Scaling Physiological Processes

Leaf to Globe

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323139574

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 7880

Traditional plant physiological ecology is organism centered and provides a useful framework for understanding the interactions between plants and their environment and for identifying characteristics likely to result in plant success in a particular habitat. This book focuses on extending concepts from plant physiological ecology as a basis for understanding carbon, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at ecosystem, regional, and global levels. This will be a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in ecology, plant ecophysiology, ecosystem research, biometerology, earth system science, and remote sensing. Key Features * The integration of metabolic activities across spatial scales, from leaf to ecosystem * Global constraints and regional processes * Functional units in ecological scaling * Models and technologies for scaling

Scaling in Integrated Assessment

Author: D.S. Rothman,J. Rotmans

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203971000

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 374

View: 6270

A collection of papers prepared for the European Forum on Integrated Environmental Assessment's (EFIEA) Policy Workshop on Scaling Issues in Integrated Assessment, held from 12-19 July 2000.

Physiological Ecology of Forest Production

Principles, Processes and Models

Author: J. J. Landsberg,Peter Sands

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080922546

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 9523

Process-based models open the way to useful predictions of the future growth rate of forests and provide a means of assessing the probable effects of variations in climate and management on forest productivity. As such they have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional forest growth and yield models, which are based on mensuration data and assume that climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations will be the same in the future as they are now. This book discusses the basic physiological processes that determine the growth of plants, the way they are affected by environmental factors and how we can improve processes that are well-understood such as growth from leaf to stand level and productivity. A theme that runs through the book is integration to show a clear relationship between photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrient requirements, transpiration, water relations and other factors affecting plant growth that are often looked at separately. This integrated approach will provide the most comprehensive source for process-based modelling, which is valuable to ecologists, plant physiologists, forest planners and environmental scientists. Includes explanations of inherently mathematical models, aided by the use of graphs and diagrams illustrating causal interactions and by examples implemented as Excel spreadsheets Uses a process-based model as a framework for explaining the mechanisms underlying plant growth Integrated approach provides a clear and relatively simple treatment

Tropical Forest Plant Ecophysiology

Author: Stephen S. Mulkey,Robin L. Chazdon,Alan P. Smith

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461311632

Category: Science

Page: 675

View: 6704

Taking readers out of the laboratory and into the humid tropical forests, this comprehensive volume explores the most recent advances occurring in tropical plant ecophysiology. Drawing on the knowledge of leading practitioners in the field, this book synthesizes a broad range of information on the ways in which tropical plants adapt to their environment and demonstrate unique physiological processes. This book is arranged into four sections which cover resource acquisition, species interactions, ecophysiological patterns within and among tropical forest communities, and the ecophysiology of forest regeneration. These sections describe plant function in relation to ecology across a wide spectrum of tropical forest species and growth forms. How do different species harvest and utilize resources from heterogeneous tropical environments? How do patterns of functional diversity reflect the overwhelming taxonomic and morphological diversity of tropical forest plants? Such fundamental questions are examined in rich detail. To illuminate the discussions further, every chapter in this book features an agenda for future research, extensive cross referencing, timely references, and the integration of ecophysiology and the demography of tropical species where the data exist. Tropical Forest Plant Ecophysiology provides plant scientists, botanists, researchers, and graduate students with important insights into the behavior of tropical plants. Biologists and foresters interested in tropical ecology and plant physiological ecologists will also benefit from this authoritative and timely resource.

Scaling Relations in Experimental Ecology

Author: Robert H. Gardner,W. Michael. Kemp,Victor S. Kennedy,John E. Petersen

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023152904X

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 3246

-- Ecology

Ecophysiology of Coniferous Forests

Author: William K. Smith

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080925936

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 9775

Conifers--pine, fir, and spruce trees--are dominant species in forests around the world. This book focuses on the physiology of conifers and how these physiological systems operate. Special consideration is devoted to the means by which ecophysiological processes influence organismal function and distribution. Chapters focus on the genetics of conifers, their geographic distribution and the factors that influence this distribution, the impact of insect herbivory on ecophysiological parameters, the effects of air pollution, and the potential impact that global climatic changes will have upon conifers. Because of the growing realization that forests have a crucial role to play in global environmental health, this book will appeal to a developing union of ecologists, physiologists and more theoretically minded foresters.

Scaling in Biology

Author: James H. Brown,Santa Fe Institute (Santa Fe, N.M.)

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195131428

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 4028

Scaling relationships have been a persistent theme in biology at least since the time of Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo. Because scaling relationships are among the most general empirical patterns in biology, they have stimulated research to develop mechanistic hypotheses and mathematical models. While there have been many excellent empirical and theoretical investigations, there has been little attempt to synthesize this diverse but interrelated area of biology. In an effort to fill this void, Scaling in Biology, the first general treatment of scaling in biology in over 15 years, covers a broad spectrum of the most relevant topics in a series of chapters written by experts in the field. Some of those topics discussed include allometry and fractal structure, branching of vascular systems of mammals and plants, biomechanical and life history of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, and species-area patterns of biological diversity. Many more examples are included within this text to complete the broader picture. Scaling in Biology conveys the diversity, promise, and excitement of current research in this area, in a format accessible to a wide audience of not only specialists in the various sub-disciplines, but also students and anyone with a serious interest in biology.

Patterns of Intuition

Musical Creativity in the Light of Algorithmic Composition

Author: Gerhard Nierhaus

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401795614

Category: Computers

Page: 421

View: 6009

The present book is the result of a three year research project which investigated the creative act of composing by means of algorithmic composition. Central to the investigation are the compositional strategies of 12 composers, which were documented through a dialogic and cyclic process of modelling and evaluating musical materials. The aesthetic premises and compositional approaches configure a rich spectrum of diverse positions, which is reflected also in the kinds of approaches and methods used. These approaches and methods include the generation and evaluation of chord sequences using genetic algorithms, the application of morphing strategies to research harmonic transformations, an automatic classification of personal preferences via machine learning, and an application of mathematical music theory to the analysis and resynthesis of musical material. The second part of the book features contributions by Sandeep Bhagwati, William Brooks, David Cope, Darla Crispin, Nicolas Donin, and Guerino Mazzola. These authors variously consider the project from different perspectives, offer independent approaches, or provide more general reflections from their respective research fields.

Metabolic Ecology

A Scaling Approach

Author: Richard M. Sibly,James H. Brown,Astrid Kodric-Brown

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119968518

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 3003

One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.

Methods in Comparative Plant Population Ecology

Author: David Gibson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191651230

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 2169

The field of plant population ecology has advanced considerably in the last decade since the first edition was published. In particular there have been substantial and ongoing advances in statistics and modelling applications in population ecology, as well as an explosion of new techniques reflecting the availability of new technologies (e.g. affordable and accurate Global Positioning Systems) and advances in molecular biology. This new edition has been updated and revised with more recent examples replacing older ones where appropriate. The book's trademark question-driven approach has been maintained and some important topics such as the metapopulation concept which are missing entirely from the current edition are now included throughout the text.

Advances in Intelligent Modelling and Simulation

Artificial Intelligence-Based Models and Techniques in Scalable Computing

Author: Joanna Kołodziej,Samee Ullah Khan,Tadeusz Burczy ́nski

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642301541

Category: Computers

Page: 384

View: 9800

One of the most challenging issues in today’s large-scale computational modeling and design is to effectively manage the complex distributed environments, such as computational clouds, grids, ad hoc, and P2P networks operating under various types of users with evolving relationships fraught with uncertainties. In this context, the IT resources and services usually belong to different owners (institutions, enterprises, or individuals) and are managed by different administrators. Moreover, uncertainties are presented to the system at hand in various forms of information that are incomplete, imprecise, fragmentary, or overloading, which hinders in the full and precise resolve of the evaluation criteria, subsequencing and selection, and the assignment scores. Intelligent scalable systems enable the flexible routing and charging, advanced user interactions and the aggregation and sharing of geographically-distributed resources in modern large-scale systems. This book presents new ideas, theories, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in intelligent scalable computing systems. In 15 chapters, several important Artificial Intelligence-based techniques, such as fuzzy logic, neural networks, evolutionary, and memetic algorithms are studied and implemented. All of those technologies have formed the foundation for the intelligent scalable computing that we know of today. We believe that this book will serve as a reference for students, researchers, and industry practitioners working or interested in joining interdisciplinary research in the areas of intelligent decision systems using emergent distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers (students and researchers alike) to grasp key issues and potential solutions on the selected topics. This book presents new ideas, theories, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in intelligent scalable computing systems. In 15 chapters, several important Artificial Intelligence-based techniques, such as fuzzy logic, neural networks, evolutionary, and memetic algorithms are studied and implemented. All of those technologies have formed the foundation for the intelligent scalable computing that we know of today. We believe that this book will serve as a reference for students, researchers, and industry practitioners working or interested in joining interdisciplinary research in the areas of intelligent decision systems using emergent distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers (students and researchers alike) to grasp key issues and potential solutions on the selected topics.

Photosynthetic Adaptation

Chloroplast to Landscape

Author: William K Smith,Thomas C. Vogelmann,Christa Critchley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387272674

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 8248

This is a thorough study of photosynthetic mechanisms from cells to leaves, crown, and canopy. The authors question whether photosynthetic adaptations take place primarily at the metabolic and biochemical level or through changes in structure and form, or both. The text goes on to analyze the relative importance of genes that control metabolic and light reactions, and the structure, arrangement, and orientation of photosynthesis.

The Ecological Implications of Body Size

Author: Robert Henry Peters

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521288866

Category: Science

Page: 329

View: 5704

Describes in detail how the physical size of an organism affects its biology. Presents the largest single compilation of inter-specific size relations and instructs the reader on their comparison, combination, and criticism.

Physiological Processes Limiting Plant Productivity

Author: C. B. Johnson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483162265

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 6962

Physiological Processes Limiting Plant Productivity presents the proceedings of the Thirtieth University of Nottingham Easter School in Agricultural Science held at Sutton Bonington in England on April 2-5, 1979. Contributors focus on physiological processes limiting plant growth and development in the context of agricultural productivity. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental mechanisms that underlie crop production and their control. This text is comprised of 20 chapters; the first of which discusses the genetics of crop physiology in relation to agricultural production. The range of problems that plant physiologists must address is considered, followed by an assessment of what is happening in crop physiology. A number of chapters are devoted to the utilization of light by crop plants, plant nutrition, water relations, and the effects of an adaptation to unfavorable conditions including those imposed by air pollution. The reader is also introduced to the influence of photoperiodism on crop production; gas exchange in water-stressed plants; and the use of water, solar energy, and fossil fuels in crop production. This book will be of interest to agriculturists, plant breeders, and researchers working in relevant aspects of plant biochemistry, physiology, and genetics.

Terrestrial Ecosystems in Changing Environments

Author: H. H. Shugart

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521565233

Category: Science

Page: 537

View: 535

Discusses the dynamics of natural ecosystems and changes in the natural landscape in response to changes in the environment

Biogenic Trace Gases

Measuring Emissions from Soil and Water

Author: P. A. Matson,R. C. Harriss

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444313819

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 5384

Trace gases are those that are present in the atmosphere at relatively low concentrations. Small changes in their concentrations can have profound implications for major atmospheric fluxes, and thereore, can be used as indicators in studies of global change, global biogeochemical cycling and global warming. This new how-to guide will detail the concepts and techniques involved in the detection and measurement of trace gases, and the impact they have on ecological studies. Introductory chapters look at the role of trace gases in global cycles, while later chapters go on to consider techniques for the measurement of gases in various environments and at a range of scales. A how-to guide for measuring atmospheric trace gases. Techniques described are of value in addressing current concerns over global climate change.

Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling

Physiological, Performance, Growth, Longevity and Ecological Ramifications

Author: Thomas T. Samaras

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781600214080

Category: Medical

Page: 381

View: 7081

Several books have been published on scaling in biology and its ramifications in the animal kingdom. However, none has specifically examined the multifaceted effects of how changes in human height create disproportionately larger changes in weight, surface area, strength and other physiological parameters. Yet, the impact of these non-linear effects on individual humans as well as our world's environment is enormous. Since increasing human body size has widespread ramifications, this book presents findings on the human species and its ecological niche. In biology, an ecological niche' refers to the role played by a species in its community and how the species interacts with its environment. Thus, a few chapters provide an ecological overview of how increasing human body size relates to human evolution, fitness, health, survival and the environment. This book provides a unique purview of the laws of scaling on human performance, health, longevity and the environment. Numerous examples from various research disciplines are used to illustrate the impact of increasing body size on many aspects of human enterprises, including work output, athletics and intellectual performance.

Stable Isotopes and Biosphere - Atmosphere Interactions

Processes and Biological Controls

Author: Lawrence B Flanagan,James R. Ehleringer,Diane E Pataki

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080525280

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 622

The emerging multidisciplinary field of earth system science sets out to improve our understanding functioning ecosystems, at a global level across the entire planet. Stable Isotopes and Biosphere - Atmosphere Interactions looks to one of its most powerful tools — the application of stable isotope analyses — to understanding biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the greenhouse gases, and synthesizes much of the recent progress in this work. Stable Isotopes and Biosphere - Atmosphere Interactions describes recent progress in understanding the mechanisms, processes and applications of new techniques. It makes a significant contribution to the emerging, multidisciplinary study of the Earth as an interacting system. This book will be an important reference for students and researchers in biology, ecology, biogeochemistry, meteorology, and atmospheric science and will be invaluable for anyone with any interest in the future of the planet. Describes applications of new stable isotope techniques to the emerging fields of earth system science and global change Illustrates advances in scaling of physiological processes from leaf/soil to the global scale Contains state-of-the-art, critical reviews written by international researchers and experts

3D Multiscale Physiological Human

Author: Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann,Osman Ratib,Hon Fai Choi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447162757

Category: Computers

Page: 316

View: 8242

3D Multiscale Physiological Human aims to promote scientific exchange by bringing together overviews and examples of recent scientific and technological advancements across a wide range of research disciplines. As a result, the variety in methodologies and knowledge paradigms are contrasted, revealing potential gaps and opportunities for integration. Chapters have been contributed by selected authors in the relevant domains of tissue engineering, medical image acquisition and processing, visualization, modeling, computer aided diagnosis and knowledge management. The multi-scale and multi-disciplinary research aspects of articulations in humans are highlighted, with a particular emphasis on medical diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal diseases and related disorders. The need for multi-scale modalities and multi-disciplinary research is an emerging paradigm in the search for a better biological and medical understanding of the human musculoskeletal system. This is particularly motivated by the increasing socio-economic burden of disability and musculoskeletal diseases, especially in the increasing population of elderly people. Human movement is generated through a complex web of interactions between embedded physiological systems on different spatiotemporal scales, ranging from the molecular to the organ level. Much research is dedicated to the understanding of each of these systems, using methods and modalities tailored for each scale. Nevertheless, combining knowledge from different perspectives opens new venues of scientific thinking and stimulates innovation. Integration of this mosaic of multifaceted data across multiple scales and modalities requires further exploration of methods in simulations and visualization to obtain a comprehensive synthesis. However, this integrative approach cannot be achieved without a broad appreciation for the multiple research disciplines involved.

Scale-free Dynamics and Critical Phenomena in Cortical Activity

Author: Biyu J. He,Andreas Daffertshofer,Tjeerd W. Boonstra

Publisher: Frontiers E-books

ISBN: 288919129X


Page: N.A

View: 1155

The brain is composed of many interconnected neurons that form a complex system, from which thought, behavior, and creativity emerge through self-organization. By studying the dynamics of this network, some basic motifs can be identified. Recent technological and computational advances have led to rapidly accumulating empirical evidence that spontaneous cortical activity exhibits scale-free and critical behavior. Multiple experiments have identified neural processes without a preferred timescale in the avalanche-like spatial propagation of activity in cortical slices and in self-similar time series of local field potentials. Even at the largest scale, scale-free behavior can be observed by looking at the power distributions of brain rhythms as observed by neuroimaging. These findings may indicate that brain dynamics are always close to critical states – a fact with important consequences for how brain accomplishes information transfer and processing. Capitalizing on analogies between the collective behavior of interacting particles in complex physical systems and interacting neurons in the cortex, concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics can help to understand how dynamics are organized. In particular, the concepts of phase transitions and self-organized criticality can be used to shed new light on how to interpret collective neuronal dynamics. Despite converging support for scale-free and critical dynamics in cortical activity, the implications for accompanying cognitive functions are still largely unclear. This Research Topic aims to facilitate the discussion between scientists from different backgrounds, ranging from theoretical physics, to computational neuroscience, brain imaging and neurophysiology. By stimulating interactions with the readers of Frontiers in Physiology, we hope to advance our understanding of the role of scale-freeness and criticality in organizing brain dynamics. What do these new perspectives tell us about the brain and to what extent are they relevant for our cognitive functioning? For this Research Topic, we therefore solicit reviews, original research articles, opinion and method papers, which address the principles that organize the dynamics of cortical activity. While focusing on work in the neurosciences, this Research Topic also welcomes theoretical contributions from physics or computational approaches.