Leaf to Globe
Publisher: Academic Press
Traditional plant physiological ecology is organism centered and provides a useful framework for understanding the interactions between plants and their environment and for identifying characteristics likely to result in plant success in a particular habitat. This book focuses on extending concepts from plant physiological ecology as a basis for understanding carbon, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at ecosystem, regional, and global levels. This will be a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in ecology, plant ecophysiology, ecosystem research, biometerology, earth system science, and remote sensing. Key Features * The integration of metabolic activities across spatial scales, from leaf to ecosystem * Global constraints and regional processes * Functional units in ecological scaling * Models and technologies for scaling
Author: D.S. Rothman,J. Rotmans
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
A collection of papers prepared for the European Forum on Integrated Environmental Assessment's (EFIEA) Policy Workshop on Scaling Issues in Integrated Assessment, held from 12-19 July 2000.
Principles, Processes and Models
Author: J. J. Landsberg,Peter Sands
Publisher: Academic Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
Process-based models open the way to useful predictions of the future growth rate of forests and provide a means of assessing the probable effects of variations in climate and management on forest productivity. As such they have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional forest growth and yield models, which are based on mensuration data and assume that climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations will be the same in the future as they are now. This book discusses the basic physiological processes that determine the growth of plants, the way they are affected by environmental factors and how we can improve processes that are well-understood such as growth from leaf to stand level and productivity. A theme that runs through the book is integration to show a clear relationship between photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrient requirements, transpiration, water relations and other factors affecting plant growth that are often looked at separately. This integrated approach will provide the most comprehensive source for process-based modelling, which is valuable to ecologists, plant physiologists, forest planners and environmental scientists. Includes explanations of inherently mathematical models, aided by the use of graphs and diagrams illustrating causal interactions and by examples implemented as Excel spreadsheets Uses a process-based model as a framework for explaining the mechanisms underlying plant growth Integrated approach provides a clear and relatively simple treatment
Author: Stephen S. Mulkey,Robin L. Chazdon,Alan P. Smith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Taking readers out of the laboratory and into the humid tropical forests, this comprehensive volume explores the most recent advances occurring in tropical plant ecophysiology. Drawing on the knowledge of leading practitioners in the field, this book synthesizes a broad range of information on the ways in which tropical plants adapt to their environment and demonstrate unique physiological processes. This book is arranged into four sections which cover resource acquisition, species interactions, ecophysiological patterns within and among tropical forest communities, and the ecophysiology of forest regeneration. These sections describe plant function in relation to ecology across a wide spectrum of tropical forest species and growth forms. How do different species harvest and utilize resources from heterogeneous tropical environments? How do patterns of functional diversity reflect the overwhelming taxonomic and morphological diversity of tropical forest plants? Such fundamental questions are examined in rich detail. To illuminate the discussions further, every chapter in this book features an agenda for future research, extensive cross referencing, timely references, and the integration of ecophysiology and the demography of tropical species where the data exist. Tropical Forest Plant Ecophysiology provides plant scientists, botanists, researchers, and graduate students with important insights into the behavior of tropical plants. Biologists and foresters interested in tropical ecology and plant physiological ecologists will also benefit from this authoritative and timely resource.
Author: Robert H. Gardner,W. Michael. Kemp,Victor S. Kennedy,John E. Petersen
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Author: William K. Smith
Publisher: Academic Press
Conifers--pine, fir, and spruce trees--are dominant species in forests around the world. This book focuses on the physiology of conifers and how these physiological systems operate. Special consideration is devoted to the means by which ecophysiological processes influence organismal function and distribution. Chapters focus on the genetics of conifers, their geographic distribution and the factors that influence this distribution, the impact of insect herbivory on ecophysiological parameters, the effects of air pollution, and the potential impact that global climatic changes will have upon conifers. Because of the growing realization that forests have a crucial role to play in global environmental health, this book will appeal to a developing union of ecologists, physiologists and more theoretically minded foresters.
Author: James H. Brown,Santa Fe Institute (Santa Fe, N.M.)
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Scaling relationships have been a persistent theme in biology at least since the time of Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo. Because scaling relationships are among the most general empirical patterns in biology, they have stimulated research to develop mechanistic hypotheses and mathematical models. While there have been many excellent empirical and theoretical investigations, there has been little attempt to synthesize this diverse but interrelated area of biology. In an effort to fill this void, Scaling in Biology, the first general treatment of scaling in biology in over 15 years, covers a broad spectrum of the most relevant topics in a series of chapters written by experts in the field. Some of those topics discussed include allometry and fractal structure, branching of vascular systems of mammals and plants, biomechanical and life history of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, and species-area patterns of biological diversity. Many more examples are included within this text to complete the broader picture. Scaling in Biology conveys the diversity, promise, and excitement of current research in this area, in a format accessible to a wide audience of not only specialists in the various sub-disciplines, but also students and anyone with a serious interest in biology.
Musical Creativity in the Light of Algorithmic Composition
Author: Gerhard Nierhaus
The present book is the result of a three year research project which investigated the creative act of composing by means of algorithmic composition. Central to the investigation are the compositional strategies of 12 composers, which were documented through a dialogic and cyclic process of modelling and evaluating musical materials. The aesthetic premises and compositional approaches configure a rich spectrum of diverse positions, which is reflected also in the kinds of approaches and methods used. These approaches and methods include the generation and evaluation of chord sequences using genetic algorithms, the application of morphing strategies to research harmonic transformations, an automatic classification of personal preferences via machine learning, and an application of mathematical music theory to the analysis and resynthesis of musical material. The second part of the book features contributions by Sandeep Bhagwati, William Brooks, David Cope, Darla Crispin, Nicolas Donin, and Guerino Mazzola. These authors variously consider the project from different perspectives, offer independent approaches, or provide more general reflections from their respective research fields.
A Scaling Approach
Author: Richard M. Sibly,James H. Brown,Astrid Kodric-Brown
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.
Author: Laurie Joan Flowers
A Hierarchical Approach
Author: Paul William Leadley
Category: Environmental protection
Author: David Gibson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
The field of plant population ecology has advanced considerably in the last decade since the first edition was published. In particular there have been substantial and ongoing advances in statistics and modelling applications in population ecology, as well as an explosion of new techniques reflecting the availability of new technologies (e.g. affordable and accurate Global Positioning Systems) and advances in molecular biology. This new edition has been updated and revised with more recent examples replacing older ones where appropriate. The book's trademark question-driven approach has been maintained and some important topics such as the metapopulation concept which are missing entirely from the current edition are now included throughout the text.
Category: Forests and forestry
Author: J. D. Tenhunen,P. Kabat
In recent decades, the biosphere has become increasingly stressed, often beyond the point where the internal structure and function of ecosystems are sustained. We have experienced an intensified “exploration” of natural system resources to support agricultural and forest production, to provide water for human consumption, to supply the needs of industrial processes, and to provide, in addition, attractive, diverse landscapes for recreation and tourism. Exceeding thresholds via anthropogenic disturbance that results in degradation of ecosystems is dangerous, since the system-level effects and feedbacks (e.g., soil erosion, famine, polluted drinking water, etc.) are highly undesirable. Finding appropriate compromises in resource use that satisfy existing competitive interests and result in sound environmental management, especially in densely populated regions, requires an improved understanding of the trade-offs that accompany changes in “exploitation” or altered resource allocation at regional and landscape scales. Progress on landscape-level understanding of coupled water, carbon, and nitrogen budgets is limited by a lack of commitment to a rigorous development and application of synthetic techniques (e.g., strongly linked remote sensing studies, geographic information system applications, computer simulation modeling, and ecosystem experimentation) more than by basic site-level measurement alone. Possible research approaches that will contribute to new use of ecosystem knowledge in a landscape and regional context were considered by this Dahlem Workshop. The importance of conducting improved landscape and regional assessment of ecosystem function as input to global scale efforts of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme is a major theme of this book.
Artificial Intelligence-Based Models and Techniques in Scalable Computing
Author: Joanna Kołodziej,Samee Ullah Khan,Tadeusz Burczy ́nski
One of the most challenging issues in today’s large-scale computational modeling and design is to effectively manage the complex distributed environments, such as computational clouds, grids, ad hoc, and P2P networks operating under various types of users with evolving relationships fraught with uncertainties. In this context, the IT resources and services usually belong to different owners (institutions, enterprises, or individuals) and are managed by different administrators. Moreover, uncertainties are presented to the system at hand in various forms of information that are incomplete, imprecise, fragmentary, or overloading, which hinders in the full and precise resolve of the evaluation criteria, subsequencing and selection, and the assignment scores. Intelligent scalable systems enable the flexible routing and charging, advanced user interactions and the aggregation and sharing of geographically-distributed resources in modern large-scale systems. This book presents new ideas, theories, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in intelligent scalable computing systems. In 15 chapters, several important Artificial Intelligence-based techniques, such as fuzzy logic, neural networks, evolutionary, and memetic algorithms are studied and implemented. All of those technologies have formed the foundation for the intelligent scalable computing that we know of today. We believe that this book will serve as a reference for students, researchers, and industry practitioners working or interested in joining interdisciplinary research in the areas of intelligent decision systems using emergent distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers (students and researchers alike) to grasp key issues and potential solutions on the selected topics. This book presents new ideas, theories, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in intelligent scalable computing systems. In 15 chapters, several important Artificial Intelligence-based techniques, such as fuzzy logic, neural networks, evolutionary, and memetic algorithms are studied and implemented. All of those technologies have formed the foundation for the intelligent scalable computing that we know of today. We believe that this book will serve as a reference for students, researchers, and industry practitioners working or interested in joining interdisciplinary research in the areas of intelligent decision systems using emergent distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers (students and researchers alike) to grasp key issues and potential solutions on the selected topics.
Author: Ann-Sofie Morén
Category: Atmospheric carbon dioxide
Author: Eric Wayne Sanderson
Category: Plant physiology