Soziologie

Situationslogik und Handeln

Author: Hartmut Esser

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 9783593371443

Category: Sociology

Page: 512

View: 1013

Die auf sechs Bände angelegten "Speziellen Grundlagen der Soziologie" sind die Weiterführung und Vertiefung des Einführungswerkes "Soziologie. Allgemeine Grundlagen". In umfassender Weise werden die zentralen Gegenstandsbereiche und theoretischen Herangehensweisen der Soziologie dargestellt. Der Autor präsentiert in seinen "Speziellen Grundlagen" einen Ansatz, der die wichtigsten theoretischen Konzepte der Soziologie, Sozialpsychologie und Ökonomie zu einem allgemeinen sozialwissenschaftlichen Erklärungsprogramm integriert. Der Aufbau des Werkes folgt dem Modell der soziologischen Erklärung mit den drei charakteristischen "Logiken": Die Logik der Situation, die Logik der Selektion und die Logik der Aggregation.

The Cult and Science of Public Health

A Sociological Investigation

Author: Kevin Dew

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857453394

Category: Medical

Page: 179

View: 7007

In contemporary manifestations of public health rituals and events, people are being increasingly united around what they hold in common-their material being and humanity. As a cult of humanity, public health provides a moral force in society that replaces 'traditional' religions in times of great diversity or heterogeneity of peoples, activities and desires. This is in contrast to public health's foundation in science, particularly the science of epidemiology. The rigid rules of 'scientific evidence' used to determine the cause of illness and disease can work against the most vulnerable in society by putting sectors of the population, such as underrepresented workers, at a disadvantage. This study focuses on this tension between traditional science and the changing vision articulated within public health (and across many disciplines) that calls for a collective response to uncontrolled capitalism and unremitting globalization, and to the way in which health inequalities and their association with social inequalities provides a political rhetoric that calls for a new redistributive social programme. Drawing on decades of research, the author argues that public health is both a cult and a science of contemporary society.

A History of Sociology in Britain

Science, Literature, and Society

Author: A. H. Halsey

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191532886

Category: Social Science

Page: 294

View: 4100

This is the first-ever critical history of sociology in Britain, written by one of the world's leading scholars in the field. Renowned British sociologist, A. H. Halsey, presents a vivid and authoritative picture of the neglect, expansion, fragmentation, and explosion of the discipline during the past century. He is well equipped to write the story, having lived through most of it and having taught and researched in Britain, the USA, and Europe. The story begins with L.T. Hobhouse's election to the first chair in sociology in London in 1907, but traces earlier origins of the discipline to Scotland and the English provinces. There is a lively account of the nineteenth-century battles between literature and science for the possession of the third culture of social studies, setting the context for a narrative history of rapid expansion in the second half of the twentieth century. LSE had a virtual monopoly before World War II. The educational establishment of Oxford and Cambridge opposed its introduction into the undergraduate curriculum. Only the expansion of sociology to the Scottish, Welsh, provincial, and 'new' universities after the Robbins Report of 1963 brought reluctant acceptance of the subject to Oxford and Cambridge. The student troubles of 1968 are then described and the subsequent doubts, confrontations, and cuts of the 1970s and 80s. Then, paradoxically by a Conservative Government, there was a new university expansion incorporating polytechnics and other colleges, with a consequent doubling of both staff and students in the 1990s. Yet the end of the century left sociology riven by intellectual conflict. It had survived the Marxist subversions of the 70s and the feminist invasion. Yet the renewed challenges of various forms of relativism (especially enthno-methodology and post-modernism) still threatened, and at root the war was, as it began, between a scientific quantifying and explanatory subject and a literary, interpretative set of cultural studies.

Das egoistische Gen

Mit einem Vorwort von Wolfgang Wickler

Author: Richard Dawkins

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642553915

Category: Science

Page: 489

View: 8965

p”Ein auch heute noch bedeutsamer Klassiker“ Daily Express Sind wir Marionetten unserer Gene? Nach Richard Dawkins ́ vor über 30 Jahren entworfener und heute noch immer provozierender These steuern und dirigieren unsere von Generation zu Generation weitergegebenen Gene uns, um sich selbst zu erhalten. Alle biologischen Organismen dienen somit vor allem dem Überleben und der Unsterblichkeit der Erbanlagen und sind letztlich nur die "Einweg-Behälter" der "egoistischen" Gene. Sind wir Menschen also unserem Gen-Schicksal hilflos ausgeliefert? Dawkins bestreitet dies und macht uns Hoffnung: Seiner Meinung nach sind wir nämlich die einzige Spezies mit der Chance, gegen ihr genetisches Schicksal anzukämpfen.

The Sociology of Return Migration: A Bibliographic Essay

Author: Frank Bovenkerk

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401510377

Category: Social Science

Page: 67

View: 3460

1. 1. Why this essay? It is customary for the author on return migration to complain about the lack of theoretical and empirical knowledge on his sub ject. Three recent general handbooks on the sociology of migra tion Jackson (1969), Jansen (1970) and Albrecht (1972), pro duce together no more than 10 sources on return migration. The by Mangalam (1968), although extensive migration bibliography giving no less than 2051 titles, still comes up with no more than 10 sources. I t is true that not so many books and articles are de voted exclusively to return migration: Appleyard (1962a, 1962b), Cerase (1967,1970), Committee ... (1967), Davison, B. (1968), Dietzel (1971), Elizur (1973), Feindt & Browning (1972), Form & Rivera (1958), Frohlich & Schade (1966), Hernandez-Alvarez (1967,1968), Kraak (1957a, 1957b, 1958), Kayser (1972), Myers & Masnick (1968), Migration News (1969), Mc Donald (1963), O.E. CD. (1967a, 1967b), Patterson. H.O. (1968), Richmond (1967a, 1967b, 1968), Richardson (1968), Saloutos (1956), Stark (1967b), Vanderkamp (1972), Vagts (1960) and Wilder-Okladek (1969). But this does not imply that no further research has been done and that therefore every new student of return migration had to begin from scratch. In numerous studies on emigration, migrant labour, immigration, integration and assimilation, room has been made for a chapter or a paragraph on "those who re turned" or "the migrant's return". I've found the demographical periodicalPopulation Index relatively useful in tracing the subject. 1. 2.

Durkheim's Philosophy of Science and the Sociology of Knowledge

Creating an Intellectual Niche

Author: Warren Schmaus

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226742519

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 6545

In this demonstration of the link between philosophy of science and scientific practice, Warren Schmaus argues that Durkheim's philosophy is crucial to his sociology. Through a reinterpretation of the relation between Durkheim's major philosophical and sociological works, Schmaus argues that Durkheim's sociology is more than a collection of general observations about society—it reflects a richly constructed theory of the meanings and causes of social life. Schmaus shows how Durkheim sought to make sociology more rigorous by introducing scientific methods of analysis and explanation into the study of society. Durkheim tried to reveal how implicit, commonly held beliefs actually govern people's lives. Through an original interpretation of Durkheim's landmark writings, Schmaus argues that Durkheim, in his empirical studies, refined both the methods of sociology and a theory about society's shared knowledge and practices. This book opens a new window on the development of Durkheim's thought and demonstrates how a philosophy of science can inspire the rise of a new science.

Capitalizing on Investments in Science and Technology

Author: Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy,National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine,Institute of Medicine,National Academy of Sciences,National Academy of Engineering

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309524776

Category: Political Science

Page: 112

View: 1435

Although the United States is currently capitalizing on its investment in science and technology effectively, there remains much room for improvement. This volume identifies the ingredients for success in capitalizing on such investments to produce national benefits, assesses current U.S. performance, and identifies future challenges. The book cites specific examples and examines several cross-cutting issues. It explores the possibility that the national research portfolio is losing diversity as a result of less long-term research in critical fields such as networking and materials. It also examines the implications of imbalances in the supply of and demand for science and engineering talent in emerging interdisciplinary fields such as bioinformatics.

Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers

A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies

Author: National Academy of Engineering,National Academy of Sciences,Institute of Medicine,Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309069963

Category: Education

Page: 212

View: 870

The concept of postdoctoral training came to science and engineering about a century ago. Since the 1960s, the performance of research in the United States has increasingly relied on these recent PhDs who work on a full-time, but on a temporary basis, to gain additional research experience in preparation for a professional research career. Such experiences are increasingly seen as central to careers in research, but for many, the postdoctoral experience falls short of expectations. Some postdocs indicate that they have not received the recognition, standing or compensation that is commensurate with their experience and skills. Is this the case? If so, how can the postdoctoral experience be enhanced for the over 40,000 individuals who hold these positions at university, government, and industry laboratories? This new book offers its assessment of the postdoctoral experience and provides principles, action points, and recommendations for enhancing that experience.

Studies in the Sociology of Population

International Perspectives

Author: Jon Anson,Walter Bartl,Andrzej Kulczycki

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319948683

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 6522

This book presents a cross section of the work and concerns of social demographers worldwide, covering a broad range of topics from social structure through population structure to social policy; from fertility and mortality through migration to the way in which organisations deal with the demographic environment in which they operate. Topics addressed also include morbidity and health profiles and transitions, as well as policies and programs concerned with these and other issues. The volume touches on some of the major links between population and societal dynamics. It addresses demographic patterns and issues from micro-level, meso-level, and macro-level perspectives and helps put into focus the past, present and future of the mutual relations between population dynamics and societal responses. With a unique introductory chapter discussing the global unevenness of population growth today, its associations with inequality and the challenges it presents for the future, and a truly international approach to social and demographic change and policy responses, this book will serve as a valuable resource for professionals and students in sociology, demography, social policy and local governance.

Causal Analysis in Population Studies

Concepts, Methods, Applications

Author: Henriette Engelhardt,Hans-Peter Kohler,Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402099673

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 2786

The central aim of many studies in population research and demography is to explain cause-effect relationships among variables or events. For decades, population scientists have concentrated their efforts on estimating the ‘causes of effects’ by applying standard cross-sectional and dynamic regression techniques, with regression coefficients routinely being understood as estimates of causal effects. The standard approach to infer the ‘effects of causes’ in natural sciences and in psychology is to conduct randomized experiments. In population studies, experimental designs are generally infeasible. In population studies, most research is based on non-experimental designs (observational or survey designs) and rarely on quasi experiments or natural experiments. Using non-experimental designs to infer causal relationships—i.e. relationships that can ultimately inform policies or interventions—is a complex undertaking. Specifically, treatment effects can be inferred from non-experimental data with a counterfactual approach. In this counterfactual perspective, causal effects are defined as the difference between the potential outcome irrespective of whether or not an individual had received a certain treatment (or experienced a certain cause). The counterfactual approach to estimate effects of causes from quasi-experimental data or from observational studies was first proposed by Rubin in 1974 and further developed by James Heckman and others. This book presents both theoretical contributions and empirical applications of the counterfactual approach to causal inference.

Scientific Diasporas as Development Partners

Skilled Migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa in Switzerland : Empirical Evidence and Policy Responses

Author: Gabriela Tejada,Jean-Claude Bolay

Publisher: Peter Lang

ISBN: 9783034303910

Category: Social Science

Page: 513

View: 7112

Over the last two decades, globalisation has accelerated international migration flows, particularly of skilled labour. Yet increasing migration by skilled workers from developing countries (-brain drain-) has raised serious concerns internationally about the adverse development impact on their countries of origin. This book, however, highlights the positive aspects of skilled labour migration as scientific diasporas are playing a growing role in the transfer of technology, skills and knowledge (-brain gain-) to their home countries. This is a very significant development in a globalised world where science, technology and knowledge can trigger economic and social transformations. The book presents solid empirical evidence of the contributions scientific diasporas make to their countries of origin, based on primary surveys of skilled migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa employed in Switzerland, a major destination country. The findings lead to a better understanding of the motives for migration, the profile of the scientific diaspora communities in Switzerland, and the varied ways in which they help their home countries. The book makes a significant contribution to the international policy debate and dialogue on migration and development. In particular, it shows how to leverage the potential of scientific diasporas as agents of home country development, by identifying good practices and offering specific recommendations for the countries of origin and of destination."

ASA News

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Africa

Page: N.A

View: 9395

Sociology in Perspective

Author: Mark Kirby

Publisher: Heinemann

ISBN: 9780435331603

Category: Sociology

Page: 831

View: 8494

This text, specifically for AQA specifications, is designed to be easy and encouraging for students to use. The book contains updated material and activities together with a new chapter on study skills. It also indicates clearly where activities meet the new evidence requirements for key skills.

Beginning Statistics

An Introduction for Social Scientists

Author: Ian Diamond,Julie Jefferies

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446223485

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 4818

`The clarity, simplicity and use of many practical examples makes this book very useful, primarily for under- and postgraduate students' - Journal of Biosocial Science With an emphasis on description, examples, graphs and displays rather than statistical formulae, this book is the ideal introductory guide for students across the social sciences. It shows how all students can understand the basic ideas of statistics at a level appropriate with being a good social scientist. The authors explain the right ways to present data, how to describe a set of data using summary statistics and how to infer what is going on in a population when all you have to go on is the sample. The book uses small data sets to help students understand the basic principles, and no mathematics or statistical background is assumed.

Sociology

Author: George Andrew Lundberg,Clarence C. Schrag,Otto N. Larsen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Sociology

Page: 549

View: 2200

Sociology as a natural science; Population and communities; Behavior systems; Communication and group behavior; Social institutions; Cultural variability and social control.

Sociology For Nurses

Author: Clement I.

Publisher: Pearson Education India

ISBN: 9788131733264

Category:

Page: 316

View: 4788