Reasons and Persons

Author: Derek Parfit

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191622443

Category: Philosophy

Page: 560

View: 7231

This book challenges, with several powerful arguments, some of our deepest beliefs about rationality, morality, and personal identity. The author claims that we have a false view of our own nature; that it is often rational to act against our own best interests; that most of us have moral views that are directly self-defeating; and that, when we consider future generations the conclusions will often be disturbing. He concludes that moral non-religious moral philosophy is a young subject, with a promising but unpredictable future.

Reasons and Persons

Author: Derek Parfit

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191519847

Category: Philosophy

Page: 560

View: 7955

This book challenges, with several powerful arguments, some of our deepest beliefs about rationality, morality, and personal identity. The author claims that we have a false view of our own nature; that it is often rational to act against our own best interests; that most of us have moral views that are directly self-defeating; and that, when we consider future generations the conclusions will often be disturbing. He concludes that moral non-religious moral philosophy is a young subject, with a promising but unpredictable future.

Reasons and Persons

Author: Derek Parfit

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019824908X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 543

View: 8345

This book challenges, with several powerful arguments, some of our deepest beliefs about rationality, morality, and personal identity. The author claims that we have a false view of our own nature; that it is often rational to act against our own best interests; that most of us have moral views that are directly self-defeating; and that, when we consider future generations the conclusions will often be disturbing. He concludes that moral non-religious moralphilosophy is a young subject, with a promising but unpredictable future.

Reasons Without Persons

Rationality, Identity, and Time

Author: Brian Hedden

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198732597

Category: Identity (Philosophical concept)

Page: 210

View: 8121

Brian Hedden defends a radical view about the relationship between rationality, personal identity, and time. On the standard view, personal identity over time plays a central role in thinking about rationality, because there are rational norms for how a person's attitudes and actions at one time should fit with her attitudes and actions at other times. But these norms are problematic. They make what you rationally ought to believe or do depend on facts about yourpast that aren't part of your current perspective on the world, and they make rationality depend on controversial, murky metaphysical facts about what binds different instantaneous snapshots (or'time-slices') into a single person extended in time. Hedden takes a different approach, treating the relationship between different time-slices of the same person as no different from the relationship between different people. On his account, the locus of rationality is the time-slice rather than the temporally extended agent. This impersonal, time-slice-centric approach to rationality yields a unified approach to the rationality of beliefs, preferences, and actions where what rationalitydemands of you is solely determined by your evidence, with no special weight given to your past beliefs or actions.

Moral Reason

Author: Julia Markovits

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199567174

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 5667

What is it to have a reason to do something? is one sort of question; what is it we have reason to do? is another. These questions are often explored separately. But our answers to them may not be independent: what reasons are may have implications for what reasons there are. In Moral Reason, Julia Markovits develops and defends a version of a desire-based, internalist, account of what normative reasons are. But doesthat account entail that there are no moral reasons that apply to all of us, regardless of what we happen to desire? It may look obvious that it does--that a bullet must be bitten somewhere. But on Markovits' account, the bullet may yet be avoided. She builds on Kant's argument for his formula of humanity to provide an internalist defense ofuniversal moral reasons, and provides a more satisfying answer to the age-old question: why be moral?

On What Matters

Volume One

Author: Derek Parfit

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199681031

Category: Philosophy

Page: 592

View: 8349

This is the first volume of a major work in moral philosophy, the long-awaited follow-up to Parfit's classic Reasons and Persons, a landmark of 20th-century philosophy. Parfit presents a powerful new treatment of reasons and a critical examination of the most prominent systematic moral theories, leading to his own ground-breaking conclusion.

Faith with Reason

Author: Paul Helm

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198238454

Category: Philosophy

Page: 185

View: 6461

Paul Helm presents a new study of the nature of religious faith, investigating what makes it reasonable. Religious belief needs to meet and sustain philosophical scrutiny just as any other type of belief does; nothing about religion purchases immunity from this. But at the same time religious epistemology must also respect the contours of religion, the distinctiveness of the subject-matter of religious belief. Helm looks sympathetically at two currently prominent ways of defending the rationality of religious belief: 'Reformed' epistemology and the cumulative case for theism. He argues that the reasonableness of faith depends not only on beliefs about the world but also on beliefs about oneself (for instance about what one wants, about one's hopes and fears) and on what one is willing to trust. Helm goes on to look at the relations between belief and trust, and between faith and virtue, and concludes with an exploration of one particular type of belief about oneself, the belief that one is oneself a believer. This is a book for anyone interested in the basis of religious faith.

Weighing Reasons

Author: Barry Maguire

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199315191

Category: Decision making

Page: 312

View: 9434

In recent decades normative reasons-considerations that count in favor of one thing or another-have come to the theoretical fore in ethics and epistemology. A major attraction of normative reasons is that they have weight or strength. Reasons are particular considerations that count in favor of actions or attitudes to some degree. This feature is attractive to theorists who want to explain more complex normative phenomena in terms of a notion that is weighted. This volume aims to provide the beginnings for a theory of weight. The fourteen new essays fall into three groups. One set of essays addresses questions about the nature of weight. Topics include the relations between reasons and conditions and modifiers, between reasons and other weighted notions such as commitments, and different models of the interaction of reasons. A second set of essays addresses substantive questions: questions about weight relevant to value-first, desire-first, evidence-first and other normative research programs. A third set of essays applies issues in the theory of weight to broader ethical debates. The book thus not only makes novel contributions to debates in ethics and epistemology about the nature of normative reasons and their weight, it also makes a strong case for the theoretical fruitfulness of the ideology of normative reasons.

What We Owe to Each Other

Author: Thomas Scanlon

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674950894

Category: Philosophy

Page: 420

View: 9036

How do we judge whether an action is morally right or wrong? If an action is wrong, what reason does that give us not to do it? Why should we give such reasons priority over our other concerns and values? In this book, T. M. Scanlon offers new answers to these questions, as they apply to the central part of morality that concerns what we owe to each other. According to his contractualist view, thinking about right and wrong is thinking about what we do in terms that could be justified to others and that they could not reasonably reject. He shows how the special authority of conclusions about right and wrong arises from the value of being related to others in this way, and he shows how familiar moral ideas such as fairness and responsibility can be understood through their role in this process of mutual justification and criticism. Scanlon bases his contractualism on a broader account of reasons, value, and individual well-being that challenges standard views about these crucial notions. He argues that desires do not provide us with reasons, that states of affairs are not the primary bearers of value, and that well-being is not as important for rational decision-making as it is commonly held to be. Scanlon is a pluralist about both moral and non-moral values. He argues that, taking this plurality of values into account, contractualism allows for most of the variability in moral requirements that relativists have claimed, while still accounting for the full force of our judgments of right and wrong.

The Last Word

Author: Thomas Nagel

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195149838

Category: Philosophy

Page: 147

View: 7874

"...[a] subtle, compact, and forceful book.... is a work of philosophical reflection...a significant contribution to the culture wars of our time."--New York Review of Books "...a ringing defense of the rationalist conception of reason...a book that should be read and pondered in this golden age of subjectivism."--Colin McGinn, The New Republic

The Normativity of Rationality

Author: Benjamin Kiesewetter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198754280

Category: Philosophy

Page: 344

View: 4291

Sometimes our intentions and beliefs exhibit a structure that proves us to be irrational. The Normativity of Rationality is concerned with the question of whether we ought to avoid such irrationality. Benjamin Kiesewetter defends the normativity of rationality by presenting a new solution to the problems that arise from the common assumption that we ought to be rational. The argument touches upon many other topics in the theory of normativity, such as the form and the content of rational requirements, the preconditions of criticism, and the function of reasons in deliberation and advice. Drawing on an extensive and careful assessment of the problems discussed in the literature, Kiesewetter provides a detailed defence of a reason-response conception of rationality, a novel, evidence-relative account of reasons, and an explanation of structural irrationality in terms of these accounts.

God and the Philosophers

The Reconciliation of Faith and Reason

Author: Thomas V. Morris

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195101195

Category: Philosophy

Page: 285

View: 7660

God and the Philosophers offers a series of highly personal, thoughtful essays by traditionally religious philosophers, such as William P. Alston, William J. Wainsright, and Marilyn McCord Adams, revealing the power of belief in their intellectually rigorous lives and work.

A Theory of Discrimination Law

Author: Tarunabh Khaitan

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199656967

Category: Political Science

Page: 300

View: 2765

This book provides a general theory of discrimination law as practised in liberal democratic jurisdictions. Rejecting accounts that place the value of equality at the heart of the law, it argues that discrimination law protects individual autonomy. Applying the theory, the book tackles the central legal problems in applying discrimination laws.

Being Realistic about Reasons

Author: T. M. Scanlon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199678480

Category: Philosophy

Page: 132

View: 1517

T. M. Scanlon offers a qualified defense of normative cognitivism: the view that there are irreducibly normative truths about reasons for action. He responds to three familiar objections--that such truths would have troubling metaphysical implications; that we would have no way of knowing what they are; and that the role of reasons in motivating and explaining action could not be explained if accepting a conclusion about reasons for action were a kind ofbelief--and goes on to argue that the method of reflective equilibrium, properly understood, provides an adequate account of how we come to know both normative truths and mathematical truths, and that the ideaof a rational agent explains the link between an agent's normative beliefs and his or her actions.

Oxford Essential Polish Dictionary

Author: N.A

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199580499

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 496

View: 4040

Contains English to Polish and Polish to English translations of 45,000 words and phrases, and includes a pronunciation guide and other resources.

Evidence and Agency

Norms of Belief for Promising and Resolving

Author: Berislav Marušić

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198714041

Category: Act (Philosophy)

Page: 256

View: 3946

Evidence and Agency is concerned with the question of how, as agents, we should take evidence into account when thinking about our future actions. Sometimes we promise and resolve to do things that we have evidence is difficult for us to do. Should we believe that we will follow through, or believe that there is a good chance that we won't? If you believe the former, you seem to be irrational since you believe against the evidence. Yet if you believe thelatter, you seem to be insincere since you can't sincerely say that you will follow through. Hence, it seems, your promise or resolution must be improper. To meet this challenge, Berislav Marušićconsiders and rejects a number of responses, before defending instead a solution inspired by the Kantian tradition and by Sartre in particular: as agents, we have a distinct view of what we will do. If something is up to us, we can decide what to do, rather than predict what we will do. But the reasons in light of which a decision is rational are not the same as the reasons in light of which a prediction is rational. That is why, provided it is important to us to do something we can rationallybelieve that we will do it, even if our belief goes against the evidence.

Personal Identity

Author: John Perry

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520256422

Category: Philosophy

Page: 346

View: 2323

This volume brings together the vital contributions of distinguished past and contemporary philosophers to the important topic of personal identity. The essays range from John Locke's classic seventeenth-century attempt to analyze personal identity in terms of memory, to twentieth-century defenses and criticisms of the Lockean view by Anthony Quinton, H.P. Grice, Sydney Shoemaker, David Hume, Joseph Butler, Thomas Reid, and Bernard Williams. New to the second edition are Shoemaker's seminal essay "Persons and Their Pasts," selections from the important and previously unpublished Clark-Collins correspondence, and a new paper by Perry discussing Williams.

The Oxford History of Greece and the Hellenistic World

Author: John Boardman,Jasper Griffin,Oswyn Murray

Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks

ISBN: 0191500623

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 6953

A comprehensive view of the ancient Greek world, its history and its achievements. The legacy of the Hellenistic world is vast--it ranges from architecture to philosophy, literature, and the visual arts to military strategy and science. This authoritative study covers the period from the eighth century BC, which witnessed the emergence of the Greek city-states, to the conquests of Alexander the Great and the establishment of the Greek monarchies some five centuries later. Chapters dealing with political and social history are interspersed with chapters on philosophy and the arts, including Homer, Greek myth, Aristotle, and Plato, Greek dramatists such as Sophocles and Aristophanes, and the flourishing of the visual and plastic arts. This volume, first published as part of The Oxford History of the Classical World, includes illustrations, maps, a Chronology of Events, and suggestions for Further Reading.

Pocket Oxford English Dictionary

Author: Catherine Soanes

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198605713

Category: Reference

Page: 1083

View: 1250

This is a reissue of the ninth edition of the world's longest-established and best-selling pocket English dictionary. It is one of the new generation Oxford dictionaries derived from the database of the highly-acclaimed New Oxford Dictionary of English and is particularly user friendly with its elegant open design, with different elements starting on new lines. It offers excellent coverage of English as an international language, the defining style is straightforward and non-technical, andthousands of examples illustrate idiomatic usage. All irregular noun, verb, and adjectival inflections are spelled out in full, while guidance on grammar and good usage is provided by in-text notes. Additional features include Wordbuilder boxes giving information on related words and thematic tables on subjects such as countries, chemical elements, and nationalities. This title replaces ISBN: 0-19-861334-2.

The Importance of Being Rational

Author: Errol Lord

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198815093

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 4214

Errol Lord offers a new account of the nature of rationality: what it is for one to be rational is to correctly respond to the normative reasons one possesses. Lord defends novel views about what it is to possess reasons and what it is to correctly respond to reasons, and dispels doubts about whether we ought to be rational.