Soft Power

The Means To Success In World Politics

Author: Joseph S. Nye, Jr.

Publisher: PublicAffairs

ISBN: 0786738960

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 8376

Joseph Nye coined the term "soft power" in the late 1980s. It is now used frequently—and often incorrectly—by political leaders, editorial writers, and academics around the world. So what is soft power? Soft power lies in the ability to attract and persuade. Whereas hard power—the ability to coerce—grows out of a country's military or economic might, soft power arises from the attractiveness of a country's culture, political ideals, and policies. Hard power remains crucial in a world of states trying to guard their independence and of non-state groups willing to turn to violence. It forms the core of the Bush administration's new national security strategy. But according to Nye, the neo-conservatives who advise the president are making a major miscalculation: They focus too heavily on using America's military power to force other nations to do our will, and they pay too little heed to our soft power. It is soft power that will help prevent terrorists from recruiting supporters from among the moderate majority. And it is soft power that will help us deal with critical global issues that require multilateral cooperation among states. That is why it is so essential that America better understands and applies our soft power. This book is our guide.

The Rhetoric of Soft Power

Public Diplomacy in Global Contexts

Author: Craig Hayden

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739142585

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 300

View: 8427

The book explores the notion of soft power as set of theoretical arguments about power, and as a reflection of how each country perceives what is an increasingly necessary perspective on international relations in an age of ubiquitous global communication flows and encroaching networks of non-state actors. Soft power is discussed a means by which public diplomacy is justified and in the process, reflects arguments for how each state sees what is possible through soft power.

The Routledge Handbook of Soft Power

Author: Naren Chitty,Li Ji,Gary D. Rawnsley,Craig Hayden

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131736936X

Category: Political Science

Page: 488

View: 3216

The Routledge Handbook of Soft Power is the first volume to offer a comprehensive and detailed picture of soft power and associated forms of public diplomacy. The terms soft power and public diplomacy have enormous currency in media and policy discourse, yet despite all the attention the terms remain conceptually ambiguous for analysts of international influence. The consequence is that the terms have survived as powerful, yet criticized, frames for influence. Divided into two main parts, Part I outlines theoretical problems, methodological questions, the cultural imperative and the technological turn within the study of soft power and Part II focuses on bringing the theory into practice through detailed discussion of key case studies from across the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia. This innovative handbook provides a definitive resource for students and scholars seeking to familiarize themselves with cutting-edge debates and future research on soft power and will be of interest to those studying and researching in areas such as international relations, public diplomacy and international communication.

Screening China's Soft Power

Author: Paola Voci,Luo Hui

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317209435

Category: Social Science

Page: 266

View: 5757

Promoting China's cultural soft power by disseminating modern Chinese values is one of the policies of President Xi Jinping. Although, it is usually understood as a top-down initiative, implemented willingly or unwillingly by writers, filmmakers, artists, and so on, and often manifesting itself in clumsy and awkward ways, for example, the concept of "the Chinese dream," intended to rival and perhaps appeal more strongly than "the American dream," modern Chinese values are in fact put forward in many ways by many different cultural actors. Through analyses of film festivals, CCTV, Confucius Institutes, auteurs, blockbusters, reality TV, and online digital cultures, this book exposes the limitations of China's officially promoted soft power in both conception and practice, and proposes a pluralistic approach to understanding Chinese soft power in local, regional, and transnational contexts. As such, the book demonstrates the limitations of existing theories of soft power, and argues that the US-derived concept of soft power can benefit from being examined from a China perspective.

Charm Offensive

How China's Soft Power is Transforming the World

Author: Joshua Kurlantzick

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300117035

Category: History

Page: 306

View: 9363

Assesses the long-term implications of China's recent reliance on soft power--trade incentives, diplomacy, cultural and educational exchange, and more--to develop stronger international alliances, position itself as a model of social and economic success, and project a benign national image.

Soft Power Superpowers

Author: Yasushi Watanabe,David L McConnell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317459644

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 328

View: 5608

The term "soft power" describes a country's ability to get what it wants by attracting rather than coercing others - by engaging hearts and minds through cultural and political values and foreign policies that other countries see as legitimate and conducive to their own interests.This book analyzes the soft power assets of the United States and Japan, and how they contributed to one of the most successful, if unlikely, bilateral relationships of the twentieth century. Sponsored by the U.S. Social Science Research Council and the Japan Foundation's Center for Global Partnership, the book brings together anthropologists, political scientists, historians, economists, diplomats, and others to explore the multiple axes of soft power that operate in the U.S.-Japanese relationship, and between the United States and Japan and other regions of the world.The contributors move beyond an "either-or" concept of hard versus soft power to a more dynamic interpretation, and demonstrate the important role of non-state actors in wielding soft power. They show how public diplomacy on both sides of the Pacific - bolstered by less formal influences such as popular cultural icons, product brands, martial arts, baseball, and educational exchanges - has led to a vibrant U.S.-Japanese relationship since World War II despite formidable challenges. Emphasizing the essentially interactive nature of persuasion, the book highlights an approach to soft power that has many implications for the world today.

India’s Soft Power

A New Foreign Policy Strategy

Author: Patryk Kugiel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135198716X

Category: Political Science

Page: 230

View: 3914

It is sometimes said that, in the 21st century, the country that tells the better story wins, rather than the country whose army can prevail on the battlefield. That ability to attract others, persuade and set the agenda, soft power, plays an increasingly important role in international relations and in Indian foreign policy. However, while most of the rediscovered interest in India has been focused on its hard power attributes, such as its military and economy, this book concentrates on less tangible assets, such as its culture, ideas and people. The first comprehensive analysis of India’s soft power done from an international relations perspective, this book tracks the changes in Indian foreign policy over last two decades to show how soft power strategy, tools and institutions have been given a more prominent place in India’s external affairs. The study evaluates India’s soft power assets and liabilities and shows how the state is trying to make better use of this potential to realise its national interests. It assesses the effectiveness of India’s soft power approach and provides recommendations on possible improvements to make India a major smart power in the future. An intriguing and comprehensive analysis, it will be valuable for students and scholars interested in Indian foreign policy, soft power theory and international relations. Underlining India’s uniqueness, it substantiates the argument that soft power is not confined to the Western world. Thus, it contributes an interesting case study for comparative study of soft powers.

Communicating India’s Soft Power

Buddha to Bollywood

Author: D. Thussu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137027894

Category: Political Science

Page: 227

View: 8628

In recent years, India has emerged as a major economic and political power. Yet, the country's cultural influence outside India has not been adequately analyzed in academic discourses. This book, a pioneering attempt, from an international communication/media perspective, is aimed to fill the existing gap in scholarship in this area.

Soft Power

China's Emerging Strategy in International Politics

Author: Mingjiang Li

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739133799

Category: Political Science

Page: 284

View: 9434

Soft power has become a very popular concept in international affairs, appearing in government policy papers, academic discussions, and the popular media. In China, soft power has become one of the most frequently used phrases among political leaders, leading academics, and journalists. Defined against hard power, which often involves threat and coercion, soft power applies attraction, persuasion, and cooperation, finding its sources in culture, political values, and foreign policies. China, rich in culture and traditional philosophy, boasts abundant sources of soft power. Soft Power attempts to analyze the domestic and international views of China's soft power, the main strengths and weaknesses of China's soft power, and the application of soft power in China's international politics. It provides a comprehensive exploration of the soft power dimension in China's foreign relations by integrating views from various disciplines, such as history, education, culture, political economy, comparative politics, and philosophy. The book argues that soft power has become a very popular concept in China, that China is contemplating and exploring an innovative strategy in its rise and international politics, and that there have been quite a few notable elements of this in China's diplomatic practice, including softer rhetoric, promotion of the Chinese culture abroad, economic diplomacy, and image building. The book also argues that the limitations of China's soft power primarily stem from political values and China's own transitions, and reflects the reality that views and opinions regarding China's soft power are fairly diverse both in China and in the international arena.

Public Diplomacy and Soft Power in East Asia

Author: Jan Melissen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230118445

Category: Political Science

Page: 279

View: 6421

This book discusses the question of soft power and public diplomacy challenges in East Asian context. Both concepts originate in the West, and in a sense this book can therefore be seen as an exercise in critically assessing soft power and public diplomacy in a different geographical and cultural setting.

Religious Transnational Actors and Soft Power

Author: Jeffrey Haynes

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317066901

Category: Religion

Page: 184

View: 981

Haynes looks at religious transnational actors in the context of international relations, with a focus on both security and order. With renewed scholarly interest in the involvement of religion in international relations, many observers and scholars have found this move unexpected because it challenges conventional wisdom about the nature and long-term historical impact of secularisation. The 'return' of religion to international relations necessarily involves deprivatisation. Recent challenges to international security and order emanate from various entities, notably 'extremists', people often said to be 'excluded' from the benefits of globalisation for reasons of culture, history and geography. This study looks at the dynamics of this new religious pluralism as it influences the global political landscape. Several specific transnational religious actors are examined in the chapters including: American Evangelical Protestants, Roman Catholics, the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, Sunni extremist groups (al Qaeda and Lashkar-e-Taiba), and Shia transnational networks. While varying widely in what they seek to achieve, they also share an important characteristic: each seeks to use religious soft power to advance their interests. In sum, these religious transnational actors all wish to see the spread and development of certain values and norms, which impact on international security and order.

The New Public Diplomacy

Soft Power in International Relations

Author: J. Melissen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230554938

Category: Political Science

Page: 221

View: 6134

After 9/11, which triggered a global debate on public diplomacy, 'PD' has become an issue in most countries. This book joins the debate. Experts from different countries and from a variety of fields analyze the theory and practice of public diplomacy. They also evaluate how public diplomacy can be successfully used to support foreign policy.

China's Soft Power and International Relations

Author: Hongyi Lai,Yiyi Lu

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 041560401X

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 4007

China’s soft power has attracted considerable attention in the recent decade. In this volume scholars from the U.K., Europe, the U.S., Singapore, Australia, Hong Kong and mainland China, including a number of well established and well known analysts on China, examine main areas where China has made noticeable advances in its appeal and influence. They include China’s foreign policy discourse, international communication, cultural diplomacy, and foreign assistance. In addition, Chinese concept of soft power, foreign policy strategy, and the relationship between its international standing and that of the U.S. are also closely analysed. The volume covers some of the most recent development and assesses China’s soft power critically. This book offers an assessment of China’s efforts to cultivate its international image, as well as a critique of Nye’s theory of soft power. It draws on case studies of the Chinese diplomatic practice and utilizes world opinion polls. This volume offers a theoretical and empirical perspective on the discussion on soft power with a particular focus on China’s soft power.

British Public Diplomacy and Soft Power

Diplomatic Influence and the Digital Revolution

Author: James Pamment

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319432400

Category: Political Science

Page: 247

View: 7115

This volume outlines two decades of reforms at the Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), British Council and BBC World Service – the so-called Public Diplomacy Partners. Between 1995 and 2015, the FCO and its partner organisations in promoting British influence abroad have introduced major changes to how, where and with whom diplomacy is conducted. This unique study links major organisational reforms to the changing political, technological and intellectual contexts of the day. Through detailed case studies over a 20-year period, this study demonstrates how and why British diplomacy evolved from a secretive institution to one understanding its purpose as a global thought leader through concepts such as public diplomacy, digital diplomacy and soft power. It is rich with unpublished documents and case studies, and is the most detailed study of the FCO and British Council in the contemporary period. From Cool Britannia to the recent GREAT campaign via the 2012 Olympics and diplomats on Twitter, this book charts the theory and practice behind a 21st century revolution in British diplomacy. This work will be of much interest to policymakers and advisors, students and researchers, and foreign policy and communication specialists. “From the heady past of Cool Britannia to the present days of the Great Campaign by way of the Royal Wedding, London Olympics and multiple other gambits in Britain's evolving attempt to connect to foreign publics, this book is the essential account of the inner workings of a vital aspect of contemporary British foreign policy: public diplomacy. James Pamment is an astute, succinct and engaging Dante, bringing his readers on journey through the policy processes behind the scenes. We see the public diplomacy equivalents of paradise, purgatory and the inferno, though Pamment leaves us to decide which is which.” Nicholas J. Cull, author of ‘The Decline and Fall of the United States Information Agency: American Public Diplomacy, 1989-2001’. “A gift to practitioners who want to do the job better: required reading for anyone going into a senior job at the British Council, the UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office and enlightened thinkers at 10 Downing Street, HM Treasury and Ministries of Foreign Affairs worldwide. Authoritative, scholarly and accurate, Pamment strikes a great balance between the salient details and the overarching picture. He also does a major service to those of us who lived it; our toils make more sense for what he has done - placing them in a historical and conceptual context.” John Worne, Director of Strategy & External Relations, British Council, 2007-2015

Military Soft Power

Public Diplomacy through Military Educational Exchanges

Author: Carol Atkinson

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442231297

Category: Political Science

Page: 204

View: 3560

The military has long been associated with hard power, yet it is engaged in public diplomacy as it represents the U.S. abroad and facilitates the diffusion of ideas. Military Soft Power examines one such aspect of U.S. public diplomacy: how the United States extends its influence or “soft power” worldwide through military educational exchange programs hosted by the United States’ elite military schools, its war and staff colleges. The presence of international officers at U.S. military schools is substantial, yet very little is known about the long-term impacts of these exchanges. This study shows how the exchanges build personal and professional networks that then serve as important conduits of ideas between the United States and other countries. These networks help to improve interoperability between the U.S. military and its partner nations and to extend U.S. influence through military soft power rather than through hard power. This is an alternative bottom-up view of how military organizations can influence political processes and decisions through the development of cross-border communities of military professionals. This involves a two-step model of socialization. First, individuals (military officers) are socialized by a large political institution (the U.S. through its war and staff colleges). Second, these individuals function as idea entrepreneurs, bringing new ideas, beliefs, and practices home with them. There is a need for policies and programs that help countries successfully transition from authoritarian governance to democratic rule as well as countries undergoing democratic revolutions and those seeking more gradual change. Exchange programs are one pathway, in which an important group of citizens (military officers and their families) can experience the everyday functioning of democratic practices and institutions. This unique survey provides timely insights into the important political impacts of military exchange programs and how military institutions and their personnel influence international politics beyond simply being used as an instrument of coercion.

Hard Power, Soft Power and the Future of Transatlantic Relations

Author: Thomas L. Ilgen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131712376X

Category: Political Science

Page: 222

View: 2073

The dynamics of transatlantic relations in the twenty-first century have been shaped by an American preference for the exercise of its considerable 'hard power' capabilities while Europeans have preferred to draw upon the considerable 'soft power' resources that have grown from their enviable internal processes of integration. These diverging power preferences have differential impacts on the management of Atlantic security, economic, and social and cultural relations. The contributors, long-time observers and analysts of the Atlantic partnership, debate how problematic security relations are likely to continue to be, discuss how successfully economic affairs will be managed, and examine the continuing frictions in domestic politics of social and cultural matters that should be manageable if both European and American leaders work actively and responsibly to encourage policy convergence.

Soft Power and US Foreign Policy

Theoretical, Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

Author: Inderjeet Parmar,Michael Cox

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135150486

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 7390

Soft power is the use of attraction and persuasion rather than the use of coercion or force in foreign policy. This volume features a brand new chapter by Joseph Nye outlining his views on soft, hard and smart power and offers a critique of the Bush administration’s inadequacies. The other contributions to the volume respond to Nye's views from a range of theoretical, historical and policy perspectives giving new insights in to both soft power and the concept of power itself.

Chinese Soft Power and Its Implications for the United States

Competition and Cooperation in the Developing World : a Report of the CSIS Smart Power Initiative

Author: Carola McGiffert

Publisher: CSIS

ISBN: 9780892065585

Category: History

Page: 129

View: 5269

China has been pursuing its national interests recently through the exercise of “soft power,” as it projects a nonconfrontational face to the developing world. It is China's rapid economic expansion—and the country's need for natural resources, export markets, and political influence—that has led it to step up its engagement with developing countries in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America.Extensive debate is ongoing in China regarding the source of the country's soft power and its reasons for utilizing it. It currently lacks a coordinated national soft-power strategy and views its soft power as defensive and largely reactive, a point of view intended to allay fears in other states of a Chinese threat. In the United States, also, debate is taking place about whether China's soft-power projection represents healthy competition or a strategic threat.Engaging China successfully on critical global issues such as climate change, energy, and security requires an accurate assessment of Chinese policy, exigencies, and progress in these issue areas. This new report from the CSIS Smart Power Initiative seeks to provide such an assessment, offering a multifaceted view of China's use of smart power and its implications for the United States.

Soft Power in China

Public Diplomacy through Communication

Author: J. Wang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 023011637X

Category: Political Science

Page: 219

View: 6591

This book is about how China strives to rebuild its soft power through communication. It recounts China's efforts by examining a set of public diplomacy tactics and programs in its pursuit of a 'new' and 'improved' global image. These case studies invites the reader to a more expansive discussion on the instruments of soft power.

Religion and Soft Power in the South Caucasus

Author: Ansgar Jödicke

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351797891

Category: Political Science

Page: 244

View: 7314

In the Caucasus region, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and their powerful neighbours Russia, Turkey, Iran and the EU negotiate their future policies and spheres of influence. This volume explores the role of religion in the South Caucasus to describe and explain how transnational religious relationships intermingle with transnational political relationships. The concept of ‘soft power’ is the heuristic starting point of this important investigation to define the importance of religion in the region. Drawing on a three-year project supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, the book brings together academics from the South Caucasus and across Europe to offer original empirical research and contributions from experienced researchers in political science, history and oriental studies. This book will be of interest to scholars in the fields of post-Soviet studies, international relations, religious studies and political science.