Soziologie

Situationslogik und Handeln

Author: Hartmut Esser

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 9783593371443

Category: Sociology

Page: 512

View: 2501

Die auf sechs Bände angelegten "Speziellen Grundlagen der Soziologie" sind die Weiterführung und Vertiefung des Einführungswerkes "Soziologie. Allgemeine Grundlagen". In umfassender Weise werden die zentralen Gegenstandsbereiche und theoretischen Herangehensweisen der Soziologie dargestellt. Der Autor präsentiert in seinen "Speziellen Grundlagen" einen Ansatz, der die wichtigsten theoretischen Konzepte der Soziologie, Sozialpsychologie und Ökonomie zu einem allgemeinen sozialwissenschaftlichen Erklärungsprogramm integriert. Der Aufbau des Werkes folgt dem Modell der soziologischen Erklärung mit den drei charakteristischen "Logiken": Die Logik der Situation, die Logik der Selektion und die Logik der Aggregation.

The Cult and Science of Public Health

A Sociological Investigation

Author: Kevin Dew

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857453394

Category: Medical

Page: 179

View: 8304

In contemporary manifestations of public health rituals and events, people are being increasingly united around what they hold in common-their material being and humanity. As a cult of humanity, public health provides a moral force in society that replaces 'traditional' religions in times of great diversity or heterogeneity of peoples, activities and desires. This is in contrast to public health's foundation in science, particularly the science of epidemiology. The rigid rules of 'scientific evidence' used to determine the cause of illness and disease can work against the most vulnerable in society by putting sectors of the population, such as underrepresented workers, at a disadvantage. This study focuses on this tension between traditional science and the changing vision articulated within public health (and across many disciplines) that calls for a collective response to uncontrolled capitalism and unremitting globalization, and to the way in which health inequalities and their association with social inequalities provides a political rhetoric that calls for a new redistributive social programme. Drawing on decades of research, the author argues that public health is both a cult and a science of contemporary society.

Studies in the Sociology of Population

International Perspectives

Author: Jon Anson,Walter Bartl,Andrzej Kulczycki

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319948683

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 1182

This book presents a cross section of the work and concerns of social demographers worldwide, covering a broad range of topics from social structure through population structure to social policy; from fertility and mortality through migration to the way in which organisations deal with the demographic environment in which they operate. Topics addressed also include morbidity and health profiles and transitions, as well as policies and programs concerned with these and other issues. The volume touches on some of the major links between population and societal dynamics. It addresses demographic patterns and issues from micro-level, meso-level, and macro-level perspectives and helps put into focus the past, present and future of the mutual relations between population dynamics and societal responses. With a unique introductory chapter discussing the global unevenness of population growth today, its associations with inequality and the challenges it presents for the future, and a truly international approach to social and demographic change and policy responses, this book will serve as a valuable resource for professionals and students in sociology, demography, social policy and local governance.

A History of Sociology in Britain

Science, Literature, and Society

Author: A. H. Halsey

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191532886

Category: Social Science

Page: 294

View: 1394

This is the first-ever critical history of sociology in Britain, written by one of the world's leading scholars in the field. Renowned British sociologist, A. H. Halsey, presents a vivid and authoritative picture of the neglect, expansion, fragmentation, and explosion of the discipline during the past century. He is well equipped to write the story, having lived through most of it and having taught and researched in Britain, the USA, and Europe. The story begins with L.T. Hobhouse's election to the first chair in sociology in London in 1907, but traces earlier origins of the discipline to Scotland and the English provinces. There is a lively account of the nineteenth-century battles between literature and science for the possession of the third culture of social studies, setting the context for a narrative history of rapid expansion in the second half of the twentieth century. LSE had a virtual monopoly before World War II. The educational establishment of Oxford and Cambridge opposed its introduction into the undergraduate curriculum. Only the expansion of sociology to the Scottish, Welsh, provincial, and 'new' universities after the Robbins Report of 1963 brought reluctant acceptance of the subject to Oxford and Cambridge. The student troubles of 1968 are then described and the subsequent doubts, confrontations, and cuts of the 1970s and 80s. Then, paradoxically by a Conservative Government, there was a new university expansion incorporating polytechnics and other colleges, with a consequent doubling of both staff and students in the 1990s. Yet the end of the century left sociology riven by intellectual conflict. It had survived the Marxist subversions of the 70s and the feminist invasion. Yet the renewed challenges of various forms of relativism (especially enthno-methodology and post-modernism) still threatened, and at root the war was, as it began, between a scientific quantifying and explanatory subject and a literary, interpretative set of cultural studies.

Causal Analysis in Population Studies

Concepts, Methods, Applications

Author: Henriette Engelhardt,Hans-Peter Kohler,Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402099673

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 5253

The central aim of many studies in population research and demography is to explain cause-effect relationships among variables or events. For decades, population scientists have concentrated their efforts on estimating the ‘causes of effects’ by applying standard cross-sectional and dynamic regression techniques, with regression coefficients routinely being understood as estimates of causal effects. The standard approach to infer the ‘effects of causes’ in natural sciences and in psychology is to conduct randomized experiments. In population studies, experimental designs are generally infeasible. In population studies, most research is based on non-experimental designs (observational or survey designs) and rarely on quasi experiments or natural experiments. Using non-experimental designs to infer causal relationships—i.e. relationships that can ultimately inform policies or interventions—is a complex undertaking. Specifically, treatment effects can be inferred from non-experimental data with a counterfactual approach. In this counterfactual perspective, causal effects are defined as the difference between the potential outcome irrespective of whether or not an individual had received a certain treatment (or experienced a certain cause). The counterfactual approach to estimate effects of causes from quasi-experimental data or from observational studies was first proposed by Rubin in 1974 and further developed by James Heckman and others. This book presents both theoretical contributions and empirical applications of the counterfactual approach to causal inference.

An Introduction to Population

Author: Helen Ginn Daugherty

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 9780898626162

Category: Social Science

Page: 343

View: 412

Discussing the scope and key concepts of the study of population, it considers the basic processes of fertility, mortality, migration, population composition, demography data and population processes, and assesses the problems within the field.

The International Handbook of Sociology

Author: Stella R Quah,Arnaud Sales

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1847871569

Category: Social Science

Page: 568

View: 4656

`The most up-to-date survey of the range of research in contemporary sociology, extremely useful to students, teachers, and researchers alike. Indispensable for collective and personal libraries' - Immanuel Wallerstein, Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, Paris This unique Handbook provides state-of-the-art reviews of sociology conducted by prominent scholars. Drawing on dedicated knowledge and expertise, the book constitutes an unrivalled guide to the central theoretical and methodological perspectives in the discipline as a whole. The book is organized into six parts: o conceptual perspectives o social and cultural differentiation o changing institutions and collective action o demography, cities and housing o art and leisure o social problems Each chapter includes a comprehensive review of the literature, covering the full range of work from contrasting traditions of thought and approaches. No existing work matches this Handbook for scholarly coverage and relevance. It is a primary resource for understanding the discipline. As such, it will appeal to lecturers, researchers and advanced graduate and undergraduate students in Sociology.

Demography

The Science of Population

Author: Jay Weinstein,Vijayan K. Pillai

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442235217

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 7830

This comprehensive, introductory text takes an applied, interdisciplinary approach. Because one author is a sociologist and the other a demographer, the text introduces perspectives from many different disciplines. The most applied book on the market, Demography: The Science of Population teaches students how to use the multitude of demographic resources available to them as consumers of data. Using case studies throughout to illustrate key concepts in a realistic and concrete manner, the authors also draw examples from recent U.S. Census data, United Nations and World Bank reports, tables from the National Center for Health Statistics, and other U.S. state- and county-level sources. New to the Second Edition This second edition is divided into four main parts; each part begins with a short introduction, and all chapters include end-of-chapter summaries. All tables, related narrative, and graphics have been updated to include data from the 2000 and 2010 census counts, more recent estimates for the United States—especially the American Community Survey—and comparable new data from international sources (e.g. World Bank, Population Research Bureau World Data Sheet). Several new figures have been added throughout the text. Part I: An Overview of Population Science, introduces the field of demography and provides a summary of its subject matter. The chapters in this part have been reorganized to reflect changes in the discipline. Chapter 1 now includes a new “the study of populations” section, a shorter Chapter 2 covers population size, and its former discussion of structure has been moved to Chapter 3. This de-emphasizes the history of population science to some extent and increases emphasis on population size as the key demographic variable. Chapter 4 presents the main principles and analytical techniques associated with the three “static” characteristics of populations: size, structure, and geographic distribution. Part II: Population Dynamics: Vital Events and Growth, reflects the wealth of data and analytical techniques now available from The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its “Wonder” utility. The first three chapters focus on the vital events of birth, death, and migration. The final chapter in this part brings this material together in a discussion of population growth: its measurement, its history, and current related policy concerns. Part III: Population Models, introduces the principles of life table analysis, population estimation, and projection. This material has been simplified and updated. Chapter 9, The Life Table: An Introduction, has been revised to accord with the new federal alignment for vital statistics between the CDC and National Institute for Health Statistics. Life tables from non-U.S. sources are increased in number and in detailed functions. Part IV: Demography in Application, provides overviews of population policy, the environment, and demographic resources, along with a brief postscript on population in the larger scheme of things. What appeared as two appendices in the first edition, one on the history of population policy and one on tourism as a type of international migration, have been combined to create a new Chapter 14. The end-of-chapter material has been shortened and now contains a summary, key terms, and notes. A full-color enhanced eText is also available, and the second edition is accompanied by a teaching and learning package, including instructor’s manual, test bank, lecture slides, and a companion website that offers students additional resources, flashcards, and self-study quizzes.

An Introduction to Medical Sociology

Author: David Tuckett

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415264341

Category: Social Science

Page: 412

View: 9659

Tavistock Press was established as a co-operative venture between the Tavistock Institute and Routledge & Kegan Paul (RKP) in the 1950s to produce a series of major contributions across the social sciences. This volume is part of a 2001 reissue of a selection of those important works which have since gone out of print, or are difficult to locate. Published by Routledge, 112 volumes in total are being brought together under the name The International Behavioural and Social Sciences Library: Classics from the Tavistock Press. Reproduced here in facsimile, this volume was originally published in 1976 and is available individually. The collection is also available in a number of themed mini-sets of between 5 and 13 volumes, or as a complete collection.

Durkheim's Philosophy of Science and the Sociology of Knowledge

Creating an Intellectual Niche

Author: Warren Schmaus

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226742519

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 6236

In this demonstration of the link between philosophy of science and scientific practice, Warren Schmaus argues that Durkheim's philosophy is crucial to his sociology. Through a reinterpretation of the relation between Durkheim's major philosophical and sociological works, Schmaus argues that Durkheim's sociology is more than a collection of general observations about society—it reflects a richly constructed theory of the meanings and causes of social life. Schmaus shows how Durkheim sought to make sociology more rigorous by introducing scientific methods of analysis and explanation into the study of society. Durkheim tried to reveal how implicit, commonly held beliefs actually govern people's lives. Through an original interpretation of Durkheim's landmark writings, Schmaus argues that Durkheim, in his empirical studies, refined both the methods of sociology and a theory about society's shared knowledge and practices. This book opens a new window on the development of Durkheim's thought and demonstrates how a philosophy of science can inspire the rise of a new science.

Capitalizing on Investments in Science and Technology

Author: Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy,National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine,Institute of Medicine,National Academy of Sciences,National Academy of Engineering

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309524776

Category: Political Science

Page: 112

View: 4245

Although the United States is currently capitalizing on its investment in science and technology effectively, there remains much room for improvement. This volume identifies the ingredients for success in capitalizing on such investments to produce national benefits, assesses current U.S. performance, and identifies future challenges. The book cites specific examples and examines several cross-cutting issues. It explores the possibility that the national research portfolio is losing diversity as a result of less long-term research in critical fields such as networking and materials. It also examines the implications of imbalances in the supply of and demand for science and engineering talent in emerging interdisciplinary fields such as bioinformatics.

Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers

A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies

Author: National Academy of Engineering,National Academy of Sciences,Institute of Medicine,Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309069963

Category: Education

Page: 212

View: 5764

The concept of postdoctoral training came to science and engineering about a century ago. Since the 1960s, the performance of research in the United States has increasingly relied on these recent PhDs who work on a full-time, but on a temporary basis, to gain additional research experience in preparation for a professional research career. Such experiences are increasingly seen as central to careers in research, but for many, the postdoctoral experience falls short of expectations. Some postdocs indicate that they have not received the recognition, standing or compensation that is commensurate with their experience and skills. Is this the case? If so, how can the postdoctoral experience be enhanced for the over 40,000 individuals who hold these positions at university, government, and industry laboratories? This new book offers its assessment of the postdoctoral experience and provides principles, action points, and recommendations for enhancing that experience.

Mixed Method Data Collection Strategies

Author: William G. Axinn,Lisa D. Pearce

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139458388

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 2536

Social scientists have long relied on a wide range of tools to collect information about the social world, but as individual fields have become more specialised, researchers are trained to use a narrow range of the possible data collection methods. This book, first published in 2006, draws on a broad range of available social data collection methods to formulate a set of data collection approaches. The approaches described here are ideal for social science researchers who plan to collect new data about people, organisations, or social processes. Axinn and Pearce present methods designed to create a comprehensive empirical description of the subject being studied, with an emphasis on accumulating the information needed to understand what causes what with a minimum of error. In addition to providing methodological motivation and underlying principles, the book is filled with detailed instructions and concrete examples for those who wish to apply the methods to their research.

A Dictionary of Sociology

Author: John Scott,Gordon Marshall

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199533008

Category: Social Science

Page: 816

View: 4717

Contains over 2,500 alphabetically arranged entries providing definitions of terms and ideas related to sociology, along with cross-references, and biographical sketches of key individuals in the field.

Perspectives on the Future of the Sociology of Aging

Author: Panel on New Directions in Social Demography, Social Epidemiology, and the Sociology of Aging,Committee on Population,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309262453

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 6279

The population of the United States is growing inexorably older. With birth rates historically low and life expectancy continuing to rise, the age distribution of the population in the United States is growing steadily older. This demographic shift is occurring at a time of major economic and social changes, which have important implications for the growing elderly population. Other changes, such as the move away from defined-benefit toward defined-contribution retirement plans, changes in some corporate and municipal pension plans as a result of market pressures, and the 2008 financial crisis precipitated by the crash of the housing market, all have economic implications for older people. They are also likely to make it more difficult for certain groups of future retirees to find their retirements at the level that they had planned and would like. To deal effectively with the challenges created by population aging, it is vital to first understand these demographic, economic, and social changes and, to the extent possible, their causes, consequences, and implications. Sociology offers a knowledge base, a number of useful analytic approaches and tools, and unique theoretical perspectives that can be important aids to this task. The Panel on New Directions in Social Demography, Social Epidemiology, and the Sociology of Aging was established in August 2010 under the auspices of the Committee on Population of the National Research Council to prepare a report that evaluates the recent contributions of social demography, social epidemiology, and sociology to the study of aging and seeks to identify promising new research in these fields. Perspectives on the Future of the Sociology of Aging provides candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the final published volume as sound as possible and to ensure that the volume meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge.

Scientific Diasporas as Development Partners

Skilled Migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa in Switzerland : Empirical Evidence and Policy Responses

Author: Gabriela Tejada,Jean-Claude Bolay

Publisher: Peter Lang

ISBN: 9783034303910

Category: Social Science

Page: 513

View: 5217

Over the last two decades, globalisation has accelerated international migration flows, particularly of skilled labour. Yet increasing migration by skilled workers from developing countries (-brain drain-) has raised serious concerns internationally about the adverse development impact on their countries of origin. This book, however, highlights the positive aspects of skilled labour migration as scientific diasporas are playing a growing role in the transfer of technology, skills and knowledge (-brain gain-) to their home countries. This is a very significant development in a globalised world where science, technology and knowledge can trigger economic and social transformations. The book presents solid empirical evidence of the contributions scientific diasporas make to their countries of origin, based on primary surveys of skilled migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa employed in Switzerland, a major destination country. The findings lead to a better understanding of the motives for migration, the profile of the scientific diaspora communities in Switzerland, and the varied ways in which they help their home countries. The book makes a significant contribution to the international policy debate and dialogue on migration and development. In particular, it shows how to leverage the potential of scientific diasporas as agents of home country development, by identifying good practices and offering specific recommendations for the countries of origin and of destination."

The Sociology of Return Migration: A Bibliographic Essay

Author: Frank Bovenkerk

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401510377

Category: Social Science

Page: 67

View: 6924

1. 1. Why this essay? It is customary for the author on return migration to complain about the lack of theoretical and empirical knowledge on his sub ject. Three recent general handbooks on the sociology of migra tion Jackson (1969), Jansen (1970) and Albrecht (1972), pro duce together no more than 10 sources on return migration. The by Mangalam (1968), although extensive migration bibliography giving no less than 2051 titles, still comes up with no more than 10 sources. I t is true that not so many books and articles are de voted exclusively to return migration: Appleyard (1962a, 1962b), Cerase (1967,1970), Committee ... (1967), Davison, B. (1968), Dietzel (1971), Elizur (1973), Feindt & Browning (1972), Form & Rivera (1958), Frohlich & Schade (1966), Hernandez-Alvarez (1967,1968), Kraak (1957a, 1957b, 1958), Kayser (1972), Myers & Masnick (1968), Migration News (1969), Mc Donald (1963), O.E. CD. (1967a, 1967b), Patterson. H.O. (1968), Richmond (1967a, 1967b, 1968), Richardson (1968), Saloutos (1956), Stark (1967b), Vanderkamp (1972), Vagts (1960) and Wilder-Okladek (1969). But this does not imply that no further research has been done and that therefore every new student of return migration had to begin from scratch. In numerous studies on emigration, migrant labour, immigration, integration and assimilation, room has been made for a chapter or a paragraph on "those who re turned" or "the migrant's return". I've found the demographical periodicalPopulation Index relatively useful in tracing the subject. 1. 2.