Scaling Up Treatment for the Global AIDS Pandemic

Challenges and Opportunities

Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Examining the Probable Consequences of Alternative Patterns of Widespread Antiretroviral Drug Use in Resource-Constrained Settings

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309165839

Category: Medical

Page: 344

View: 3331

An estimated forty million people carry the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and five million more become newly infected annually. In recent years, many HIV-infected patients in wealthy nations have enjoyed significantly longer, good-quality lives as a result of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, most infected individuals live in the poorest regions of the world, where ART is virtually nonexistent. The consequent death toll in these regions--especially sub-Saharan Africa--is begetting economic and social collapse. To inform the multiple efforts underway to deploy antiretroviral drugs in resource-poor settings, the Institute of Medicine committee was asked to conduct an independent review and assessment of rapid scale-up ART programs. It was also asked to identify the components of effective implementation programs. At the heart of the committee's report lie five imperatives: Immediately introduce and scale up ART programs in resource-poor settings. Devise strategies to ensure high levels of patient adherence to complicated treatment regimens. Rapidly address human-resource shortages to avoid the failure of program implementation. Continuously monitor and evaluate the programs to form the most effective guidelines and treatment regimens for each population. Prepare to sustain ART for decades.

Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa:

A Shared Responsibility

Author: Committee on Envisioning a Strategy for the Long-Term Burden of HIV/AIDS: African Needs and U.S. Interests,Board on Global Health,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309160189

Category: Medical

Page: 228

View: 6117

HIV/AIDS is a catastrophe globally but nowhere more so than in sub-Saharan Africa, which in 2008 accounted for 67 percent of cases worldwide and 91 percent of new infections. The Institute of Medicine recommends that the United States and African nations move toward a strategy of shared responsibility such that these nations are empowered to take ownership of their HIV/AIDS problem and work to solve it.

Identified versus Statistical Lives

An Interdisciplinary Perspective

Author: I. Glenn Cohen,Norman Daniels,Nir Eyal

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190217502

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 5440

The identified lives effect describes the fact that people demonstrate a stronger inclination to assist persons and groups identified as at high risk of great harm than those who will or already suffer similar harm, but endure unidentified. As a result of this effect, we allocate resources reactively rather than proactively, prioritizing treatment over prevention. For example, during the August 2010 gold mine cave-in in Chile, where ten to twenty million dollars was spent by the Chilean government to rescue the 33 miners trapped underground. Rather than address the many, more cost effective mine safety measures that should have been implemented, the Chilean government and international donors concentrated efforts in large-scale missions that concerned only the specific group. Such bias as illustrated through this incident raises practical and ethical questions that extend to almost every aspect of human life and politics. What can social and cognitive sciences teach us about the origin and triggers of the effect? Philosophically and ethically, is the effect a "bias" to be eliminated or is it morally justified? What implications does the effect have for health care, law, the environment and other practice domains? This volume is the first to take an interdisciplinary approach toward answering this issue of identified versus statistical lives by considering a variety of perspectives from psychology, public health, law, ethics, and public policy.

The Changing HIV/AIDS Landscape

Selected Papers for the World Bank's Agenda for Action in Africa, 2007-2011

Author: Elizabeth Lule,Richard Seifman,Antonio C. David

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: N.A

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 474

View: 1993

HIV/AIDS is an enormous economic, social and human challenge to sub-Saharan Africa. This collection of papers covers the full range of issues involved, from epidemiology and national health systems, to economic policy and technology, assessing their interplay and implications for the future.

Global Lessons from the AIDS Pandemic

Economic, Financial, Legal and Political Implications

Author: Bradly J. Condon,Tapen Sinha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 354078392X

Category: Law

Page: 366

View: 3529

We began to research for this book in 2000, with the idea that we might contribute to the search for solutions to the global HIV/AIDS pandemic by c- bining perspectives from different disciplines. Much has happened in the interv- ing years. First, the severity of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa – and the threat it posed for many others regions of the world – led to a movement among several countries to correct the imbalance between producers and users of ph- maceutical products. This effort produced a clarification of the right of gove- ments to produce generic medicine under compulsory licenses and an amendment of the World Trade Organization’s TRIPS Agreement to allow exports of generic medicines from one WTO Member to another. In 2007, the amended rules were put into practice, with Canada authorizing the export of generic antiretroviral drugs to Rwanda. However, at the same time, global patent laws have been undermined due to regulatory capture, most notably in free trade agreements and through political pressure on countries like Thailand to not to exercise their right to issue compulsory licenses for pharmaceutical products. Second, the amount of money available for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS has increased dramatically, with the establishment of the World Bank Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program for Africa (MAP), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), among other funding initiatives.

Aids in the 21st Century

Treatment, Prevention and Epidemiology

Author: John C. Hall,Brian John Hall,Clay J. Cockerell

Publisher: PMPH-USA

ISBN: 9781607951056

Category: Medical

Page: 1019

View: 5086

The science of the virus and its effects and the clinical approaches to its treatment and transmission prevention are placed in the context of the history and epidemiology of the HIV-AIDS pandemic. Each organ system of the body is explored as to manifestations of the disease, treatment now and in the future, as well as what the disease has taught us about the immune response. The science of epidemiology, which is so important in allowing for tracking of the disease and potential limitation of transmission, is another aspect of AIDS explored in detail. The pandemic manifests differently in different parts of the world, and the relevance of the volume is enhanced by its international group of contributors. No other text provides the historical and epidemiological context of this disease along with an update of diagnosis and treatment. The underlying science and epidemiology of AIDS are not neglected, so the student or clinician who is treating patients with AIDS can gain a full understanding of HIV/AIDS in individual patients and in their communities.

The HIV Pandemic

Local and Global Implications

Author: Eduard J Beck

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198528434

Category: Medical

Page: 799

View: 1081

As we approach the 25th anniversary of the first recognition of HIV/AIDS in 1981, this book reflects on the international impact of the disease. It has persistently remained a global issue, with more than 50 million people worldwide estimated to have been infected since that date. This ambitious book, written by 165 authors from 30 countries, offers a multi-country comparative study that examines how the response to the common, global threat of HIV is shaped by the history, culture, institutions and health systems of the individual countries affected. Increasingly the shift of health systems has been from prevention only as the main containment strategy, to a strategy that includes scaling up HIV treatment, and care and prevention services, including antiretroviral therapy. Thus, all parts of the health system must be involved; policy makers, healthcare professionals and users of the services have been forced to think differently about how services are financed, how resources are allocated, how systems are structured and organized, how services are delivered to patients, and how the resulting activity is monitored and evaluated in order to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, equity and acceptability of the response. This book is unique in attempting to describe and assess a range of responses across the globe by situating them within the characteristics of each country and its health system. Most chapters combine a health policy expert with an HIV specialist, allowing both a 'top down' health system approach and a 'bottom up' HIV-specific perspective. There are thematic and analytical sections, which provide an overview and some suggestions for solutions to the most serious outstanding issues, and chapters which analyse specific country and organisational responses. There is no perfect health system, but the evidence provided here allows the sharing of knowledge, and a opportunity to assess the impact and reactions, to an epidemic that must be considered a long term issue.

Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens and Practice E-Book

Author: Richard L. Guerrant,David H. Walker,Peter F. Weller

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1437737773

Category: Medical

Page: 1156

View: 4437

Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens and Practice, by Drs. Richard L. Guerrant, David H. Walker, and Peter F. Weller, delivers the expert, encyclopedic guidance you need to overcome the toughest clinical challenges in diagnosing and treating diseases caused by infectious agents from tropical regions. Sweeping updates to this 3rd edition include vaccines, SARS, hepatitis A-E, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis and Omsk hemorrhagic fever, human papilloma virus, and mucormycosis. New full-color images throughout allow you to more accurately view the clinical manifestations of each disease and better visualize the life cycles of infectious agents. Definitive, state-of-the-art coverage of pathophysiology as well as clinical management makes this the reference you’ll want to consult whenever you are confronted with tropical infections, whether familiar or unfamiliar! Obtain complete and trustworthy advice from hundreds of the leading experts on tropical diseases worldwide, including cutting-edge summaries of pathophysiology and epidemiology as well as clinical management. Get the latest answers on vaccines, SARS, hepatitis A-E, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis and Omsk hemorrhagic fever, human papilloma virus, mucormycosis, and much more. Implement best practices from all over the world with guidance from almost twice as many international authors - over 100 representing more than 35 countries. Accurately view the clinical manifestations of each disease and visualize the life cycles of infectious agents with new full-color images throughout.

PEPFAR Implementation:

Progress and Promise

Author: Board on Global Health,Board on Children, Youth and Families,Institute of Medicine,Committee for the Evaluation of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Implementation

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309103886

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 8879

In 2003, Congress passed the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act, which established a 5-year, $15 billion initiative to help countries around the world respond to their AIDS epidemics. The initiative is generally referred to by the title of the 5-year strategy required by the act--PEPFAR, or the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. PEPFAR Implementation evaluates this initiative's progress and concludes that although PEPFAR has made a promising start, U.S. leadership is still needed in the effort to respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The book recommends that the program transition from its focus on emergency relief to an emphasis on the long-term strategic planning and capacity building necessary for a sustainable response. PEPFAR Implementation will be of interest to policy makers, health care professionals, special interest groups, and others interested in global AIDS relief.

AIDS in Africa

How the Poor are Dying

Author: Nana Poku

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 0745631592

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 235

View: 9861

Across Africa, HIV/AIDS is slowly killing millions of people in the prime of their lives, weakening state structures, deepening poverty and reversing the gains in life expectancy achieved over the past century. Although many who study the dynamics of Africas AIDS crisis accept that, to some degree, its entrenchment is a socially produced phenomenon, few have examined how the course and intensity of the epidemic have been affected by the continents ubiquitous poverty, the impact of the pervasive structural adjustment programmes or Africas marginalization in the process of globalization until now. This book explores the socio-economic context of Africas vulnerability to HIV/AIDS as well as assessing the politics of domestic and global response. Using primary and secondary data, it charts the power relations driving Africas HIV/AIDS epidemic, frustrating the possibility of alleviation and recovery as well as working to relegate the continent to a bleak and vulnerable future. In this sense, the book marks a radical departure by providing a comprehensive analysis of Africas vulnerability to AIDS and the challenges confronting policy makers as they seek to reverse its escalating prevalence on the continent. AIDS in Africa is an immensely valuable introduction to the greatest pandemic facing the world today.

Coming to Grips with Malaria in the New Millennium

Author: Awash Teklehaimanot

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 1844072266

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 129

View: 6075

Sponsored by the United Nations Development Programme on behalf of the UN Development Group.

AIDS

Taking a Long-Term View

Author: The aids2031 Consortium

Publisher: FT Press

ISBN: 9780132172929

Category: Education

Page: 208

View: 2284

AIDS is a continuing worldwide health crisis. Over 25,000,000 people have died from AIDS, and more than 33,000,000 are infected today. While treatments in the developed world have moved AIDS from a fatal to a chronic, highly expensive disease, it remains the sixth greatest cause of death globally and most of those infected in the developing world don't have access to treatments. Here, the AIDS 2031 Commission's experts report on the first 50 years of the AIDS pandemic: the 30 years that have passed since AIDS was first diagnosed, and the prospects and best plans to address the ongoing worldwide AIDS epidemic over the coming 20 years. The authors address the entire scope of the pandemic: basic science, public health, funding, treatment options, and social and societal impacts and review the full range of possible and recommended responses over the next two decades. They carefully assess the progress that has been made, and both persistent and emerging challenges. Written to be easily understandable by all readers, this book is the single best source of reliable information on where the pandemic stands today, where it's headed, and what can be done to create better outcomes between now and 2031.

Turning a Crisis Into an Opportunity

Strategies for Scaling Up the National Response to the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Lesotho

Author: Scholastica Sylvan Kimaryo

Publisher: Third PressReview of Books

ISBN: 9780893882372

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 300

View: 6131

Integrating Poverty and Gender Into Health Programmes

A Sourcebook for Health Professionals. Module on HIV/AIDS

Author: Who Regional Office for the Eastern Medi,Sarah Coll-Black

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9290613882

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 116

View: 7397

This module is designed to improve the awareness, knowledge and skills of health professionals on poverty and gender concerns in the field of HIV/AIDS. Experience increasingly shows that the socioeconomic factors contributing to the rapid spread of HIV in the Region include low education, limited access to health care services and increased mobility within and between countries -- factors that are largely determined by poverty and gender inequality. The growing commitment to curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic requires that health professionals at community, provincial, national and international levels have the knowledge, skills and tools to more effectively respond to the health needs of poor and marginalized people and address the gender inequalities fuelling the epidemic. However, many health professionals in the Region are not adequately prepared to address these issues. This module is designed to help fill this gap. This module, which is part of a Sourcebook for health professionals, is intended to be used in pre-service and in-service training of health professionals. It is divided into six sections: Section 1 provides a brief overview of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and an understanding of HIV/AIDS; Section 2 examines What the links are between poverty, gender and HIV/AIDS; Section 3 discusses why it is important for health professionals to address HIV/AIDS, from efficiency, equity and human rights perspectives; Section 4 discusses how health professionals can address poverty and gender concerns in HIV/AIDS; Section 5 provides notes for facilitators and finally Section 6 contains a collection of tools, resources and references to support health professionals in their work in this field.

Global Health Inequities

A Sociological Perspective

Author: Fernando De Maio

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137400633

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 2048

Despite living in a 'globalized' world where advances in medicine, technology and science come at an ever-increasing pace, there exist staggering inequalities in health. Even as we celebrate new pharmaceutical developments, access to already-existing medicines is hindered by economic and political barriers for poor people around the world. Critical but accessible, Global Health Inequities questions taken-for-granted assumptions, showing how breakthroughs in biomedicine alone cannot address inequities in health. The book's analysis of theory and empirical work elucidates key debates and highlights the most significant challenges facing global health today, including the growing burden of chronic non-communicable diseases and the persistent injustice of neglected tropical diseases. Fernando De Maio identifies the need for sociological analysis in global health, drawing together research from public health, sociology, anthropology and related fields, in order to expand the scope of the medical gaze towards a more holistic and structural perspective of health inequity.

Healers Abroad:

Americans Responding to the Human Resource Crisis in HIV/AIDS

Author: Committee on the Options for Overseas Placement of U.S Health Professionals,Board on Global Health,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309096162

Category: Medical

Page: 264

View: 5713

Healers Abroad:Americans Responding to the Human Resource Crisis in HIV/AIDS calls for the federal government to create and fund the United States Global Health Service (GHS) to mobilize the nation�s best health care professionals and other highly skilled experts to help combat HIV/AIDS in hard-hit African, Caribbean, and Southeast Asian countries. The dearth of qualified health care workers in many lowincome nations is often the biggest roadblock to mounting effective responses to public health needs. The proposal�s goal is to build the capacity of targeted countries to fight the HIV/AIDS pandemic over the long run. The GHS would be comprised of six multifaceted components. Full-time, salaried professionals would make up the organization�s pivotal �service corps,� working side-by-side with other colleagues already on the ground to provide medical care and drug therapy to affected populations while offering local counterparts training and assistance in clinical, technical, and managerial areas.

Private Health Sector Assessment in Tanzania

Author: James White,Barbara O'Hanlon,Grace Chee,Emmanuel Malangalila,Adeline Kimambo,Jorge Coarasa,Sean Callahan,Ilana Ron Levey,Kim McKeon

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464800421

Category: Medical

Page: 216

View: 1085

The Tanzania Private Health Sector Assessment provides information on the size, location and characteristics of non-state health service providers in Tanzania. It also identifies challenges and opportunities for the Government of Tanzania and International Community to leverage the potential of these providers to achieve

The Handbook of Global Health Policy

Author: Garrett W. Brown,Gavin Yamey,Sarah Wamala

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118509609

Category: Political Science

Page: 632

View: 7588

The Handbook of Global Health Policy provides a definitive source of the key areas in the field. It examines the ethical and practical dimensions of new and current policy models and their effect on the future development of global health and policy. Maps out key debates and policy structures involved in all areas of global health policy Isolates and examines new policy initiatives in global health policy Provides an examination of these initiatives that captures both the ethical/critical as well as practical/empirical dimensions involved with global health policy, global health policy formation and its implications Confronts the theoretical and practical questions of ‘who gets what and why’ and ‘how, when and where?’ Captures the views of a wide array of scholars and practitioners, including from low- and middle-income countries, to ensure an inclusive view of current policy debates