Reshaping Agriculture for Nutrition and Health

Author: Shenggen Fan,Rajul Pandya-Lorch

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896296733

Category: Social Science

Page: 213

View: 4533

The fundamental purpose of agriculture is not just to produce food and raw materials, but also to grow healthy, well-nourished people. One of the sector’s most important tasks then is to provide food of sufficient quantity and quality to feed and nourish the world’s population sustainably so that all people can lead healthy, productive lives. Achieving this goal will require closer collaboration across the sectors of agriculture, nutrition, and health, which have long operated in separate spheres with little recognition of how their actions affect each other. It is time for agriculture, nutrition, and health to join forces in pursuit of the common goal of improving human well-being. In Reshaping Agriculture for Nutrition and Health, leading experts, practitioners, and policymakers explore the links among agriculture, nutrition, and health and identify ways to strengthen related policies and programs. The chapters in this book were originally commissioned as background papers or policy briefs for the conference “Leveraging Agriculture for Improving Nutrition and Health,” facilitated by the International Food Policy Research Institute’s 2020 Vision Initiative in New Delhi, India, in February 2011.

Impact Assessment: IFPRI 2020 conference "Leveraging Agriculture for Improving Nutrition and Health"

Author: Paarlberg, Robert

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 90

View: 5550

The IFPRI 2020 Conference on “Leveraging Agriculture for Improving Nutrition and Health” was held in New Delhi, India, February 10–12, 2011, and attracted more than 900 attendees. Conference activities included 12 plenary sessions, 15 parallel sessions, 14 side events, an ongoing knowledge fair with more than 25 exhibit booths and tables, six informal discussion groups, and roughly 30 “rapid fire” presentations during coffee breaks. Assessing the impact of this Conference is a task complicated by multiple issues such as assessment coverage and impact attribution. The assessment methods used here include surveys of conferees, Internet searches, website and literature searches, and extensive personal interviews. Distinctions are drawn between short-term and medium-term impacts, and also among impacts on individuals, on institutions, and on professional discourse. Impacts on individual conferees were measured through pre- and post-Conference surveys and telephone interviews. The impacts on the substantive views of those who attended the Conference were found to be small. Most conferees (75 percent) came to Delhi already convinced that a cross-sector approach to agriculture, nutrition, and health (ANH) was appropriate. At the individual level, the Conference impacted motivation and empowerment more than beliefs. The Conference gave those who attended new information, new networking opportunities, and various “positioning advantages” that made them more effective within their own institutions back home. Such advantages were primarily important in the short term. Regarding impacts on institutions, the 2020 Conference produced important but mixed results. Direct impacts on national governments were small, in part because ministerial structures and bureaucratic routines in governments are traditionally segregated by sector, and resistant to anything more than incremental change. Direct impacts from the 2020 Conference on private companies and NGOs were also modest, but for a different reason: these institutions are inherently comfortable working across sectors, so most of the private companies and NGOs participating in the Conference felt little need to change. The strongest institutional impacts from the Conference came within a category of organizations that wanted to integrate nutrition with agriculture, but were unsure of how, or how quickly, to move forward. These institutions included the CGIAR itself as it moved to create the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (CRP4); the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as it responded to an internal evaluation of its own work in nutrition; and a number of donor institutions including most prominently the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID), which used the materials and policy energy generated by the 2020 Conference to help guide and push a major expansion of bilateral funding into the ANH arena. These DFID responses alone were a large enough payoff to mark the Conference a success. A third significant impact from the Conference was on professional discourse. The 2020 Conference helped change the conversation about agriculture and food security by boosting the frequency of reference to cross-sector impacts on both nutrition and health. Impact measurement becomes difficult here, because the Conference was not the only initiative highlighting cross-sector linkages underway. Nonetheless, the average number of Google Internet hits per search for the phrase “linking agriculture, nutrition, and health” increased from 9,288 in the pre-Conference period to 13,508 in the immediate post-Conference period of March–May 2011. Searches of organization websites revealed that 18 of 21 of the sites had more links to agriculture, nutrition, and health issues immediately following the Conference compared to just before, and 20 of 21 had an even higher number of such links one year later in July 2012. The most obvious limitation on impact has been at the level of national government policy (excluding donor policies). Partly this reflects attendance. Only 19 percent of those who attended the 2020 Conference were government officials, compared to 41 percent who came from research institutes or universities. Yet, even where Conference impacts on governments might have seemed probable, they have proved (so far) to be mostly tentative or modest. The government of Malawi co-hosted its own version of the 2020 Conference in Lilongwe in September 2011. While this was an important step, the Conference was donor-suggested and donor-funded, and senior officials from the Ministry of Health were unable to attend.In Uganda, the 2020 Conference helped sustain an effort to mainstream nutrition within the Ministry of Agriculture. However, this effort was underway before the Conference, and parallel efforts from USAID, WFP, and FAO did as much to sustain it.In China, the leadership of the State Food and Nutrition Consultation Committee was briefed on 2020 Conference materials, which may have helped to establish a new (but already approved) food safety and nutrition development institute at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). Since Chinese leaders had been unable to attend the Conference itself, impacts in the country also depended heavily on a separate outreach effort by IFPRI leadership.In India, national officials and researchers—and IFPRI—made concerted efforts to use the Conference to shape language in the new 12th Five-Year Plan (2012–16). While some engaged in this effort claimed progress in that direction, nothing definitive has emerged and in India it appears that little has changed in the traditional separation between the agriculture ministry and the nutrition and health sectors. The Conference’s largest impacts within India were felt at the individual level, at the level of discourse, or within some state administrations, not within national governmental institutions. What can one reasonably expect when looking for impacts from a single international Conference? In the case of the 2020 Conference in Delhi, where the goal was to change the way individuals and institutions were thinking about ANH issues and considering them in professional discourse, measurable progress was made toward each of these goals in both the short term and the medium term. IFPRI took a risk by designing the Delhi Conference to challenge traditional paradigms. This assessment shows that, in both the short term and medium term, the risk has been rewarded.

International Development

Ideas, Experience, and Prospects

Author: Bruce Currie-Alder,Ravi Kanbur,David M. Malone,Rohinton Medhora

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199671656

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 943

View: 6158

Thinking on development informs and inspires the actions of people, organizations and states in their continuous effort to invent a better world. This volume examines the ideas behind development: their origins, how they changed and spread over time, and how they may evolve over the coming decades. It also examines the real-life experiences of different countries and organizations have been inspired by, and contributed to, thinking on development. Each chapterwill be an analytical survey of thinking about development, highlighting debates and taking into account critical perspectives. The volume is intended as a key reference on the range of concepts used tothink about development -their origins, evolution and trajectories- and act as a resource for an audience of scholars, graduate students and practitioners.

2011 Global Food Policy Report

Author: International Food Policy Research Institute

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 9780896295490

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 5034

Nourishing millions: Stories of change in nutrition: Synopsis

Author: Yosef, Sivan,Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896299902

Category: Political Science

Page: 4

View: 6777

In recent years, the world has seen unprecedented attention and political commitment to addressing malnutrition. Milestones such as the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Movement, the Lancet Maternal and Child Nutrition Series, and the Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) have marked the rapid rise of nutrition on the global policy and research agenda. These developments reverse years of relative neglect for nutrition. Undernutrition is a global challenge with huge social and economic costs. It kills millions of young children annually, stunts growth, erodes child development, reduces the amount of schooling children attain, and increases the likelihood of their being poor as adults, if they survive. Stunting persists through a lifetime and beyond—underweight mothers are more likely to give birth to underweight children, perpetuating undernutrition across generations. Undernutrition reduces global gross domestic product by US$1.4–$2.1 trillion a year—the size of the total economy of Africa south of the Sahara.

Agriculture, food security, and nutrition in Malawi: Leveraging the links

Author: Aberman, Noora-Lisa,Meerman, Janice,Benson, Todd

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 089629286X

Category: Political Science

Page: 82

View: 5210

Although the Malawian food supply is shaped largely by trends in smallholder food crop production, Ma­lawi’s decades-long focus on improving smallholder productivity has only moderately improved food secu­rity and nutrition outcomes. Country statistics indicate an estimated 36.7 percent of rural Malawian house­holds failed to access sufficient calories between 2010 and 2011. During the same period, 47 percent of children under the age of five years were esti­mated to be stunted in their growth. These indicators imply that some Malawian diets are lacking in terms of quantity (total calories consumed), and most are lacking in terms of quality (sufficient calories derived from nutrient-dense foods, such as meat, fish, eggs, dairy, legumes, fruits, and vegetables). Good nutrition requires both enough total calories (quantity) and enough vitamins and minerals per calorie (quality). How can Malawi better leverage its smallholder agriculture sector to improve nutrition? This report provides a series of primary and secondary data anal­yses that examine different aspects of this question.

Ecological Public Health

Reshaping the Conditions for Good Health

Author: Geof Rayner,Tim Lang

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136482709

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 5416

What is public health? To some, it is about drains, water, food and housing, all requiring engineering and expert management. To others, it is the State using medicine or health education and tackling unhealthy lifestyles. This book argues that public health thinking needs an overhaul, a return to and modernisation around ecological principles. Ecological Public Health thinking, outlined here, fits the twenty-first century’s challenges. It integrates what the authors call the four dimensions of existence: the material, biological, social and cultural aspects of life. Public health becomes the task of transforming the relationship between people, their circumstances and the biological world of nature and bodies. For Geof Rayner and Tim Lang, this is about facing a number of long-term transitions, some well recognized, others not. These transitions are Demographic, Epidemiological, Urban, Energy, Economic, Nutrition, Biological, Cultural and Democracy itself. The authors argue that identifying large scale transitions such as these refocuses public health actions onto the conditions on which human and eco-systems health interact. Making their case, Rayner and Lang map past confusions in public health images, definitions and models. This is an optimistic book, arguing public health can be rescued from its current dilemmas and frustrations. This century’s agenda is unavoidably complex, however, and requires stronger and more daring combinations of interdisciplinary work, movements and professions locally, nationally and globally. Outlining these in the concluding section, the book charts a positive and reinvigorated institutional purpose.

Diversifying Food and Diets

Using Agricultural Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition and Health

Author: Jessica Fanzo,Danny Hunter,Teresa Borelli,Federico Mattei

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136461469

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 1368

Currently 868 million people are undernourished and 195 million children under five years of age are stunted. At the same time, over 1 billion people are overweight and obese in both the developed and developing world. Diseases previously associated with affluence, such as cancer, diabetes and cardio-vascular disease, are on the rise. Food system-based approaches to addressing these problems that could enhance food availability and diet quality through local production and agricultural biodiversity often fall outside the traditional scope of nutrition, and have been under-researched. As a consequence, there remains insufficient evidence to support well-defined, scalable agricultural biodiversity interventions that can be linked to improvements in nutrition outcomes. Agricultural biodiversity is important for food and nutritional security, as a safeguard against hunger, a source of nutrients for improved dietary diversity and quality, and strengthening local food systems and environmental sustainability. This book explores the current state of knowledge on the role of agricultural biodiversity in improving diets, nutrition and food security. Using examples and case studies from around the globe, the book explores current strategies for improving nutrition and diets and identifies key research and implementation gaps that need to be addressed to successfully promote the better use of agricultural biodiversity for rural and urban populations and societies in transition.

International Nutrition: Achieving Millennium Goals and Beyond

Author: R.E. Black,A. Singhal,R. Uauy

Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 3318025313

Category: Medical

Page: 181

View: 7033

The UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in nutrition are at the core of this book, with special attention to young women and their children. The first part is dedicated to the overall analysis of the world nutrition situation as related to achieving the MDG. The chapters cover the global distribution of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in young women and infants, and the disease burden related to it. The second part reviews the measures taken to achieve the MDG and the potential contributions of nutrition-specific and disease control interventions (particularly with regard to reducing child and maternal mortality), as well as the possible role of sectors other than health. The last part looks into the future, scrutinizing the causes and consequences of non-communicable disease in both the developing and developed world, as well as reviewing the latest scientific evidence for underlying mechanisms and discussing the implications for public health and policy makers.

Sustainable Diets

How Ecological Nutrition Can Transform Consumption and the Food System

Author: Pamela Mason,Tim Lang

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317770021

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 5442

How can huge populations be fed healthily, equitably and affordably while maintaining the ecosystems on which life depends? The evidence of diet’s impact on public health and the environment has grown in recent decades, yet changing food supply, consumer habits and economic aspirations proves hard. This book explores what is meant by sustainable diets and why this has to be the goal for the Anthropocene, the current era in which human activities are driving the mismatch of humans and the planet. Food production and consumption are key drivers of transitions already underway, yet policy makers hesitate to reshape public eating habits and tackle the unsustainability of the global food system. The authors propose a multi-criteria approach to sustainable diets, giving equal weight to nutrition and public health, the environment, socio-cultural issues, food quality, economics and governance. This six-pronged approach to sustainable diets brings order and rationality to what either is seen as too complex to handle or is addressed simplistically and ineffectually. The book provides a major overview of this vibrant issue of interdisciplinary and public interest. It outlines the reasons for concern and how actors throughout the food system (governments, producers, civil society and consumers) must engage with (un)sustainable diets.

Concentration and Power in the Food System

Who Controls What We Eat?

Author: Philip H. Howard

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472581148

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 1551

Nearly every day brings news of another merger or acquisition involving the companies that control our food supply. Just how concentrated has this system become? At almost every key stage of the food system, four firms alone control 40% or more of the market, a level above which these companies have the power to drive up prices for consumers and reduce their rate of innovation. Researchers have identified additional problems resulting from these trends, including negative impacts on the environment, human health, and communities. This book reveals the dominant corporations, from the supermarket to the seed industry, and the extent of their control over markets. It also analyzes the strategies these firms are using to reshape society in order to further increase their power, particularly in terms of their bearing upon the more vulnerable sections of society, such as recent immigrants, ethnic minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. Yet this study also shows that these trends are not inevitable. Opposed by numerous efforts, from microbreweries to seed saving networks, it explores how such opposition has encouraged the most powerful firms to make small but positive changes.

Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South

Author: Jemimah Njuki,John R. Parkins,Amy Kaler

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317190017

Category: Social Science

Page: 326

View: 5406

Drawing on studies from Africa, Asia and South America, this book provides empirical evidence and conceptual explorations of the gendered dimensions of food security. It investigates how food security and gender inequity are conceptualized within interventions, assesses the impacts and outcomes of gender-responsive programs on food security and gender equity and addresses diverse approaches to gender research and practice that range from descriptive and analytical to strategic and transformative. The chapters draw on diverse theoretical perspectives, including transformative learning, feminist theory, deliberative democracy and technology adoption. As a result, they add important conceptual and empirical material to a growing literature on the challenges of gender equity in agricultural production. A unique feature of this book is the integration of both analytic and transformative approaches to understanding gender and food security. The analytic material shows how food security interventions enable women and men to meet the long-term nutritional needs of their households, and to enhance their economic position. The transformative chapters also document efforts to build durable and equitable relationships between men and women, addressing underlying social, cultural and economic causes of gender inequality. Taken together, these combined approaches enable women and men to reflect on gendered divisions of labor and resources related to food, and to reshape these divisions in ways which benefit families and communities. Co-published with the International Development Research Centre.

Rural Development and Credit Hearing Before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U. S. Senate

Author: DIANE Publishing Company

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 9780788149740

Category:

Page: 172

View: 3022

Discusses consolidation of Federal rural development programs and the availability and delivery of agricultural credit. Presents testimony and prepared statements from Committee members as well as reps. from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture; Farm Credit System; Univ. of Kentucky; Great Atlantic Mortgage Service Corp.; Nat. Family Farm Coalition; North Dakota Agricultural Mediation Service; Indiana Statewide Assoc. of Rural Electric Coops.; Coastal Enterprises, Inc.; Nat. Rural Water Assoc., etc. Includes position statements from the Nat. Alliance for Fair Competition; Nat. Rural Housing Coalition; the Center for Rural Affairs, and others.

A4NH 2013 Annual Report

Author: Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH)

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 32

View: 7053

In its second full year, the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) has progressed from establishing its research agenda and partnerships, to identifying and assessing key drivers of change, the role of different actors, and the potential for different approaches to catalyze change and improve the nutrition and health of poor communities.

Health Benefits of Green Tea

An Evidence-based Approach

Author: Yukihiko Hara,Chung S Yang,Mamoru Isemura,Isao Tomita

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1786392399

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 260

View: 8827

This book provides evidence to support the health-promoting components of green tea for human health. It explores the significance of green tea and its catechins represented by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), demonstrating their beneficial effects on diseases including cancer, obesity, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, hepatitis, and neurodegenerative diseases. The present status of human studies and avenues for future research are discussed. It is written by a team of experts from across the globe and makes significant Japanese findings available to international researchers. It is an essential resource for researchers interested in the biochemistry and pharmacology of green tea, and functional foods and beverages.

Millions Fed

Proven Successes in Agricultural Development

Author: David J. Spielman,Rajul Pandya-Lorch

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 089629661X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 165

View: 4245

Humanity has made enormous progress in the past 50 years toward eliminating hunger and malnutrition. Some five billion people--more than 80 percent of the world's population--have enough food to live healthy, productive lives. Agricultural development has contributed significantly to these gains, while also fostering economic growth and poverty reduction in some of the world's poorest countries.

Africa Human Development Report 2012

Towards a Food Secure Future

Author: United Nations Development Programme

Publisher: United Nations Publications

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 6941

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of hunger in the world. Until this situation improves, the human development prospects of millions of Africans will remain at risk. UNDP's first Africa Human Development Report shows that food security and human development reinforce each other. If African countries are to realise their long-term potential, the report says, they must boost agricultural productivity to both improve the availability of food and reduce poverty. Policies to enhance nutrition are central to ensuring that access to food translates into human development. The report argues further that local populations must have the resources and decision-making power to produce and consume nutritious food throughout the year, overcoming the risks represented by continuing conflict, climate change and variations in food prices.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020

Author: HHS, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (U.S.),USDA , Center for Nutrition Policy Promotion (U.S.)

Publisher: Government Printing Office

ISBN: 0160934656

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 152

View: 1906

Get your copy of this new and updated edition today! Provides authoritative advice about how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. Gives action steps to reach achievable goals in weight control, stronger muscle and bones, and balanced nutrition to help prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes and some cancers.