brains that provided higher cognitive functions in the course of evolution.

The Symbolic Species: The Co-evolution of Language and the Brain

Author: Terrence W. Deacon

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393343022

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 6643

"A work of enormous breadth, likely to pleasantly surprise both general readers and experts."—New York Times Book Review This revolutionary book provides fresh answers to long-standing questions of human origins and consciousness. Drawing on his breakthrough research in comparative neuroscience, Terrence Deacon offers a wealth of insights into the significance of symbolic thinking: from the co-evolutionary exchange between language and brains over two million years of hominid evolution to the ethical repercussions that followed man's newfound access to other people's thoughts and emotions. Informing these insights is a new understanding of how Darwinian processes underlie the brain's development and function as well as its evolution. In contrast to much contemporary neuroscience that treats the brain as no more or less than a computer, Deacon provides a new clarity of vision into the mechanism of mind. It injects a renewed sense of adventure into the experience of being human.

Principles of Neural Design

Author: Peter Sterling,Simon Laughlin

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262028700

Category: Science

Page: 568

View: 5510

Two distinguished neuroscientists distil general principles from more than a century of scientific study, "reverse engineering" the brain to understand its design.

The Origin of Mind

Evolution of Brain, Cognition, and General Intelligence

Author: David C. Geary

Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn

ISBN: 9781591471813

Category: Medical

Page: 459

View: 6398

"Geary also explores a number of issues that are of interest in modern society, including how general intelligence relates to academic achievement, occupational status, and income."--BOOK JACKET.

Darwin's Conjecture

The Search for General Principles of Social and Economic Evolution

Author: Geoffrey M. Hodgson,Thorbjørn Knudsen

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226346900

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 290

View: 9033

Of paramount importance to the natural sciences, the principles of Darwinism, which involve variation, inheritance, and selection, are increasingly of interest to social scientists as well. But no one has provided a truly rigorous account of how the principles apply to the evolution of human society—until now. In Darwin’s Conjecture, Geoffrey Hodgson and Thorbjørn Knudsen reveal how the British naturalist’s core concepts apply to a wide range of phenomena, including business practices, legal systems, technology, and even science itself. They also critique some prominent objections to applying Darwin to social science, arguing that ultimately Darwinism functions as a general theoretical framework for stimulating further inquiry. Social scientists who adopt a Darwinian approach, they contend, can then use it to frame and help develop new explanatory theories and predictive models. This truly pathbreaking workat long last makes the powerful conceptual tools of Darwin available to the social sciences and will be welcomed by scholars and students from a range of disciplines.

Handbook of Brain Microcircuits

Author: Gordon M Shepherd,Sten Grillner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190636130

Category: Medical

Page: 576

View: 3547

Updated and revised, the second edition of Handbook of Brain Microcircuits covers the functional organization of 50 brain regions. This now-classic text uses an interdisciplinary approach to examine the integration of structure, function, electrophysiology, pharmacology, brain imaging, and behavior. Through uniquely concise and authoritative chapters by leaders in their fields, the Handbook of Brain Microcircuits synthesizes many of the new principles of microcircuit organization that are defining a new era in understanding the brain connectome, integrating the major neuronal pathways and essential microcircuits with brain function. New to the Second Edition: · Insights into new regions of the brain through canonical microcircuit diagrams for each region · Latest methodology in optogenetics, neurotransmitter uncaging, computational models of neurons and microcircuits, serial ultrastructure reconstructions, cellular and regional imaging · Extrapolated data from new genetic tools and understandings applied to microcircuits in the mouse and Drosophila · Common principles across vertebrate and invertebrate microcircuit systems, one of the key goals of modern neuroscience

What is Special about the Human Brain?

Author: R. E. Passingham

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199230136

Category: Psychology

Page: 269

View: 2853

The mental gap between man and ape is immense. As the brain is the organ of the mind, we must assume that throughout evolution there were changes in the brain that created this gap. This book is a search for those changes. Written in a lively style, the book is a far-reaching and exciting quest for those things that make humans unique.

Brain Waves Through Time

12 Principles for Understanding the Evolution of the Human Brain and Man's Behavior

Author: Robert T. DeMoss

Publisher: Insight Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 587

This work takes us on a journey through time and space to explore the age-old question: What makes humans unique? How have we reached our position of preeminence among all living plant and animal life, and what drove our ascent to this commanding place? The answer revolves around the very essence of what makes us distinctly human - our brains. Dr. Robert DeMoss - a gifted writer and respected psychologist - probes the deepest recesses of our brain and the vast stretches of human knowledge to weave a broad tapestry depicting the richness of human thought and behavior. From this broad canvas, he derives 12 principles that can explain the rise of humankind and the evolution of human behavior. For out of this evolution arose the only species that can contemplate on its own future, that can think about the very act of thinking, and that has built mighty civilizations - and destroyed them too.

Evolution, Games, and God

Author: Martin A. Nowak

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674075536

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 3381

Evolution, Games, and God explores how cooperation and altruism, alongside mutation and natural selection, play a critical role in evolution, from microbes to human societies. Inheriting a tendency to cooperate and self-sacrifice on behalf of others may be as beneficial to a population’s survival as the self-preserving instincts of individuals.

Principles of Neurobiology

Author: Liqun Luo

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 1317553837

Category: Science

Page: 645

View: 8158

Principles of Neurobiology presents the major concepts of neuroscience with an emphasis on how we know what we know. The text is organized around a series of key experiments to illustrate how scientific progress is made and helps upper-level undergraduate and graduate students discover the relevant primary literature. Written by a single author in a clear and consistent writing style, each topic builds in complexity from electrophysiology to molecular genetics to systems level in a highly integrative approach. Students can fully engage with the content via thematically linked chapters and will be able to read the book in its entirety in a semester-long course. Principles of Neurobiology is accompanied by a rich package of online student and instructor resources including animations, journal club suggestions, figures in PowerPoint, and a Question Bank for adopting instructors. A robust student homework platform with instructor dashboard is also available..

Evolution of the Primate Brain

From Neuron to Behavior

Author: Michel A. Hofman,Dean Falk

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444538607

Category: Medical

Page: 478

View: 1937

This volume of Progress in Brain Research provides a synthetic source of information about state-of-the-art research that has important implications for the evolution of the brain and cognition in primates, including humans. This topic requires input from a variety of fields that are developing at an unprecedented pace: genetics, developmental neurobiology, comparative and functional neuroanatomy (at gross and microanatomical levels), quantitative neurobiology related to scaling factors that constrain brain organization and evolution, primate palaeontology (including paleoneurology), paleo-anthropology, comparative psychology, and behavioural evolutionary biology. Written by internationally-renowned scientists, this timely volume will be of wide interest to students, scholars, science journalists, and a variety of experts who are interested in keeping track of the discoveries that are rapidly emerging about the evolution of the brain and cognition. Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation and provide their views and perspectives for future research Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist

Brain Rules (Updated and Expanded)

12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School

Author: John Medina

Publisher: Pear Press

ISBN: 0996032606

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 1532

Most of us have no idea what’s really going on inside our heads. Yet brain scientists have uncovered details every business leader, parent, and teacher should know—like the need for physical activity to get your brain working its best. How do we learn? What exactly do sleep and stress do to our brains? Why is multi-tasking a myth? Why is it so easy to forget—and so important to repeat new knowledge? Is it true that men and women have different brains? In Brain Rules, Dr. John Medina, a molecular biologist, shares his lifelong interest in how the brain sciences might influence the way we teach our children and the way we work. In each chapter, he describes a brain rule—what scientists know for sure about how our brains work—and then offers transformative ideas for our daily lives. Medina’s fascinating stories and infectious sense of humor breathe life into brain science. You’ll learn why Michael Jordan was no good at baseball. You’ll peer over a surgeon’s shoulder as he proves that most of us have a Jennifer Aniston neuron. You’ll meet a boy who has an amazing memory for music but can’t tie his own shoes. You will discover how: Every brain is wired differently Exercise improves cognition We are designed to never stop learning and exploring Memories are volatile Sleep is powerfully linked with the ability to learn Vision trumps all of the other senses Stress changes the way we learn In the end, you’ll understand how your brain really works—and how to get the most out of it.

Fundamental Neuroscience

Author: Larry R. Squire

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123858704

Category: Medical

Page: 1127

View: 478

Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition introduces graduate and upper-level undergraduate students to the full range of contemporary neuroscience. Addressing instructor and student feedback on the previous edition, all of the chapters are rewritten to make this book more concise and student-friendly than ever before. Each chapter is once again heavily illustrated and provides clinical boxes describing experiments, disorders, and methodological approaches and concepts. A companion web site contains test questions, and an imagebank of the figures for ready use in presentations, slides, and handouts. Capturing the promise and excitement of this fast-moving field, Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition is the text that students will be able to reference throughout their neuroscience careers! New to this edition: * 30% new material including new chapters on Dendritic Development and Spine Morphogenesis, Chemical Senses, Cerebellum, Eye Movements, Circadian Timing, Sleep and Dreaming, and Consciousness * Companion website with figures, web links to additional material, and test questions * Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts * Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys * Extensively expanded index for easier referencing

Development of the Nervous System

Author: Dan H. Sanes,Thomas A. Reh,William A. Harris

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080923208

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 4567

Development of the Nervous System presents a broad and basic treatment of the established and evolving principles of neural development as exemplified by key experiments and observations from past and recent times. The text is organized ontogenically. It begins with the emergence of the neural primordium and takes a chapter-by-chapter approach in succeeding events in neural development: patterning and growth of the nervous system, neuronal determination, axonal navigation and targeting, neuron survival and death, synapse formation and developmental plasticity. Finally, in the last chapter, with the construction phase nearing completion, we examine the emergence of behavior. This new edition reflects the complete modernization of the field that has been achieved through the intensive application of molecular, genetic, and cell biological approaches. It is richly illustrated with color photographs and original drawings. Combined with the clear and concise writing, the illustrations make this a book that is well suited to students approaching this intriguing field for the first time. Features Thorough survey of the field of neural development Concise but complete, suitable for a one semester course on upper level undergraduate or graduate level Focus on fundamental principles of organogenesis in the nervous system Integrates information from a variety of model systems, relating them to human nervous system development, including disorders of development Systematically develops knowledge from the description of key experiments and results Organized ontologically Carefully edited to be presented in one voice New edition thoroughly updated and revised to include major new findings All figures in full color, updated and revised Specific attention on revising the chapter on cognitive and behavioral development to provide a foundation and outlook towards those very fast moving areas Instructor website with figure bank and test questions Benefits The only thorough textbook of Developmental Neuroscience on the market Carefully structured and edited to map onto the syllabus of most developmental neuroscience courses Priced to be affordable for undergraduates even in addition to broader textbooks Carefully constructed instructor's website Specifically designed to make teaching of complicated subjects easy and fun for instructors and students alike

Plants and the Human Brain

Author: David O. Kennedy

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199914028

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 535

We're all familiar with the idea that plant-derived chemicals can have an impact on the functioning of the human brain. Most of us reach for a cup of coffee or tea in the morning, many of us occasionally eat some chocolate, some smoke a cigarette or take an herbal supplement, and some people use illicit drugs. We know a great deal about the mechanisms by which the psychoactive components of these various products have their effects on human brain function, but the question of why they have these effects has been almost totally ignored. This book sets out to describe not only how, in terms of pharmacology or psychopharmacology, but more importantly why plant- and fungus-derived chemicals have their effects on the human brain. The answer to this last question resides, in part, with the terrestrial world's two dominant life forms, the plants and the insects, and the many ecological roles the 'secondary metabolite' plant chemicals are trying to play; for instance, defending the plant against insect herbivores whilst attracting insect pollinators. The answer also resides in the intersecting genetic heritage of mammals, plants, and insects and the surprising biological similarities between the three taxa. In particular it revolves around the close correspondence between the brains of insects and humans, and the intercellular signaling pathways shared by plants and humans. Plants and the Human Brain describes and discusses both how and why phytochemicals affect brain function with respect to the three main groups of secondary metabolites: the alkaloids, which provide us with caffeine, a host of poisons, a handful of hallucinogens, and most drugs of abuse (e.g. morphine, cocaine, DMT, LSD, and nicotine); the phenolics, including polyphenols, which constitute a significant and beneficial part of our natural diet; and the terpenes, a group of multifunctional compounds which provide us with the active components of cannabis and a multitude of herbal extracts such as ginseng, ginkgo and valerian.