Social Health Insurance for Developing Nations

Author: R. Paul Shaw

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821369504

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 172

View: 5229

Specialist groups have often advised health ministers and other decision makers in developing countries on the use of social health insurance (SHI) as a way of mobilizing revenue for health, reforming health sector performance, and providing universal coverage. This book reviews the specific design and implementation challenges facing SHI in low- and middle-income countries and presents case studies on Ghana, Kenya, Philippines, Colombia, and Thailand.

The Impact of Health Insurance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Author: Maria-Luisa Escobar,Charles C. Griffin,R. Paul Shaw

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815705611

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 1985

Over the past twenty years, many low- and middle-income countries have experimented with health insurance options. While their plans have varied widely in scale and ambition, their goals are the same: to make health services more affordable through the use of public subsidies while also moving care providers partially or fully into competitive markets. Colombia embarked in 1993 on a fifteen-year effort to cover its entire population with insurance, in combination with greater freedom to choose among providers. A decade later Mexico followed suit with a program tailored to its federal system. Several African nations have introduced new programs in the past decade, and many are testing options for reform. For the past twenty years, Eastern Europe has been shifting from government-run care to insurance-based competitive systems, and both China and India have experimental programs to expand coverage. These nations are betting that insurance-based health care financing can increase the accessibility of services, increase providers' productivity, and change the population's health care use patterns, mirroring the development of health systems in most OECD countries. Until now, however, we have known little about the actual effects of these dramatic policy changes. Understanding the impact of health insurance–based care is key to the public policy debate of whether to extend insurance to low-income populations—and if so, how to do it—or to serve them through other means. Using recent household data, this book presents evidence of the impact of insurance programs in China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ghana, Indonesia, Namibia, and Peru. The contributors also discuss potential design improvements that could increase impact. They provide innovative insights on improving the evaluation of health insurance reforms and on building a robust knowledge base to guide policy as other countries tackle the health insurance challenge.

Private Voluntary Health Insurance in Development

Friend Or Foe?

Author: Alexander S. Preker,Richard M. Scheffler,Mark C. Bassett

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821366203

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 424

View: 6625

Private voluntary health insurance already plays an important role in the health sector of many low and middle income countries. The book reviews the context under which private insurance could contribute to an improvement in the financial sustainability of the health sector, financial protection against the costs of illness, household income smoothing, access to care, and market productivity. This volume is the third in aseries of in-depth reviews of the role of health care financing in providing access for low-income populations to needed healthcare, protecting them from the impoverishing effects of illness, and addressing the important issues of social exclusion in government financed programs.

Going Universal

How 24 Developing Countries are Implementing Universal Health Coverage from the Bottom Up

Author: Daniel Cotlear,Somil Nagpal,Owen Smith,Ajay Tandon,Rafael Cortez

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 146480611X

Category: Medical

Page: 286

View: 2262

This book is about 24 developing countries that have embarked on the journey towards universal health coverage (UHC) following a bottom-up approach, with a special focus on the poor and vulnerable, through a systematic data collection that provides practical insights to policymakers and practitioners. Each of the UHC programs analyzed in this book is seeking to overcome the legacy of inequality by tackling both a “financing gap†? and a “provision gap†?: the financing gap (or lower per capita spending on the poor) by spending additional resources in a pro-poor way; the provision gap (or underperformance of service delivery for the poor) by expanding supply and changing incentives in a variety of ways. The prevailing view seems to indicate that UHC require not just more money, but also a focus on changing the rules of the game for spending health system resources. The book does not attempt to identify best practices, but rather aims to help policy makers understand the options they face, and help develop a new operational research agenda. The main chapters are focused on providing a granular understanding of policy design, while the appendixes offer a systematic review of the literature attempting to evaluate UHC program impact on access to services, on financial protection, and on health outcomes.

Moving Toward Universal Coverage of Social Health Insurance in Vietnam

Assessment and Options

Author: Aparnaa Somanathan,Ajay Tandon,Huong Lan Dao,Kari L. Hurt,Hernan L. Fuenzalida-Puelma

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464802610

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 176

View: 6267

Over the past two decades Vietnam has made enormous progress to expand health insurance coverage to its population. Further progress will require significant additional public financing, as well as efforts improve efficiency and strengthen insurance organization and management. It contains recommendations and next steps for Vietnam to follow.

Poverty and Inequality in Middle Income Countries

Policy Achievements, Political Obstacles

Author: Einar Braathen,Julian May,Marianne Ulriksen,Gemma C. Wright

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 178360560X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 264

View: 9634

This collection offers a timely reassessment of viable ways of addressing poverty across the globe today. The profile of global poverty has changed dramatically over the past decade, and around three-quarters of the poor now live in middle income countries, making inequality a major issue. This requires us to fundamentally rethink anti-poverty strategies and policies, as many aspects of the established framework for poverty reduction are no longer effective. Featuring contributions from Latin America, Africa and Asia, this much-needed collection answers some of the key questions arising as development policy confronts the challenges of poverty and inequality on the global, national and local scale in both urban and rural contexts. Providing poverty researchers and practitioners with valuable new tools to address new forms of poverty in the right way, Poverty and Inequality in Middle Income Countries shows how a radical switch from aid to redistribution-based social policies is needed to combat new forms of global poverty.

Making Health Services More Accessible in Developing Countries

Finance and Health Resources for Functioning Health Systems

Author: H. Uchimura

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230250777

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 270

View: 1922

Health is increasingly a critical concern in the context of development. This book examines the function of health systems, particularly the key factors: finance, human resources, pharmaceuticals, public facilities and stresses the importance of improving access to health services in developing countries.

Establishing Private Health Care Facilities in Developing Countries

A Guide for Medical Entrepreneurs

Author: Seung-Hee Nah,Egbe Osifo-Dawodu

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821369482

Category: Medical

Page: 232

View: 2354

This book is a practical guide for medical professionals with little or no business experience who are interested in establishing health care facilities in developing countries. It is an introduction to the kinds of basic research and planning required to identify viable solutions and reduce the risk of failure.

Health Insurance Handbook

How to Make It Work

Author: Hong Wang,Kimberly Switlick,Christine Ortiz,Beatriz Zurita,Catherine Connor

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 082138953X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 136

View: 5345

Many countries that subscribe to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have committed to ensuring access to basic health services for their citizens. Health insurance has been considered and promoted as the major financing mechanism to improve access to health services, as well to provide financial risk protection.

Toward Universal Health Coverage and Equity in Latin America and the Caribbean

Evidence from Selected Countries

Author: Tania Dmytraczenko,Gisele Almeida

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464804559

Category: Medical

Page: 256

View: 5322

Over the past three decades, many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean have recognized health as a human right. Since the early 2000s, 46 million more people in the countries studied are covered by health programs with explicit guarantees of affordable care. Reforms have been accompanied by a rise in public spending for health, financed largely from general revenues that prioritized or explicitly target the population without capacity to pay. Political commitment has generally translated into larger budgets as well as passage of legislation that ring-fenced funding for health. Most countries have prioritized cost-effective primary care and adopted purchasing methods that incentivize efficiency and accountability for results, and that give stewards of the health sector greater leverage to steer providers to deliver on public health priorities. Evidence from the analysis of 54 household surveys corroborates that investments in extending coverage are yielding results. Though the poor still have worse health outcomes than the rich, disparities have narrowed considerably - particularly in the early stage of the life course. Countries have reached high levels of coverage and equity in utilization of maternal and child health services; coverage of noncommunicable disease interventions is not as high and service utilization is still skewed toward the better off. Catastrophic health expenditures have declined in most countries; the picture regarding equity, however, is mixed. While the rate of impoverishment owing to health-care expenditures is low and generally declining, 2-4 million people in the countries studied still fall below the poverty line after health spending. Efforts to systematically monitor quality of care in the region are still in their infancy. Nonetheless, a review of the literature reveals important shortcomings in quality of care, as well as substantial differences across subsystems. Improving quality of care and ensuring sustainability of investments in health remain an unfinished agenda.

Scaling Up Affordable Health Insurance

Staying the Course

Author: Alexander S. Preker,Marianne E. Lindner,Dov Chernichovsky,Onno P. Schellekens

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821385798

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 778

View: 1786

This book presents an in-depth review on the role of health care financing in improving access for low-income populations to needed care, protecting them from the impoverishing effects of illness, and addressing the important issues of social exclusion in government financed programs.

The Economics of Public Health Care Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Author: David Coady,Mr. Benedict J. Clements,Mr. Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1475583788

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 380

View: 7546

Health care reform will be a key fiscal policy challenge in both advanced and emerging economies in coming years. In the advanced economies, the health sector has been one of the main drivers of government expenditure, accounting for about half of the rise in total spending over the past forty years. These spending pressures are expected to intensify over the next two decades, reflecting the aging of the population, income growth, and continued technological innovations in health care. These spending increases will come at a time when countries need to undertake fiscal consolidation to reduce public debt ratios in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the emerging economies, health care reform is also a key issue, given substantial lags in health indicators and limited fiscal resources. For these economies, the challenge will be to expand public coverage without undermining fiscal sustainability. This book provides new insights into these challenges and potential policy responses, with cross-country analysis and case studies.

Tracking Universal Health Coverage

First Global Monitoring Report

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241564970

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 94

View: 9626

This report is the first of its kind to measure health service coverage and financial protection to assess countries' progress towards universal health coverage. It shows that at least 400 million people do not have access to one or more essential health services and 6% of people in low- and middle-income countries are tipped into or pushed further into extreme poverty because of health spending. Universal health coverage (UHC) means that all people receive the quality essential health services they need without being exposed to financial hardship. A significant number of countries at all levels of development are embracing the goal of UHC as the right thing to do for their citizens. It is a powerful social equalizer and contributes to social cohesion and stability. Every country has the potential to improve the performance of its health system in the main dimensions of UHC: coverage of quality services and financial protection for all. Priorities strategies and implementation plans for UHC will differ from one country to another. Enhanced and expanded monitoring of health under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) should seek to build on that experience sharpening our focus on the key health service and financial protection interventions that underpin UHC. Effective UHC tracking is central to achieving the global goals for poverty alleviation and health improvement set by the World Bank Group and WHO. Without it policymakers and decision-takers cannot say exactly where they are or set a course for where they want to go. They cannot know whether they are focussing their efforts in the right areas or whether their efforts are making a difference. Monitoring is thus fundamental to the achievement of UHC objectives. It will also be vital to the realization of the SDGs. This report is a critical step to show how monitoring progress can be done telling us what the state of coverage of interventions and financial protection is and telling us where to focus most.

Principles of Health Economics for Developing Countries

Author: William Jack

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821345719

Category: Medical

Page: 298

View: 8437

Developing countries present health economists with an array of situations and circumstances not seen in developed countries. This book explores those characteristics particular to developing countries.

What's In, What's Out

Designing Benefits for Universal Health Coverage

Author: Amanda Glassman,Ursula Giedion,Peter C. Smith

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 1944691057

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 3718

Vaccinate children against deadly pneumococcal disease, or pay for cardiac patients to undergo lifesaving surgery? Cover the costs of dialysis for kidney patients, or channel the money toward preventing the conditions that lead to renal failure in the first place? Policymakers dealing with the realities of limited health care budgets face tough decisions like these regularly. And for many individuals, their personal health care choices are equally stark: paying for medical treatment could push them into poverty. Many low- and middle-income countries now aspire to universal health coverage, where governments ensure that all people have access to the quality health services they need without risk of impoverishment. But for universal health coverage to become reality, the health services offered must be consistent with the funds available—and this implies tough everyday choices for policymakers that could be the difference between life and death for those affected by any given condition or disease. The situation is particularly acute in low- and middle income countries where public spending on health is on the rise but still extremely low, and where demand for expanded services is growing rapidly. What’s In, What’s Out: Designing Benefits for Universal Health Coverage argues that the creation of an explicit health benefits plan—a defined list of services that are and are not available—is an essential element in creating a sustainable system of universal health coverage. With contributions from leading health economists and policy experts, the book considers the many dimensions of governance, institutions, methods, political economy, and ethics that are needed to decide what’s in and what’s out in a way that is fair, evidence-based, and sustainable over time.

Health Insurance in Developing Countries

The Social Security Approach

Author: Aviva Ron,Brian Abel-Smith,Giovanni Tamburi

Publisher: International Labour Organization

ISBN: 9789221064756

Category: Political Science

Page: 231

View: 7801

Hepatitis C in Developing Countries

Current and Future Challenges

Author: Sanaa M. Kamal

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128032340

Category: Science

Page: 278

View: 5289

Hepatitis C in Developing Countries: Current and Future Challenges explores the current state of HCV in several countries, including Africa, Asia and South America. It maintains a dedicated focus on the epidemiology, clinical patterns, virologic diversity, coinfections, natural history and progression, complications, and response to standard of care (SOC) pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy of HCV with recommendations specific to middle and low income countries. Readers will find detailed information on the burden of HCV infection from a global health and economic perspective, along with data from multicenter trials on DAAs that have enrolled patients infected with HCV non-genotype 1. Features coverage on the prevention of, or inhibition of, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma Presents data from trials on patients with diverse ethnic backgrounds and those infected with genotypes 3, 4, 5, 6 Addresses the epidemiology, modes of transmission, socio-political aspects, genotypes, and co-infections of Hepatitis C

The New Public Health

Author: Theodore H. Tulchinsky,Elena A. Varavikova

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012415767X

Category: Medical

Page: 912

View: 3330

The New Public Health has established itself as a solid textbook throughout the world. Translated into 7 languages, this work distinguishes itself from other public health textbooks, which are either highly locally oriented or, if international, lack the specificity of local issues relevant to students' understanding of applied public health in their own setting. This 3e provides a unified approach to public health appropriate for all masters' level students and practitioners—specifically for courses in MPH programs, community health and preventive medicine programs, community health education programs, and community health nursing programs, as well as programs for other medical professionals such as pharmacy, physiotherapy, and other public health courses. Changes in infectious and chronic disease epidemiology including vaccines, health promotion, human resources for health and health technology Lessons from H1N1, pandemic threats, disease eradication, nutritional health Trends of health systems and reforms and consequences of current economic crisis for health Public health law, ethics, scientific d health technology advances and assessment Global Health environment, Millennium Development Goals and international NGOs