Pythagorean-Hodograph Curves: Algebra and Geometry Inseparable

Author: Rida T Farouki

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540733981

Category: Mathematics

Page: 728

View: 5746

By virtue of their special algebraic structures, Pythagorean-hodograph (PH) curves offer unique advantages for computer-aided design and manufacturing, robotics, motion control, path planning, computer graphics, animation, and related fields. This book offers a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of the mathematical theory of PH curves, including algorithms for their construction and examples of their practical applications. It emphasizes the interplay of ideas from algebra and geometry and their historical origins and includes many figures, worked examples, and detailed algorithm descriptions.

Mathematical Methods for Curves and Surfaces

7th International Conference, MMCS 2008, Tønsberg, Norway, June 26-July 1, 2008, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Morten Dæhlen,Michael S. Floater,Tom Lyche,Jean-Louis Merrien,Knut Moerken,Larry L. Schumaker

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642116205

Category: Computers

Page: 446

View: 3787

Advances in Geometric Modeling and Processing

6th International Conference, GMP 2010, Castro Urdiales, Spain, June 16-18, 2010, Proceedings

Author: Bernard Mourrain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642134106

Category: Computers

Page: 315

View: 4308

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Geometric Modeling and Processing, GMP 2010, held in Castro Urdiales, Spain, in June 2010. The 20 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 30 submissions. The papers cover a wide spectrum in the area of geometric modeling and processing and address topics such as solutions of transcendental equations; volume parameterization; smooth curves and surfaces; isogeometric analysis; implicit surfaces; and computational geometry.

Nonlinear Problems of Elasticity

Author: S.S Antman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475741472

Category: Mathematics

Page: 752

View: 5743

The scientists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, led by Jas. Bernoulli and Euler, created a coherent theory of the mechanics of strings and rods undergoing planar deformations. They introduced the basic con cepts of strain, both extensional and flexural, of contact force with its com ponents of tension and shear force, and of contact couple. They extended Newton's Law of Motion for a mass point to a law valid for any deformable body. Euler formulated its independent and much subtler complement, the Angular Momentum Principle. (Euler also gave effective variational characterizations of the governing equations. ) These scientists breathed life into the theory by proposing, formulating, and solving the problems of the suspension bridge, the catenary, the velaria, the elastica, and the small transverse vibrations of an elastic string. (The level of difficulty of some of these problems is such that even today their descriptions are sel dom vouchsafed to undergraduates. The realization that such profound and beautiful results could be deduced by mathematical reasoning from fundamental physical principles furnished a significant contribution to the intellectual climate of the Age of Reason. ) At first, those who solved these problems did not distinguish between linear and nonlinear equations, and so were not intimidated by the latter. By the middle of the nineteenth century, Cauchy had constructed the basic framework of three-dimensional continuum mechanics on the founda tions built by his eighteenth-century predecessors.

Photogrammetric Computer Vision

Statistics, Geometry, Orientation and Reconstruction

Author: Wolfgang Förstner,Bernhard P. Wrobel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319115502

Category: Computers

Page: 816

View: 2129

This textbook offers a statistical view on the geometry of multiple view analysis, required for camera calibration and orientation and for geometric scene reconstruction based on geometric image features. The authors have backgrounds in geodesy and also long experience with development and research in computer vision, and this is the first book to present a joint approach from the converging fields of photogrammetry and computer vision. Part I of the book provides an introduction to estimation theory, covering aspects such as Bayesian estimation, variance components, and sequential estimation, with a focus on the statistically sound diagnostics of estimation results essential in vision metrology. Part II provides tools for 2D and 3D geometric reasoning using projective geometry. This includes oriented projective geometry and tools for statistically optimal estimation and test of geometric entities and transformations and their relations, tools that are useful also in the context of uncertain reasoning in point clouds. Part III is devoted to modelling the geometry of single and multiple cameras, addressing calibration and orientation, including statistical evaluation and reconstruction of corresponding scene features and surfaces based on geometric image features. The authors provide algorithms for various geometric computation problems in vision metrology, together with mathematical justifications and statistical analysis, thus enabling thorough evaluations. The chapters are self-contained with numerous figures and exercises, and they are supported by an appendix that explains the basic mathematical notation and a detailed index. The book can serve as the basis for undergraduate and graduate courses in photogrammetry, computer vision, and computer graphics. It is also appropriate for researchers, engineers, and software developers in the photogrammetry and GIS industries, particularly those engaged with statistically based geometric computer vision methods.

On the Hypotheses Which Lie at the Bases of Geometry

Author: Bernhard Riemann

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3319260421

Category: Mathematics

Page: 172

View: 1320

This book presents William Clifford’s English translation of Bernhard Riemann’s classic text together with detailed mathematical, historical and philosophical commentary. The basic concepts and ideas, as well as their mathematical background, are provided, putting Riemann’s reasoning into the more general and systematic perspective achieved by later mathematicians and physicists (including Helmholtz, Ricci, Weyl, and Einstein) on the basis of his seminal ideas. Following a historical introduction that positions Riemann’s work in the context of his times, the history of the concept of space in philosophy, physics and mathematics is systematically presented. A subsequent chapter on the reception and influence of the text accompanies the reader from Riemann’s times to contemporary research. Not only mathematicians and historians of the mathematical sciences, but also readers from other disciplines or those with an interest in physics or philosophy will find this work both appealing and insightful.

Mathematical Models of Financial Derivatives

Author: Yue-Kuen Kwok

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540686880

Category: Mathematics

Page: 530

View: 8997

This second edition, now featuring new material, focuses on the valuation principles that are common to most derivative securities. A wide range of financial derivatives commonly traded in the equity and fixed income markets are analysed, emphasising aspects of pricing, hedging and practical usage. This second edition features additional emphasis on the discussion of Ito calculus and Girsanovs Theorem, and the risk-neutral measure and equivalent martingale pricing approach. A new chapter on credit risk models and pricing of credit derivatives has been added. Up-to-date research results are provided by many useful exercises.

A Singular Introduction to Commutative Algebra

Author: Gert-Martin Greuel,Gerhard Pfister

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662049635

Category: Mathematics

Page: 588

View: 1210

This book can be understood as a model for teaching commutative algebra, and takes into account modern developments such as algorithmic and computational aspects. As soon as a new concept is introduced, the authors show how the concept can be worked on using a computer. The computations are exemplified with the computer algebra system Singular, developed by the authors. Singular is a special system for polynomial computation with many features for global as well as for local commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. The book includes a CD containing Singular as well as the examples and procedures explained in the book.

An Atlas of Functions

with Equator, the Atlas Function Calculator

Author: Keith B. Oldham,Jan Myland,Jerome Spanier

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387488073

Category: Mathematics

Page: 748

View: 1415

This book comprehensively covers several hundred functions or function families. In chapters that progress by degree of complexity, it starts with simple, integer-valued functions then moves on to polynomials, Bessel, hypergeometric and hundreds more.

Continuous-Time Markov Chains and Applications

A Two-Time-Scale Approach

Author: G. George Yin,Qing Zhang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461443466

Category: Mathematics

Page: 430

View: 302

This book gives a systematic treatment of singularly perturbed systems that naturally arise in control and optimization, queueing networks, manufacturing systems, and financial engineering. It presents results on asymptotic expansions of solutions of Komogorov forward and backward equations, properties of functional occupation measures, exponential upper bounds, and functional limit results for Markov chains with weak and strong interactions. To bridge the gap between theory and applications, a large portion of the book is devoted to applications in controlled dynamic systems, production planning, and numerical methods for controlled Markovian systems with large-scale and complex structures in the real-world problems. This second edition has been updated throughout and includes two new chapters on asymptotic expansions of solutions for backward equations and hybrid LQG problems. The chapters on analytic and probabilistic properties of two-time-scale Markov chains have been almost completely rewritten and the notation has been streamlined and simplified. This book is written for applied mathematicians, engineers, operations researchers, and applied scientists. Selected material from the book can also be used for a one semester advanced graduate-level course in applied probability and stochastic processes.

A History of Vector Analysis

The Evolution of the Idea of a Vectorial System

Author: Michael J. Crowe

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486679101

Category: Mathematics

Page: 270

View: 4453

Prize-winning study traces the rise of the vector concept from the discovery of complex numbers through the systems of hypercomplex numbers to the final acceptance around 1910 of the modern system of vector analysis.

Hamiltonian Structures and Generating Families

Author: Sergio Benenti

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461414997

Category: Mathematics

Page: 258

View: 6179

This book is an enhanced version of an earlier Russian edition. Besides thorough revisions, more emphasis was put on reordering the topics according to a category-theoretical view. This allows the mathematical results to be stated, proved, and understood in a much easier and elegant way. From the reviews of the Russian edition: "The main accent is shifted to the application . . . in geometrical optics, thermostatics and control theory, and not to the Hamiltonian mechanics only. . . . To make the book fairly self-contained, full details of basic definitions and all proofs are included. In this way, the majority of the text can be read without the prerequisite of a course in geometry. The excellent collection of examples illustrates the relatively hard and highly abstract mathematical theory and its hidden difficulties. . . . The book can rise real interest for specialists . . . . The . . . book is a significant input in the modern symplectic geometry and its applications." (Andrey Tsiganov, St. Petersburg State University)

Basic Probability Theory with Applications

Author: Mario Lefebvre

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387749950

Category: Mathematics

Page: 340

View: 466

The main intended audience for this book is undergraduate students in pure and applied sciences, especially those in engineering. Chapters 2 to 4 cover the probability theory they generally need in their training. Although the treatment of the subject is surely su?cient for non-mathematicians, I intentionally avoided getting too much into detail. For instance, topics such as mixed type random variables and the Dirac delta function are only brie?y mentioned. Courses on probability theory are often considered di?cult. However, after having taught this subject for many years, I have come to the conclusion that one of the biggest problems that the students face when they try to learn probability theory, particularly nowadays, is their de?ciencies in basic di?erential and integral calculus. Integration by parts, for example, is often already forgotten by the students when they take a course on probability. For this reason, I have decided to write a chapter reviewing the basic elements of di?erential calculus. Even though this chapter might not be covered in class, the students can refer to it when needed. In this chapter, an e?ort was made to give the readers a good idea of the use in probability theory of the concepts they should already know. Chapter 2 presents the main results of what is known as elementary probability, including Bayes’ rule and elements of combinatorial analysis.

Ludwig Boltzmann

The Man Who Trusted Atoms

Author: Carlo Cercignani

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191606987

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 6012

This book presents the life and personality, the scientific and philosophical work of Ludwig Boltzmann, one of the great scientists who marked the passage from 19th- to 20th-Century physics. His rich and tragic life, ending by suicide at the age of 62, is described in detail. A substantial part of the book is devoted to discussing his scientific and philosophical ideas and placing them in the context of the second half of the 19th century. The fact that Boltzmann was the man who did most to establish that there is a microscopic, atomic structure underlying macroscopic bodies is documented, as is Boltzmann's influence on modern physics, especially through the work of Planck on light quanta and of Einstein on Brownian motion. Boltzmann was the centre of a scientific upheaval, and he has been proved right on many crucial issues. He anticipated Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions and proposed a theory of knowledge based on Darwin. His basic results, when properly understood, can also be stated as mathematical theorems. Some of these have been proved: others are still at the level of likely but unproven conjectures. The main text of this biography is written almost entirely without equations. Mathematical appendices deepen knowledge of some technical aspects of the subject.

Analysis and Design of Univariate Subdivision Schemes

Author: Malcolm Sabin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642136481

Category: Mathematics

Page: 218

View: 389

‘Subdivision’ is a way of representing smooth shapes in a computer. A curve or surface (both of which contain an in?nite number of points) is described in terms of two objects. One object is a sequence of vertices, which we visualise as a polygon, for curves, or a network of vertices, which we visualise by drawing the edges or faces of the network, for surfaces. The other object is a set of rules for making denser sequences or networks. When applied repeatedly, the denser and denser sequences are claimed to converge to a limit, which is the curve or surface that we want to represent. This book focusses on curves, because the theory for that is complete enough that a book claiming that our understanding is complete is exactly what is needed to stimulate research proving that claim wrong. Also because there are already a number of good books on subdivision surfaces. The way in which the limit curve relates to the polygon, and a lot of interesting properties of the limit curve, depend on the set of rules, and this book is about how one can deduce those properties from the set of rules, and how one can then use that understanding to construct rules which give the properties that one wants.

Geometry, Algebra and Applications: From Mechanics to Cryptography

Author: Marco Castrillón López,Luis Hernández Encinas,Pedro Martínez Gadea,Ma Eugenia Rosado María

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319320858

Category: Science

Page: 198

View: 8411

This volume collects contributions written by different experts in honor of Prof. Jaime Muñoz Masqué. It covers a wide variety of research topics, from differential geometry to algebra, but particularly focuses on the geometric formulation of variational calculus; geometric mechanics and field theories; symmetries and conservation laws of differential equations, and pseudo-Riemannian geometry of homogeneous spaces. It also discusses algebraic applications to cryptography and number theory. It offers state-of-the-art contributions in the context of current research trends. The final result is a challenging panoramic view of connecting problems that initially appear distant.

Continuous-Time Markov Decision Processes

Theory and Applications

Author: Xianping Guo,Onesimo Hernandez-Lerma

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642025471

Category: Mathematics

Page: 234

View: 727

Continuous-time Markov decision processes (MDPs), also known as controlled Markov chains, are used for modeling decision-making problems that arise in operations research (for instance, inventory, manufacturing, and queueing systems), computer science, communications engineering, control of populations (such as fisheries and epidemics), and management science, among many other fields. This volume provides a unified, systematic, self-contained presentation of recent developments on the theory and applications of continuous-time MDPs. The MDPs in this volume include most of the cases that arise in applications, because they allow unbounded transition and reward/cost rates. Much of the material appears for the first time in book form.

Single-Facility Location Problems with Barriers

Author: Kathrin Klamroth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387227075

Category: Mathematics

Page: 202

View: 9895

This text develops the mathematical implications of barriers to the geometrical and analytical characteristics of continuous location problems. The book will appeal to those working in operations research and management science, and mathematicians interested in optimization theory and its applications.

Linear Models and Generalizations

Least Squares and Alternatives

Author: C. Radhakrishna Rao,Helge Toutenburg,Shalabh,Christian Heumann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540742271

Category: Mathematics

Page: 572

View: 3434

Revised and updated with the latest results, this Third Edition explores the theory and applications of linear models. The authors present a unified theory of inference from linear models and its generalizations with minimal assumptions. They not only use least squares theory, but also alternative methods of estimation and testing based on convex loss functions and general estimating equations. Highlights of coverage include sensitivity analysis and model selection, an analysis of incomplete data, an analysis of categorical data based on a unified presentation of generalized linear models, and an extensive appendix on matrix theory.

Advances in Robot Kinematics: Analysis and Control

Author: Jadran Lenarčič,Manfred L. Husty

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401590648

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 582

View: 3488

The contributions in this book were presented at the sixth international symposium on Advances in Robot Kinematics organised in June/July 1998 in Strobl/Salzburg in Austria. The preceding symposia of the series took place in Ljubljana (1988), Linz (1990), Ferrara (1992), Ljubljana (1994), and Piran (1996). Ever since its first event, ARK has attracted the most outstanding authors in the area and managed to create a perfect combination of professionalism and friendly athmosphere. We are glad to observe that, in spite of a strong competition of many international conferences and meetings, ARK is continuing to grow in terms of the number of participants and in terms of its scientific impact. In its ten years, ARK has contributed to develop a remarkable scientific community in the area of robot kinematics. The last four symposia were organised under the patronage of the International Federation for the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms -IFToMM. interest to researchers, doctoral students and teachers, The book is of engineers and mathematicians specialising in kinematics of robots and mechanisms, mathematical modelling, simulation, design, and control of robots. It is divided into sections that were found as the prevalent areas of the contemporary kinematics research. As it can easily be noticed, an important part of the book is dedicated to various aspects of the kinematics of parallel mechanisms that persist to be one of the most attractive areas of research in robot kinematics.