Probability in the Philosophy of Religion

Author: Jake Chandler,Victoria S. Harrison

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199604762

Category: Philosophy

Page: 253

View: 5746

These specially written essays show that philosophy of religion is fertile ground for the application of probabilistic thinking. The authors examine central topics in the field: the status of evidence relating to the question of the existence of God; the rationality of religious belief; and the epistemic significance of religious disagreement.

The Oxford Handbook of Probability and Philosophy

Author: Alan Hájek,Christopher Hitchcock

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199607617

Category:

Page: 880

View: 8897

Probability theory is a key tool of the physical, mathematical, and social sciences. It has also been playing an increasingly significant role in philosophy: in epistemology, philosophy of science, ethics, social philosophy, philosophy of religion, and elsewhere. A case can be made that probability is as vital a part of the philosopher's toolkit as logic. Moreover, there is a fruitful two-way street between probability theory and philosophy: the theory informs much of the work of philosophers, and philosophical inquiry, in turn, has shed considerable light on the theory. This Handbook encapsulates and furthers the influence of philosophy on probability, and of probability on philosophy. Nearly forty articles summarise the state of play and present new insights in various areas of research at the intersection of these two fields. The articles will be of special interest to practitioners of probability who seek a greater understanding of its mathematical and conceptual foundations, and to philosophers who want to get up to speed on the cutting edge of research in this area. There is plenty here to entice philosophical readers who don't work especially on probability but who want to learn more about it and its applications. Indeed, this volume should appeal to the intellectually curious generally; after all, there is much here to be curious about. We do not expect all of this volume's audience to have a thorough training in probability theory. And while probability is relevant to the work of many philosophers, they often do not have much of a background in its formalism. With this in mind, we begin with 'Probability for Everyone--Even Philosophers', a primer on those parts of probability theory that we believe are most important for philosophers to know. The rest of the volume is divided into seven main sections: History; Formalism; Alternatives to Standard Probability Theory; Interpretations and Interpretive Issues; Probabilistic Judgment and Its Applications; Applications of Probability: Science; and Applications of Probability: Philosophy.

Readings in the Philosophy of Religion - Second Edition

Author: Kelly James Clark

Publisher: Broadview Press

ISBN: 1551118033

Category: Religion

Page: 528

View: 1988

Like the first edition, the second edition of Readings in the Philosophy of Religion covers topics in a point-counterpoint manner, specifically designed to foster deep reflection. Unique to this collection is the section on the divine attributes. The book’s focus is on issues of fundamental human concern—God’s suffering, hell, prayer, feminist theology, and religious pluralism. All of these are shown, in a lengthy introduction, to relate to the standard issues in philosophical theology—omnipotence, omniscience, immutability, goodness, and eternity. For this second edition, each major section ends with an extended reflection by a philosopher who shows how to think through the issues raised in the preceding essays. Also included are a new section on the ontological argument with classical discussions by Anselm and Gaunilo, along with a new essay by Laura Garcia; a new section on religious language; new essays on the free will defense, theodicies, and feminist theology; and a new version of the cosmological argument that does not rely on the principle of sufficient reason.

God in the Age of Science?

A Critique of Religious Reason

Author: Herman Philipse

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191505056

Category: Philosophy

Page: 392

View: 4368

God in the Age of Science? is a critical examination of strategies for the philosophical defence of religious belief. The main options may be presented as the end nodes of a decision tree for religious believers. The faithful can interpret a creedal statement (e.g. 'God exists') either as a truth claim, or otherwise. If it is a truth claim, they can either be warranted to endorse it without evidence, or not. Finally, if evidence is needed, should its evidential support be assessed by the same logical criteria that we use in evaluating evidence in science, or not? Each of these options has been defended by prominent analytic philosophers of religion. In part I Herman Philipse assesses these options and argues that the most promising for believers who want to be justified in accepting their creed in our scientific age is the Bayesian cumulative case strategy developed by Richard Swinburne. Parts II and III are devoted to an in-depth analysis of this case for theism. Using a 'strategy of subsidiary arguments', Philipse concludes (1) that theism cannot be stated meaningfully; (2) that if theism were meaningful, it would have no predictive power concerning existing evidence, so that Bayesian arguments cannot get started; and (3) that if the Bayesian cumulative case strategy did work, one should conclude that atheism is more probable than theism. Philipse provides a careful, rigorous, and original critique of atheism in the world today.

An Introduction to Design Arguments

Author: Benjamin C. Jantzen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107005345

Category: Philosophy

Page: 347

View: 1416

A comprehensive survey of the many different forms of design argument for the existence of God.

The Probability of God

A Simple Calculation That Proves the Ultimate Truth

Author: Dr. Stephen D. Unwin

Publisher: Crown Forum

ISBN: 1400097541

Category: Religion

Page: 272

View: 965

Does God exist? This is probably the most debated question in the history of mankind. Scholars, scientists, and philosophers have spent their lifetimes trying to prove or disprove the existence of God, only to have their theories crucified by other scholars, scientists, and philosophers. Where the debate breaks down is in the ambiguities and colloquialisms of language. But, by using a universal, unambiguous language—namely, mathematics—can this question finally be answered definitively? That’s what Dr. Stephen Unwin attempts to do in this riveting, accessible, and witty book, The Probability of God. At its core, this groundbreaking book reveals how a math equation developed more than 200 years ago by noted European philosopher Thomas Bayes can be used to calculate the probability that God exists. The equation itself is much more complicated than a simple coin toss (heads, He’s up there running the show; tails, He’s not). Yet Dr. Unwin writes with a clarity that makes his mathematical proof easy for even the nonmathematician to understand and a verve that makes his book a delight to read. Leading you carefully through each step in his argument, he demonstrates in the end that God does indeed exist. Whether you’re a devout believer and agree with Dr. Unwin’s proof or are unsure about all things divine, you will find this provocative book enlightening and engaging. From the Hardcover edition.

Probabilities in Physics

Author: Claus Beisbart,Stephan Hartmann

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199577439

Category: Philosophy

Page: 437

View: 4022

This volume provides a philosophical appraisal of probabilities in all of physics. It makes sense of probabilistic statements as they occur in the various physical theories and models and presents a plausible epistemology and metaphysics of probabilities.

The Existence of God

Author: Richard Swinburne

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191533947

Category: Philosophy

Page: 372

View: 4374

Richard Swinburne presents a substantially rewritten and updated edition of his most celebrated book. No other work has made a more powerful case for the probability of the existence of God. Swinburne gives a rigorous and penetrating analysis of the most important arguments for theism: the cosmological argument; arguments from the existence of laws of nature and the 'fine-tuning' of the universe; from the occurrence of consciousness and moral awareness; and from miracles and religious experience. He claims that while none of these arguments are deductively valid, they do give inductive support to theism and that, even when the argument from evil is weighed against them, taken together they offer good grounds to support the probability that there is a God. The overall structure of the discussion and its conclusion have been retained for this new edition, but much has been changed in order to strengthen the argumentation and to take account of Swinburne's subsequent work on the nature of consciousness and the problem of evil, and of the latest philosophical and scientific writing, especially in respect of the laws of nature and the argument from fine-tuning. This is now the definitive version of a classic in the philosophy of religion.

Arguing for Atheism

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion

Author: Robin Le Poidevin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134871112

Category: Religion

Page: 184

View: 4988

First Published in 2004. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Readings in Philosophy of Religion

Ancient to Contemporary

Author: Linda Zagzebski,Timothy D. Miller

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405180927

Category: Philosophy

Page: 672

View: 7164

This anthology offers a comprehensive historical introduction to the central questions of philosophy of religion. Approximately two-thirds of the selections are from ancient, medieval, and modern sources, helping students to understand and engage the rich traditions of reflection on these timeless questions. The remaining contemporary readings introduce students to the more recent developments in the field. Each of the thematically arranged sections begins with an editor's introduction to clarify the central issues and positions presented in the readings that follow. Topics include: * traditional theistic arguments * religious experience and revelation * fideism * naturalistic approaches to religious belief * the divine attributes * fate, freedom, and foreknowledge * the connection between religion and morality * the problem of evil * death and immortality * religious diversity * faith, reason, and the ethics of belief * science and religion. The text can be used alone or in conjunction with a secondary text in philosophy of religion such as Zagzebski's "Philosophy of Religion: An Historical Introduction" (Wiley-Blackwell, 2007).

Probability and Theistic Explanation

Author: Robert W. Prevost

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: N.A

Category: Religion

Page: 195

View: 8026

In the past twenty years, interest in the epistemic status of religious belief has greatly increased. Leading this revival are the philosophers Basil Mitchell and Richard Swinburne, who believe that {eligious belief can be justified using inductive "best explanation" arguments. However, while Swinburne's approach is formal, using the calculus of Bayes Theorem, Mitchell's is informal, based on his recognition of judgment as central to such an assessment. This book is the first full length comparison of these two men and their styles of justifying religious belief. The first half addresses the issues of rationality, endorsing Mitchell's methodology; the second half explores the concept of theistic explanation and demonstrates that the ontological argument has a place in the comprehensive explanatory power of theism.

Reason and Faith

Themes from Richard Swinburne

Author: Michael Bergmann,Jeffrey E. Brower

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198732643

Category: Faith and reason

Page: 256

View: 3656

The past fifty years have been an enormously fruitful period in the field of philosophy of religion, and few have done more to advance its development during this time than Richard Swinburne. His pioneering work has systematically developed a comprehensive set of positions within this field, and made major contributions to fields such as metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophy of science. This volume presents a collection of ten new essays in philosophy ofreligion that develop and critically engage themes from Swinburne's work. Written by some of the leading figures in the field, these essays focus on issues in both natural theology (dealing with what canbe known about God and his relation to the world independently of any particular religious tradition or revelation) and philosophical theology (reflecting critically on the doctrines associated with particular religious traditions).

The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Religion

Author: William E. Mann

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470756543

Category: Philosophy

Page: 352

View: 773

The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Religion features fourteen new essays written by some of the most prominent philosophers working in the field. Contributors include Linda Zabzeski, Hugh McCann, Brian Leftow, Gareth B. Matthews, William L. Rowe, Elliott Sober, Derk Pereboom, Alfred J. Freddoso, William P. Alston, William J. Wainwright, Peter van Inwagen, Philip Kitcher and Philip Quinn. Features fourteen newly commissioned essays. Provides a comprehensive treatment of the major problems in the philosophy of religion. Surveys the field and presents distinctive arguments.

In Defense of Natural Theology

A Post-Humean Assessment

Author: James F. Sennett,Douglas Groothuis

Publisher: InterVarsity Press

ISBN: 9780830827671

Category: Philosophy

Page: 336

View: 2119

James F. Sennett and Douglas Groothuis have assembled a distinguished array of scholars to examine the Humean legacy with care and make the case for a more robust, if chastened, natural theology after Hume.

God Matters

Readings in the Philosophy of Religion

Author: Raymond Martin,Christopher Bernard

Publisher: Pearson College Division

ISBN: 9780321103659

Category: Religion

Page: 561

View: 2303

God Matters is a state-of-the-art, accessible anthology of the major issues in philosophy of religion. Its accessibility is due to its mix of classic readings and brand new readings about contemporary issues, commissioned specifically with an undergraduate student in mind. These commissioned readings make the difficult concepts of contemporary philosophy of religion easy to understand, and are complemented by key excerpts from more technical philosophers' writing on the same subjects. The result is an engaging, comprehensive reader that introduces students to the most important ideas in classical and contemporary philosophy of religion, to the most important thinkers, and even to excerpts from the key texts in which these thinkers presented their groundbreaking theories.

The Improbability of God

Author: Michael Martin,Ricki Monnier

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781591023814

Category: Philosophy

Page: 432

View: 6382

A growing number of powerful arguments have been formulated by philosophers and logicians in recent years demonstrating that the existence of God is improbable. These arguments assume that God's existence is possible but argue that the weight of the empirical evidence is against God's actual existence. This unique anthology collects most of the important arguments for the improbability of God that have been published since the mid-1900s. The editors make each argument clear and accessible by providing a helpful summary. In addition, they arrange this diverse collection of arguments for the improbability of God into four thematic groups: Part 1 contains cosmological arguments based on the weight of the evidence relative to the origin of the universe; Part 2 presents teleological arguments based on the weight of the evidence relative to the order in the universe; Part 3 deals with inductive evil arguments based on the weight of the evidence relative to the widespread and horrendous evil in the world; and Part 4 contains nonbelief arguments based on the weight of the evidence relative to the widespread nonbelief or the reasonable nonbelief in the world. The list of distinguished authors includes William Rowe, Theodore Drange, Quentin Smith, Victor Stenger, J. L. Schellenberg, and Michael Martin, among others. With this new anthology as a companion to their earlier anthology, The Impossibility of God (2003), Martin and Monnier have created an indispensable resource in the philosophy of religion.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion

Author: William Wainwright

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199881359

Category: Reference

Page: 560

View: 2514

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion contains newly commissioned chapters by 21 prominent experts who cover the field in a comprehensive but accessible manner. Each chapter is expository, critical, and representative of a distinctive viewpoint.

Knowledge of God

Author: Alvin Plantinga,Michael Tooley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444301314

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

View: 6803

Is belief in God epistemically justified? That's the question at the heart of this volume in the Great Debates in Philosophy series, with Alvin Plantinga and Michael Tooley each addressing this fundamental question with distinctive arguments from opposing perspectives. The first half of the book contains each philosopher's explanation of his particular view; the second half allows them to directly respond to each other's arguments, in a lively and engaging conversation Offers the reader a one of a kind, interactive discussion Forms part of the acclaimed Great Debates in Philosophy series

Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology

Author: Louis Pojman,Michael Rea

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1285197321

Category: Philosophy

Page: 736

View: 3725

PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION: AN ANTHOLOGY, 7E utilizes a balanced blend of classic and contemporary articles to present a well-rounded introduction to the philosophy of religion. This engaging textbook begins by outlining traditional concepts of God, then moves into related fields of inquiry such as the problem of evil, feminist perspectives of God, and mystical experiences. In addition, this edition presents traditional proofs of God’s existence, with counter arguments. PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION: AN ANTHOLOGY, 7E also examines the interplay between religion and science, religion and faith, and religion and epistemology. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Where the Conflict Really Lies

Science, Religion, and Naturalism

Author: Alvin Plantinga

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199812101

Category: Philosophy

Page: 304

View: 6398

In this long-awaited book, pre-eminent analytical philosopher Alvin Plantinga argues that the conflict between science and theistic religion is actually superficial, and that at a deeper level they are in concord.