Author: Jake Chandler,Victoria S. Harrison
Publisher: Oxford University Press
These specially written essays show that philosophy of religion is fertile ground for the application of probabilistic thinking. The authors examine central topics in the field: the status of evidence relating to the question of the existence of God; the rationality of religious belief; and the epistemic significance of religious disagreement.
Ancient to Contemporary
Author: Linda Zagzebski,Timothy D. Miller
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This anthology offers a comprehensive historical introduction to the central questions of philosophy of religion. Approximately two-thirds of the selections are from ancient, medieval, and modern sources, helping students to understand and engage the rich traditions of reflection on these timeless questions. The remaining contemporary readings introduce students to the more recent developments in the field. Each of the thematically arranged sections begins with an editor's introduction to clarify the central issues and positions presented in the readings that follow. Topics include: * traditional theistic arguments * religious experience and revelation * fideism * naturalistic approaches to religious belief * the divine attributes * fate, freedom, and foreknowledge * the connection between religion and morality * the problem of evil * death and immortality * religious diversity * faith, reason, and the ethics of belief * science and religion. The text can be used alone or in conjunction with a secondary text in philosophy of religion such as Zagzebski's "Philosophy of Religion: An Historical Introduction" (Wiley-Blackwell, 2007).
Author: Richard Swinburne
Publisher: Clarendon Press
Richard Swinburne presents a substantially rewritten and updated edition of his most celebrated book. No other work has made a more powerful case for the probability of the existence of God. Swinburne gives a rigorous and penetrating analysis of the most important arguments for theism: the cosmological argument; arguments from the existence of laws of nature and the 'fine-tuning' of the universe; from the occurrence of consciousness and moral awareness; and from miracles and religious experience. He claims that while none of these arguments are deductively valid, they do give inductive support to theism and that, even when the argument from evil is weighed against them, taken together they offer good grounds to support the probability that there is a God. The overall structure of the discussion and its conclusion have been retained for this new edition, but much has been changed in order to strengthen the argumentation and to take account of Swinburne's subsequent work on the nature of consciousness and the problem of evil, and of the latest philosophical and scientific writing, especially in respect of the laws of nature and the argument from fine-tuning. This is now the definitive version of a classic in the philosophy of religion.
Author: Kelly James Clark
Publisher: Broadview Press
"The recent revolution in the philosophy of religion has led to a dramatic and profound reconsideration of theistic arguments, the problem of evil, the rationality of religious belief, and the concept of God. This new anthology contains the best of both classical and contemporary sources. It includes a range of well-known selections together with a variety of pieces that are rarely anthologised; several are published here for the first time. The collection maintains a balance between the challenging and the accessible. In all, the book includes over 50 selections in seven sections; each section opens with an introduction by the editor."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Argumente für und gegen die Existenz Gottes
Author: John L. Mackie
In Defence of a Weak Scepticism
Author: Vlastimil Vohánka
Publisher: Editions Scholasticae
This book on the epistemology of religion discusses a wide spectrum of sources in analytic, scholastic and apologetic philosophy and theology in order to argue non-deductively for the following thesis: Apart from religious experience, it cannot be evident (in a defined sense of psychological impossibility) that the Trinity doctrine is logically possible. Hence, this conclusion is drawn deductively: Apart from religious experience, it cannot be evident that Christianity or the Trinity doctrine have non-minimal logical probability. As the author points out, however, they still may be justified, well-argued, plausibly logically probable, and probable in other than the logical sense. The book will be of interest to philosophers of religion, analytic theologians, and researchers in analytic scholasticism.
Author: William E. Mann
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Religion features fourteen new essays written by some of the most prominent philosophers working in the field. Contributors include Linda Zabzeski, Hugh McCann, Brian Leftow, Gareth B. Matthews, William L. Rowe, Elliott Sober, Derk Pereboom, Alfred J. Freddoso, William P. Alston, William J. Wainwright, Peter van Inwagen, Philip Kitcher and Philip Quinn. Features fourteen newly commissioned essays. Provides a comprehensive treatment of the major problems in the philosophy of religion. Surveys the field and presents distinctive arguments.
Author: Alan Hájek,Christopher Hitchcock
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Probability theory is a key tool of the physical, mathematical, and social sciences. It has also been playing an increasingly significant role in philosophy: in epistemology, philosophy of science, ethics, social philosophy, philosophy of religion, and elsewhere. A case can be made that probability is as vital a part of the philosopher's toolkit as logic. Moreover, there is a fruitful two-way street between probability theory and philosophy: the theory informs much of the work of philosophers, and philosophical inquiry, in turn, has shed considerable light on the theory. This Handbook encapsulates and furthers the influence of philosophy on probability, and of probability on philosophy. Nearly forty articles summarise the state of play and present new insights in various areas of research at the intersection of these two fields. The articles will be of special interest to practitioners of probability who seek a greater understanding of its mathematical and conceptual foundations, and to philosophers who want to get up to speed on the cutting edge of research in this area. There is plenty here to entice philosophical readers who don't work especially on probability but who want to learn more about it and its applications. Indeed, this volume should appeal to the intellectually curious generally; after all, there is much here to be curious about. We do not expect all of this volume's audience to have a thorough training in probability theory. And while probability is relevant to the work of many philosophers, they often do not have much of a background in its formalism. With this in mind, we begin with 'Probability for Everyone--Even Philosophers', a primer on those parts of probability theory that we believe are most important for philosophers to know. The rest of the volume is divided into seven main sections: History; Formalism; Alternatives to Standard Probability Theory; Interpretations and Interpretive Issues; Probabilistic Judgment and Its Applications; Applications of Probability: Science; and Applications of Probability: Philosophy.
Author: Lorraine Daston
Publisher: Princeton University Press
What did it mean to be reasonable in the Age of Reason? Classical probabilists from Jakob Bernouli through Pierre Simon Laplace intended their theory as an answer to this question--as "nothing more at bottom than good sense reduced to a calculus, " in Laplace's words. In terms that can be easily grasped by nonmathematicians, Lorraine Daston demonstrates how this view profoundly shaped the internal development of probability theory and defined its applications.What did it mean to be reasonable in the Age of Reason? Classical probabilists from Jakob Bernouli through Pierre Simon Laplace intended their theory as an answer to this question--as "nothing more at bottom than good sense reduced to a calculus, " in Laplace's words. In terms that can be easily grasped by nonmathematicians, Lorraine Daston demonstrates how this view profoundly shaped the internal development of probability theory and defined its applications.
Author: Lawrence R. Pasternack
Throughout his career, Kant engaged with many of the fundamental questions in philosophy of religion: arguments for the existence of God, the soul, the problem of evil, and the relationship between moral belief and practice. Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason is his major work on the subject. This book offers a complete and internally cohesive interpretation of Religion. In contrast to more reductive interpretations, as well as those that characterize Religion as internally inconsistent, Lawrence R. Pasternack defends the rich philosophical theology contained in each of Religion’s four parts, and shows how the doctrines of the "Pure Rational System of Religion" are eminently compatible with the essential principles of Transcendental Idealism. The book also presents and assesses: the philosophical background to Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason the ideas and arguments of the text the continuing importance of Kant’s work to philosophy of religion today.
Questions and Responses
Author: Assoc Prof Andy F Sanders
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
This collection presents a critical discussion and exploration of the late D.Z. Phillips' contemplative approach in the philosophy of religion. What are the main characteristics of this ground-breaking approach, which is inspired by thinkers like Kierkegaard and Wittgenstein and meant as a serious, critical alternative to the mainstream way of doing philosophy of religion? What is its aim, if it is deliberately avoiding apology and defence of faith? How does Phillips' approach relate to systematic, historical and empirical theology and is it really as 'neutral' as he claims it to be? Or is he, perhaps, a certain kind of theologian? What are the implications of his contemplative philosophy for central issues of religious life today, such as petitionary prayer, the hope of 'eternal life' and radical religious diversity? The essays of six distinguished scholars from five different nations critically and sympathetically address these questions and are responded to by Phillips in essays of his own, written briefly before his sudden death in July 2006.
A Simple Calculation That Proves the Ultimate Truth
Author: Dr. Stephen D. Unwin
Publisher: Crown Forum
Does God exist? This is probably the most debated question in the history of mankind. Scholars, scientists, and philosophers have spent their lifetimes trying to prove or disprove the existence of God, only to have their theories crucified by other scholars, scientists, and philosophers. Where the debate breaks down is in the ambiguities and colloquialisms of language. But, by using a universal, unambiguous language—namely, mathematics—can this question finally be answered definitively? That’s what Dr. Stephen Unwin attempts to do in this riveting, accessible, and witty book, The Probability of God. At its core, this groundbreaking book reveals how a math equation developed more than 200 years ago by noted European philosopher Thomas Bayes can be used to calculate the probability that God exists. The equation itself is much more complicated than a simple coin toss (heads, He’s up there running the show; tails, He’s not). Yet Dr. Unwin writes with a clarity that makes his mathematical proof easy for even the nonmathematician to understand and a verve that makes his book a delight to read. Leading you carefully through each step in his argument, he demonstrates in the end that God does indeed exist. Whether you’re a devout believer and agree with Dr. Unwin’s proof or are unsure about all things divine, you will find this provocative book enlightening and engaging. From the Hardcover edition.
Author: Deane-Peter Baker,Patrick Maxwell
This book is an exploration of the content and dimensions of contemporary Continental philosophy of religion. It is also a showcase of the work of some of the philosophers who are, by their scholarship, filling out the meaning of the term Continental philosophy of religion.
Author: Thomas Dick
Category: Christian ethics
Author: Eugene Thomas Long
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This collection of original articles, written by leading contemporary European and American philosophers of religion, is presented in celebration of the publication of the fiftieth volume of the International Journal for Philosophy of Religion. Following the Editor's Introduction, John Macquarrie, Adriaan Peperzak, and Hent de Vries take up central themes in continental philosophy of religion. Macquarrie analyzes postmodernism and its influence in philosophy and theology. Peperzak argues for a form of universality different from that of modern philosophy, and de Vries analyzes an intrinsic and structural relationship between religion and the media. The next three essays discuss issues in analytic philosophy of religion. Philip Quinn argues that religious diversity reduces the epistemic status of exclusivism and makes it possible for a religious person to be justified while living within a pluralistic environment. William Wainwright plumbs the work of Jonathan Edwards in order to better understand debates concerning freedom, determinism, and the problem of evil, and William Hasker asks whether theological incompatibilism is less inimical to traditional theism than some have supposed. Representing the Thomist tradition, Fergus Kerr challenges standard readings of Aquinas on the arguments for the existence of God. David Griffin analyzes the contributions of process philosophy to the problem of evil and the relation between science and religion. Illustrating comparative approaches, Keith Ward argues that the Semitic and Indian traditions have developed a similar concept of God that should be revised in view of post-Enlightenment theories of the individual and the historical. Keith Yandell explores themes in the Indian metaphysical tradition and considers what account of persons is most in accord with reincarnation and karma doctrines. Feminist philosophy of religion is represented in Pamela Anderson's article, in which she argues for a gender-sensitive and more inclusive approach to the craving for infinitude.
Law and Probability
Author: Fraser Watts
Category: Social Science
Published in 1999. How can we reconcile assumptions about the lawfulness of the universe with provision for chance events? Do the ‘laws of nature’ indicate what absolutely must happen, or just what is most likely to happen? These are important questions for both science and theology, and are explored here in the first in-depth coverage of an important but neglected topic. Including perspectives from prestigious contributions, and published with the backing of the International Society for Science and Religion (ISSR), Creation: Law and Probability employs the disciplines of history and philosophy, as well as cosmology, evolutionary biology, and neuroscience in a fascinating dialogue of faith traditions.
A Discourse Pronounced at Burlington, Before the Literary Societies of the University of Vermont, August 6th, 1839
Author: Tayler Lewis
Category: Natural theology
Mathematics and Philosophy
Author: Roger Simons
For the majority of the twentieth century, philosophers of mathematics focused their attention on foundational questions. However, in the last quarter of the century they began to return to basics, and two new schools of thought were created: social constructivism and structuralism. The advent of the computer also led to proofs and development of mathematics assisted by computer, and to questions concerning the role of the computer in mathematics. This book of sixteen original essays is the first to explore this range of new developments in the philosophy of mathematics, in a language accessible to mathematicians. Approximately half the essays were written by mathematicians, and consider questions that philosophers have not yet discussed. The other half, written by philosophers of mathematics, summarise the discussion in that community during the last 35 years. A connection is made in each case to issues relevant to the teaching of mathematics.
An Introduction with Readings
Author: Stuart Brown,Stuart C. Brown
Publisher: Psychology Press
This work introduces philosophical thinking about central aspects of religion. It discusses the classical arguments in the philosophy of religion and combines it with an emphasis on the implications of contemporary science and philosophy of mind.
Author: Y. King-Farlow,W.N. Christensen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book brings together ideas and materials which we have discussed together over the years as friends and colleagues. We draw on four papers published by us both as co-authors and on several more papers published by King-Farlow alone. We wish to thank the editors and publishers of the following journals for permission to make use of matter or points which have appeared in their pages in the years indicated: The Philosophical Quarterly (1957, 1962, 1971); The Thomist (1958, 1971, 1972); The Inter national Philosophical Quarterly (1962); Theoria (1963); The Southern Journal of Philosophy (1963); Sophia (1965, 1967, 1969,1971); Philosoph ical Studies of Eire (1968, 1970, 1971); Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (1968); Analysis (1970); Religious Studies (Cambridge University Press, 1971; we acknowledge a debt to H. D. Lewis, Editor, on page 20). This book is not, however, a collection of reprinted articles. It is a continuous work which deals with a vital cluster of problems in the philosophy of religion. In this work we attempt to utilize both our earlier thoughts, often considerably revised, and our very recent ones in order to argue for the good sense and rationality of making certain strong forms of commitment to some basic elements of primary wisdom in the Judaeo Christian tradition. While pursuing the investigations which have led to the writing of this book we have found ourselves becoming indebted to many individuals and institutions.