Author: Marise Cremona,Hans-w. Micklitz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Civil law
Private Law in the External Relations of the EU is an innovative study of the interactions between EU external relations law and private law, two unrelated fields of law, inverted if private law is understood as regulatory private law - the space where regulatory law intersects with private economic activity. Here the link between the Internal Market and the global market - and thereby international law - is much more prominent. In this book, key questions about the relationship between EU external relations law and private law are answered, including: in what ways might European private law act as a tool to achieve EU external policy objectives, particularly in regulatory fields? How might the quickly developing EU external competence over the procedural dimensions of private law, including private international law, impact on substantive law, both externally and internally? And how is the legal position of private parties affected by EU external relations? In asking these questions, this edited collection opens up a field of enquiry into the so far underexplored relationship between these two fields of law. In doing so, it addresses three different aspects of the relationship: (i) the evolution of the EU competence, (ii) the ways in which EU private law extends its reach beyond the boundaries of the internal market, and (iii) the ways in which the EU contributes to the formation of private regulation at the international level.
The Legal Dimension
Author: Bart Van Vooren,Steven Blockmans,Jan Wouters
Publisher: OUP Oxford
For years the European Union has been looked on as a potential model for cosmopolitan governance, and enjoyed considerable influence on the global stage. The EU has a uniquely strong and legally binding mission statement to pursue international relations on a multilateral basis, founded on the progressive development of international law. The political vision was for the EU to export its values of the rule of law and sophisticated governance mechanisms to the international sphere. Globalization and the financial crisis have starkly illustrated the limits of this vision, and the EU's dependence on global forces partially beyond the control of traditional provinces of law. This book takes stock of the EU's role in global governance. It asks: to what extent can and does the EU shape and influence the on-going re-ordering of legal processes, principles, and institutions of global governance, in line with its optimistic mission statement? With this ambitious remit it covers the legal-institutional and substantive aspects of global security, trade, environmental, financial, and social governance. Across these topics 23 contributors have taken the central question of the extent of the EU's influence on global governance, providing a broad view across the key areas as well as a detailed analysis of each. Through comparison and direct engagement with each other, the different chapters provide a distinctive contribution to legal scholarship on global governance, from a European perspective.
Author: Marise Cremona
Publisher: Oxford University Press
What is the nature of the relationship between the fields of new technology and EU law? What challenges do new technologies pose for the internal market and the fundamental principles of the EU? The first part of the collection explores the EU's approach to the regulation of scientific and technological risk, and the link between the regulation of technology and the internal market. In detail, the chapters analyse the interaction between EU law, bioethics and medical and health technologies. The second part of the collection enhances on this, and the chapters scrutinize specific policy areas in order to explain the alternate ways in which EU policy and technology cooperate.
Author: Hein Kötz
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
English summary: This volume deals with the contract law of the European legal systems. What are the essential rules of these systems on the formation and validity of contracts? What rules apply to a party's right to bring a claim for performance, to terminate the contract or to claim damages for breach? While the discussion is based on the national rules, they are taken into account only as local variations on a European theme. To what extent is it therefore possible to speak of a common European law of contract? What contributions do the "Principles of European Contract Law" and the proposal of the "Draft Common Frame of Reference" make? This book is not only aimed at helping to teach young Europeans lawyers, but also strives to assist those engaged in the reform of national contract law or the drafting of uniform European legislation. The first 1996 edition of the volume has now been updated and completed. German description: Unter "Europaischem Vertragsrecht" versteht dieses Buch die Regeln, die den Rechtsordnungen der europaischen Lander gemeinsam sind: Wie kommt ein gultiger Vertrag zustande? Nach welchen Regeln wird beurteilt, ob eine Vertragspartei die Erfullung des Vertrages verlangen, von dem Vertrag Abstand nehmen, ihn widerrufen oder kundigen oder den Kontrahenten auf Schadensersatz in Anspruch nehmen kann? Lassen sich auf dem Gebiet des Vertragsrechts gemeineuropaische Strukturen auffinden? Gibt es allgemein akzeptierte Regeln? Wie sind sie zu formulieren, wenn man die "Prinzipien des Europaischen Vertragsrechts" oder die Vorschlage des "Draft Common Frame of Reference" berucksichtigt? Dabei werden die Losungen der nationalen Rechtsordnungen ausfuhrlich - wenn auch stets nur als nationale Variationen eines europaischen Themas - behandelt. Das Buch kann deshalb bei der rechtsvergleichenden Ausbildung der jungen europaischen Juristen eine Rolle spielen, ferner auch dort, wo e s um die Vorbereitung europaischen Gesetzesrechts oder um die Reform der nationalen Vertragsrechte geht. Das Buch ist in einer ersten unvollstandigen Auflage schon 1996 erschienen. Die Neuauflage bringt den Text auf den neuen Stand und erganzt ihn um die damals noch fehlenden Abschnitte.
Public and Private Law Perspectives
Author: Christophe Paulussen,Tamara Takacs,Vesna Lazić,Ben Van Rompuy
In this book various perspectives on fundamental rights in the fields of public and private international law are innovatively covered. Published on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the T.M.C. Asser Instituut in The Hague, the collection reflects the breadth and scope of the Institute’s research activities in the fields of public international law, EU law, private international law and international and European sports law. It does so by shedding more light on topical issues – such as drone warfare, the fight against terrorism, the international trade environment nexus and forced arbitration – that can be related to the theme of fundamental rights, which runs through all these four areas of research. Points of divergence and areas of common ground are uncovered in contributions from both staff members and distinguished external authors, having long-standing academic relations with the Institute. The Editors of this book are all staff members of the T.M.C. Asser Instituut, each of them representing one of the areas of research the Institute covers.
The Interplay between International, European and Domestic Norms
Author: Christine Bakker,Mirko Sossai
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
The outsourcing of military and security services is the object of intense legal debate. States employ private military and security companies (PMSCs) to perform functions previously exercised by regular armed forces, and increasingly international organisations, NGOs and business corporations do the same to provide security, particularly in crisis situations. Much of the public attention on PMSCs has been in response to incidents in which PMSC employees have been accused of violating international humanitarian law. Therefore initiatives have been launched to introduce uniform international standards amidst what is currently very uneven national regulation. This book analyses and discusses the interplay between international, European, and domestic regulatory measures in the field of PMSCs. It presents a comprehensive assessment of the existing domestic legislation in EU Member States and relevant Third States, and identifies implications for future international regulation. The book also addresses the crucial questions whether and how the EU can potentially play a more active future role in the regulation of PMSCs to ensure compliance with human rights and international humanitarian law.
New Challenges for EU External Relations
Author: Bernd Martenczuk,Servaas van Thiel
Publisher: ASP / VUBPRESS / UPA
Category: Political Science
The European Union is rapidly creating a European space in which citizens can live in Justice, Liberty and Security. This bold push forward in the European integration process touches on three highly sensitive societal subjects: immigration and asylum, civil law, and criminal law. At the same time, work in this area necessarily has an external dimension: we only need to think about asylum and the post September 11 fight against terrorism. Within the European Union, this dynamic development of the external side of justice and home affairs raises challenging issues: friction over the division of competences between the Union and its Member States and between EU institutions; cross-pillar coordination issues; legal and political tensions due to "variable geometry" with numerous "opt-ins" and "opt-outs". In addition, international cooperation brings its own problems: how to explain the internal issues to international partners? How to allow them to become comfortable with an ever more assertive EU role? How to support global governance structures while preserving European human standards? -- Back cover.
Author: Hans Micklitz
Publisher: OUP Oxford
In recent years the impact of human rights and fundamental rights on private law has risen in prominence and led to a whole series of detailed investigations. 'Constitutionalization of private law' is the flag under which most of the research on the increasing impact of national constitutional rights on national private legal orders is sailing. In the absence of a European Constitution, the constitutionalization of European private law suggests a process: constitutionalization instead of constituent power, demos, and the magic constitutional moment. The Charter of Fundamental Rights and the European Convention of Human Rights constitute the two pillars on which the transformation of European private law rests. This volume clearly demonstrates the change that has taken place, at the national and at the European level. Private law is no longer immune to the intrusion of fundamental and human rights. Whilst member states and the EU are driving the process by adopting ever more concrete and more comprehensive lists of human and fundamental rights, at the national, the European, and international level with overlapping contents, the true and key players in this development are the national and European courts. Contributions to this volume give this process a face and a direction, which is highlighted in the introduction by Hans-W. Micklitz.
The CFSP, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and Migration
Author: Paul James Cardwell
This book takes a fresh look at the external relations of the European Union (EU) and in particular the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). Rather than focusing exclusively on the competence aspects of the institutions and actors, the book makes the case that the CFSP can be understood as a system of governance, which produces effects beyond the traditional tools associated with foreign policy. The theoretical approach draws on insights from new institutionalism, constructivism and the institutional theory of law and emphasises how the institutionalised forms of cooperation in the external sphere contribute to a social reality in which the ‘added value’ of the CFSP can be seen. Paul James Cardwell takes the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EuroMed) as a case study. Not initially a CFSP project, EuroMed has become the frame for EU foreign policy in the region as an emerging system of governance in which the EU institutions play a central role. Having recently been relaunched as the Barcelona Process: Union for the Mediterranean, it is a topical subject. With the increasing importance of migration on the EU’s agenda, the book looks at the relationship between migration, EuroMed and the CFSP and argues that the legal effects of the CFSP can be felt beyond the Treaty-based instruments. EU External Relations and Systems of Governance will be of interest to students and scholars of Law, Politics and European studies researching in the dynamic fields of EU external relations and foreign policy, as well as policy-makers and non-governmental organisations striving to better understand how the EU and its systems of governance operate.
Towards a Common Regulatory Space?
Author: Roman Petrov,Peter Van Elsuwege
This book explores the exportation and application of European Union legislation beyond EU borders. It clarifies the means and instruments of the voluntary application of the EU’s norms by third countries and analyses in detail the process of legislative approximation between the EU and its East European neighbours. It also assesses the extent to which the EU is successful in promoting its legal standards abroad. The first part of the book addresses the EU’s mechanisms and instruments promoting the export of its own laws and practices to other countries. Key issues include the post-Lisbon constitutional basis for the EU’s engagement with its Eastern neighbours (Art. 8 TEU); the different methods of acquis export and the impact of a new generation of Association Agreements providing for the establishment of Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTAs) and, ultimately, a Neighbourhood Economic Community (NEC) between the EU and its Eastern partners. The second part of the book includes substantive country reports that analyse the process of legislative approximation and application of EU law in the Eastern Partnership countries and Russia, authored by leading academics from the countries concerned. While currently these countries are not working towards full EU membership, the EU encourages them to approximate and converge their legislation with the EU acquis. The book also offers a unique picture of current practice of the application of EU law by judiciaries in the countries of the Eastern Partnership and Russia. The book concludes with reflections on the multi-faceted character of legislative approximation and the challenges surrounding the application of EU law in the EU’s Eastern neighbourhood. The conclusions reached are highly informative as to the effectiveness of present and future EU external regional policies aimed at the promotion of EU common values and EU legislation into the legal orders of third countries.
Legal Developments in the European Communities and the European Union
Author: Alison McDonnell
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
In this important book eighteen of Europe's most respected jurists and legal scholars look at long-term developments in Community and Union law with a view to shedding light on the current situation and pointing out lessons for the future. They consider major Community law themes as they have developed over the past four decades in institutional and substantive contexts, as well as in such newer areas of development as external relations, economic and monetary union, and the Third Pillar. Starting from the absolute centrality of the Common Market to the European Community enterprise, the authors provide many reminders of how the current situation evolved. Their detailed root analyses of past experiences explore origins, patterns, and implications from the initial concept of market access, through laws relating to individual rights, to such complexities as the 'bottom-up' emergence of constitutional principles. They show that, whether we will in fact soon see a European constitution or not, there is little doubt today that EC law is undergoing what may be best understood as a process of constitutionalization. Seventeen insightful essays give deeper meaning to many events, principles, and issues which have had far-reaching implications for European integration, including the following: the crucial principles made clear by the ECJ in Van Gend andamp; Loos in 1963; the place of fundamental rights in a supranational legal order; tensions to be resolved through political and legal means; exclusive, shared and supporting competences; the gradual rise of principles such as subsidiarity and proportionality; the precautionary principle; the legitimacy and authority of the ECJ; the extent to which fundamental freedoms have become fundamental rights; the procedural rules of European competition policy enforcement; state aid under EC Treaty Article 87(1); the case for harmonization of private law; social policy and equal treatment; institutional balance; the EU as global actor; the evolution of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights; and the Constitutional Treaty. ; ; ; ; The European Union is a dynamic legal order, and continues to face myriad challenges and dilemmas as it expands its membership and considers a European constitution. This concentrated summary of the most important issues in forty years of legal developments reveals both the lasting triumphs along the way and the gaps that require urgent attention if the legitimacy of the Union is not to be impaired. Participants in European law and government, from citizens and students to the highest levels of policy making, will find here an invaluable resource for the future and much food for thought. These articles were first presented at a conference held at the end of 2003 to mark the 40th anniversary of the Common Market Law Review, and were originally published in a special issue of the Review.
Author: Dennis Patterson,Anna Södersten
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Featuring contributions from renowned scholars, A Companion to European Union Law and International Law presents a comprehensive and authoritative collection of essays that addresses all of the most important topics on European Union and international law. Integrates the fields of European Union law and international law, revealing both the similarities and differences Features contributions from renowned scholars in the fields of EU law and international law Covers a broad range of topical issues, including trade, institutional decision-making, the European Court of Justice, democracy, human rights, criminal law, the EMU, and many others
Author: Paul James Cardwell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This is a collection of works which considers the many different facets of the EU’s increasingly important engagement with the world beyond its borders. The Treaty of Lisbon marked a change in the powers and competences endowed on the EU - the contributions to this collection consider both the direct and indirect impact of the Treaty on the contemporary state of EU external relations. The authors are drawn from legal, political science and international relations disciplines and consider innovations or changes brought about by the Treaty itself: the European External Action Service, the roles of the High Representative and President, the collapse of the ‘pillar’ structure and new competences such as those for foreign investment. Other chapters cover developments which reflect the latest incremental changes upon which the post-Lisbon Treaty arrangements have some bearing, including the COREU network, the transatlantic and neighbourhood relations and the external dimension of ‘internal’ security. Useful for academics working in the field of EU external relations law and foreign policy, as well as the EU law/politics/European studies market more generally.
Author: Marise Cremona,Anne Thies
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
This edited collection appraises the role, self-perception, reasoning and impact of the European Court of Justice on the development of European Union (EU) external relations law. Against the background of the recent recasting of the EU Treaties by the Treaty of Lisbon and at a time when questions arise over the character of the Court's judicial reasoning and the effect of international legal obligations in its case law, it discusses the contribution of the Court to the formation of the EU as an international actor and the development of EU external relations law, and the constitutional challenges the Court faces in this context. To what extent does the position of the Court contribute to a specific conception of the EU? How does the EU's constitutional order, as interpreted by the Court, shape its external relations? The Court still has only limited jurisdiction over the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy: why has this decision been taken, and what are its implications? And what is the Court's own view of the relationship between court(s) and foreign policy, and of its own relationship with other international courts? The contributions to this volume show that the Court's influence over EU external relations derives first from its ability to shape and define the external competence of the EU and resulting constraints on the Member States, and second from its insistence on the autonomy of the EU legal order and its role as 'gatekeeper' to the entry and effect of international law into the EU system. It has not - in the external domain - overtly exerted influence through shaping substantive policy, as it has, for example, in relation to the internal market. Nevertheless the rather 'legalised' nature of EU external relations and the significance of the EU's international legal commitments mean that the role of the Court of Justice is more central than that of a national court with respect to the foreign policy of a nation state. And of course its decisions can nonetheless be highly political.
Text, Cases and Materials
Author: Bart Van Vooren,Ramses A. Wessel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
"This major new textbook for students in European law uses a text, cases and materials approach to explore the law, politics, policy and practice of EU external relations, and navigates the complex questions at the interface of these areas. The subject is explored by explaining major constitutional principles, and elaborating upon them in policy-specific chapters ranging from common commercial policy and development policy over CFSP/CSDP and AFSJ to energy and enlargement policy. Specific attention is given to the relationship between European integration, the role of law, and the EU as an effective international actor. Designed for easy navigation, chapters include key objectives, summaries and textboxes, which frame key issues and guide the reader through the functioning of legal principles. Students gain a detailed understanding of the historical development, context and present functioning of EU external relations law in a highly politicised European and international environment"--
Author: Pietro Franzina
The interest of the EU in international efforts towards the harmonisation of private international law has steadily increased over the years. The EU is already a party to several conventions that lay down uniform rules on jurisdiction, conflicts of laws and the recognition and enforcement of judgments. Additionally, various international instruments dealing with judicial cooperation in civil matters have been ratified by the Member States 'in the interest of the Union', or are now administered by the EU. On different occasions the Court of Justice has expressed its views regarding the scope of the external competence of the Union in the field of private international law, the conditions upon which this competence should be regarded as exclusive and the principles according to which the competence itself should be exercised. In spite of this, the development of the external dimension of EU private international law remains a controversial topic, and different questions still await answers. The essays collected in this volume critically address some of the main issues concerning the relations of the EU with non-EU countries and international organisations in the area of private international law, as well as the impact of these relations on EU legislation dealing with matters featuring cross-border implications. Written by leading legal scholars for academics and practitioners, the book discusses, in particular, the principles stated in the latest intervention of the Court of Justice on this topic, Opinion 1/13, regarding the Union's competence as to the acceptance of the accession of third States to the Hague Convention of 1980 on international child abduction, as well as the implications of the Opinion for the development of the EU's external action and legislation in this area. [Subject: Private Law, EU Law]
Foreign and European Relations of Belgian, German and Austrian Federated Entities
Author: Tamara Kovziridze
Publisher: ASP / VUBPRESS / UPA
Category: Political Science
"This book analyses the relationship between federalism and European integration, and in this context examines the impact of Europeanization on the three EU member states that are constitutionally federal: Belgium, Germany and Austria. The author chooses two theoretical concepts - hierarchy and interdependence - to characterize certain institutional and structural features of federal states. Her comparative analysis shows that European integration does have an impact on federalism and that it is leading to growing institutional interdependence between the levels of governance in all three states."--Back cover.
The Case of Individual Sanctions
Author: Christina Eckes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This book examines the complex legal issues arising from the European Union's practice of listing and sanctioning private individuals for having supported terrorism. These 'individual sanctions' (asset freezes and travel bans) are adopted pursuant to the same composite procedure that is used for sanctions against states. This raises problems with regard to the protection of procedural rights and the competence division within the EU. Moreover, some of thesemeasures directly give effect to United Nations lists of terrorist suspects. This makes it necessary to determine the status and binding force of obligations under the UN Charter within the European legal order. The core of this book is a comprehensive analysis of the growing body of case-law ofthe European Courts concerning individual sanctions. The analysis focuses on three main issues: fundamental rights protection in the fight against the financing of terrorism, the relationship between the European legal order and the UN Charter...
Author: Marise Cremona
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
External Relations is currently among the most dynamic areas of EU Law, its constitutional foundations profoundly affected by the Reform Treaty. This volume gathers leading analysts to assess core recent developments in the field, including the coherence of the EU's activity, its development policy and its contribution to international law.
Volume 1: The European Union Legal Order
Author: Robert Schütze,Takis Tridimas
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Since the 1957 Rome Treaty, the European Union has changed dramatically - in terms of its composition, scope and depth. Originally established by six Western European States, the EU today has 28 Members and covers almost the entire European continent; and while initially confined to establishing a "common market", the EU has come to influence all areas of political, economic and social life. In parallel with this enormous geographic and thematic expansion, the constitutional and legislative principles underpinning the European Union have constantly evolved. This three-volume study aims to provide an authoritative academic treatment of European Union law. Written by leading scholars and practitioners, each chapter offers a comprehensive and critical assessment of the state of the law. Doctrinal in presentation, each volume nonetheless tries to present a broader historical and comparative perspective. Volume I provides an analysis of the constitutional principles governing the European Union. It covers the history of the EU, the constitutional foundations, the institutional framework, legislative and executive governance, judicial protection, and external relations. Volume II explores the structure of the internal market, while Volume III finally analyses the internal and external substantive policies of the EU.