Soil Science and Management

Author: Edward Plaster

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1418038652

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 1836

Soil Science and Management, fifth edition, emphasizes the human interaction with and effect on soils, rather than treating the soil as an independent element. Non-technical and easy-to-understand, Soil Science and Management, fifth edition teaches the essentials of soils from the perspective of farmers, horticulturalists, environmentalists and other who are concerned about how soils work and how they are used more effectively. An emphasis on management and the sustainable use of soil and water resources makes it especially relevant to these audiences. The inclusion of nutrient management, best practices and relevant legal issues and government programs make this text a practical application for students. The images have been updated and are now in full color, reinforcing the content contained in the text. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Soil-Specific Farming

Precision Agriculture

Author: Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482245345

Category: Nature

Page: 431

View: 1682

Faced with challenges of resource scarcity and environmental degradation, it is important to adopt innovative farming systems that maximize resource efficiency while protecting the environment. Soil-Specific Farming: Precision Agriculture focuses on principles and applications of soil-specific farming, providing information on rapidly evolving agricultural technologies. It addresses assessments of soil variability and application of modern innovations to enhance use efficiency of fertilizers, irrigation, tillage, and pesticides through targeted management of soils and crops. This book provides the technological basis of adopting and promoting precision agriculture (PA) for addressing the issues of resource scarcity, environmental pollution, and climate change. It focuses specifically on PA technologies and discusses historical evolution, soil variability at different scales, soil fertility and nutrient management, water quality, land leveling techniques, and special ecosystems involving small landholders and coastal regions. Highlighting the scale-related issues and concerns of small landholders, the text details the efficient use of resources on the basis of soil/field variability and site-specific conditions. It examines how PA technology can increase productivity, enhance profitability, and minimize environmental degradation. Woven throughout is the theme of sustainable use of resources.

Soil science and sustainable land management in the tropics

Author: John Keith Syers,D. L. Rimmer

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 290

View: 3333

Contributors Preface 1. Soil Science and Sustainable Land Management, D. J. Greenland 2. Evaluation of the Soil and Land Resource, M. Latham 3. Proposals for Quantitative Criteria in the Management of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, J. R. O'Callaghan and G. C. L. Wyseure 4. Soil Erosion and Conservation: A Place for Soil Science?, M. Stocking 5. Agroforestry Practices to Control Runoff and Erosion on Steeplands in Ilocos Norte, Philippines, E. O. Agustin and S. Nortcliff 6. The Quaternary Legacy in the Tropics: A Fundamental Property of the Land Resource, M. F. Thomas 7. Effects of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation on Land Quality: Defining Pedogenetic Baselines in the Dondoa District of Tanzania, R. W. Payton and E. K. Shishira 8. Sustainable Regeneration of Surface Tilth in Zimbabwean Vertisols Through Water Management, J. Hussein and M. A. Adey 9. Agrohydrological Modelling: A Tool for Sustainable Development of Land Resources, J. W. Gowing and G. C. L. Wyseure 10. Extending the Growing Season by Efficient Use of Rainfall, J. Tabi Owono, D. A. Rose and R. S. Shiel 11. The Role of Soil Organisms in the Sustainability of Tropical Cropping Systems, M. J. Swift, et al. 12. Can Biological Nitrogen Fixation Sustain Agriculture in the Tropics? 13. Improving the Agricultural Productivity of the Soils of Northeast Thailand Through Soil Organic Matter Management, A. G. O'Donnell, et al. 14. Soil Organic Matter Management in Thailand, J. S. Watson 15. A Diagnostic Approach to Solving Soil Fertility Problems in the Tropics, M. E. Sumner and K. Hylton 16. Physical and Chemical Constraints to Sustainable Soil Use Under Rainfed Conditions in the Humid Tropics of Southeast Asia, I. R. Willett 17. The Use of Simplified Nutrient Balances at Farm Level to Determine Boundary Conditions for Sustainable Production, F. C. T. Guiking, D. M. Jansen, and L. O. Fresco 18. The Economic Context of Soil Science, J. Lingard 19. Soil Science Research in Developing Countries: Towards a Holistic Approach, M. Catizzone 20. Soil Science and Better Land Use in the Tropics, A. J. Bennett Index

Handbook of Soil Sciences

Properties and Processes, Second Edition

Author: Pan Ming Huang,Yuncong Li,Malcolm E. Sumner

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439803056

Category: Science

Page: 1442

View: 1863

An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for construction and manufacturing. To develop lasting solutions to the challenges of balanced use and stewardship of the Earth, we require a fundamental understanding of soil—from its elastic, porous three-phase system to its components, processes, and reactions. Handbook of Soil Sciences: Properties and Processes, Second Edition is the first of two volumes that form a comprehensive reference on the discipline of soil science. Completely revised and updated to reflect the current state of knowledge, this volume covers the traditional areas of soil science: soil physics, soil chemistry, soil mineralogy, soil biology and biochemistry, and pedology. Contributors discuss the application of physical principles to characterize the soil system and mass and energy transport processes within the critical zone. They present significant advances in soil chemistry; describe how minerals are formed and transformed; and provide an introduction to the soil biota. They also examine geomorphology, land use, hydropedology, and subaqueous soils as well as the classification and digital mapping of soil. Critical elements addressed in each section include: Descriptions of concepts and theories Definitions, approaches, methodologies, and procedures Data in tabular and figure format Extensive references This cohesive handbook provides a thorough understanding of soil science principles and practices based on a rigorous, complete, and up-to-date treatment of the subject matter compiled by leading scientists. It is a resource rich in data, offering professional soil scientists, agronomists, engineers, ecologists, biologists, naturalists, and students their first point of entry into a particular aspect of the soil sciences.

Soil Quality and Biofuel Production

Author: Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780415998307

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 222

View: 4814

From its humble beginning in the late 19th century―when Henry Ford’s first car was designed to run on ethanol―biofuel production has been on the rise with more than 26 billion liters produced in the U.S. in 2007. Ethanol made from biomass (rather than grains) holds great promise, including numerous economic and environmental benefits. However, the adverse interactions of energy, climate, food, and soil quality cannot be ignored. In eight concise chapters, Soil Quality and Biofuel Production presents a state-of-the-knowledge review of soil properties and processes negatively impacted by crop residue removal. It outlines the ecological consequences of biofuels and evaluates land use in the production of raw material for biofuel. The book then spotlights pressing issues related to corn and cellulosic ethanol and also soil erosion. It offers advice for achieving economic balance in the competition for arable land between food and biofuel along with residue harvest management techniques. A thought-provoking discussion of the opportunities and challenges that biofuel presents rounds out the book’s coverage. The logistics of producing biomass in a sustainable manner remain a major challenge and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. Serious questions linger concerning viable sources of biofuel feedstock, competition for resources needed to produce biomass, and energy output/input ratios. Soil Quality and Biofuel Production provides environmental scientists and agricultural engineers with the knowledge they need to address them.

Soil Classification

A Global Desk Reference

Author: Hari Eswaran,Robert Ahrens,Thomas J. Rice,Bobby A. Stewart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420040364

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 280

View: 9353

Developments in soil classification have accompanied parallel progress in our understanding of the soil system. However the theories behind the classifications and the purposes for which they were created have changed over time. The editors hope that this comprehensive synthesis will help to rally soil scientists around the world to develop an acceptable classification system for soils. It is only when the global soil science community agrees to such a system that we can truly say that we have science. Soil Classification: A Global Desk Reference is the first book to illustrate the current state of national and international soil classification systems. In this groundbreaking reference, distinguished soil scientists, many of whom were involved in the design of their respective national or international systems, evaluate developments in soil classification during the last century. They review the concepts, practices, and goals that led to the creation of individual classification systems and recommend modifications to classification systems to meet new demands. The documentation in this book serves as a foundation for the revision of existing soil taxonomies and the creation of new ones.

The Ecology and Management of Wetlands

Volume 1: Ecology of Wetlands

Author: Donal D. Hook,W. H. McKee Jr,H. K. Smith,James Gregory,V. G. Burrell Jr,M. Richard DeVoe,R. E. Sojka,Stephen Gilbert,Roger Banks,L. H. Stolzy,Chris Brooks,Thomas D. Matthews,T. H. Shear

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468483781

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 2455

This book contains the proceedings of a symposium held at the College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 16-20 June 1986. The seed for this symposium arose from a group of physiologists , soU scientists and biochemists that met in Leningrad, USSR in July 1975 at the 12th Botanical Conference in a Session organized by Professor B.B. Vartepetian. This group and others later conspired to contribute to a book entitled Plant Life in Anaerobic Environments (eds. D. D. Hook and R. M. M. Crawford, Ann Arbor Science, 1978). Several contributors to the book suggested in 1983 that a broad-scoped symposium on wetlands would be useful (a) in facilitating communication among the diverse research groups involved in wetlands research (b) in bringing researchers and managers together and (c) in presenting a com prehensive and balanced coverage on the status of ecology ami management of wetlands from a global perspective. With this encouragement, the senior editor organized a Plan ning Committee that encompassed expertise from many disciplines of wetland scientists and managers. This Committee, with input from their colleagues around the world, organized a symposium that addressed almost every aspect of wetland ecology and management.

World Soil Resources and Food Security

Author: Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439844518

Category: Nature

Page: 574

View: 8427

Soil—The Basis of All Terrestrial Life Ancient civilizations and cultures—Mayan, Aztec, Mesopotamian, Indus, and Yangtze—were built on good soils, surviving only as long as soils had the capacity to support them. In the twenty-first century, productive soil is still the engine of economic development and essential to human well-being. The quality of our soil resources, however, is threatened by human-induced and natural perturbations. World Soil Resources and Food Security takes an in-depth look at the availability and status of soil resources in the context of the growing demands of an increasing world population and rising expectations of living standards. This timely reference presents current information on the soil resources available for food production. Presenting innovative strategies for soil and water management, it discusses how to maintain or improve the world’s soil resources in order to increase food production. With the majority of the world’s 1.02 billion food-insecure people concentrated in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, several chapters focus on soil resources in these regions. Contributions from renowned scientists deal with topics including: Global food situations World soil resources Soil resources of humid Asia and their acidification Soil resources of South Asia Properties and management of Vertisols Use of radioisotopic techniques in soil management The potential of rain-fed agriculture in the semiarid tropics The status of land degradation Nutrient balance in sub-Saharan Africa The book concludes by outlining the need for further research to generate credible data on soil resources and degradation. This volume is a useful resource for those interested in the state of the soils of the world in relation to food security and environmental quality.

Soil Management of Smallholder Agriculture

Author: Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 146659859X

Category: Nature

Page: 420

View: 9764

Nearly two billion people depend on hundreds of millions of smallholder farmers for food security. Yet, these farmers’ lives also hang in the balance due to their extreme vulnerability to the risks of soil degradation and depletion, soil exhaustion, climate change, and numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Soil Management of Smallholder Agriculture explores the potential smallholder agriculture hold for advancing global food security and outlines the challenges to achieving this goal. The book addresses the challenges and opportunities that resource-poor and small landholders face and provides recommended management practices to alleviate soil-related constraints, and increase and sustain crop yield and production. It discusses the cultural, economic, social, and technological aspects of sustainable soil management for smallholder farmers. It then examines soil-related and institutional constraints, principles of sustainable agriculture, soil quality improvement, nutrient and soil fertility management, soil carbon sequestration, soil security, efficient use of resources, and agronomic production. Edited by experts, the book makes the case for the adoption of proven technologies of sustainable intensification, producing more from less, both for advancing agronomic production and adapting to changing climate. It outlines a strategy that will usher in a soil-based Green Revolution by increasing the use efficiency of energy-based inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation to restore soil quality, and sequestering carbon in the terrestrial ecosystems. This strategy helps small farms narrow the gap between the actual and attainable crop yield.

Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect

Author: R. Lal,Ronald F. Follett

Publisher: ASA-CSSA-SSSA

ISBN: 9780891188506

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 410

View: 4885

This book is about the concept of the Greenhouse Effect is more than a century old,but today the observed and predicted climate changes. This second edition of Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect is essential reading for understandingthe processes, properties, and practices affecting the soil carbon pool and its dynamics.

Principles of Sustainable Soil Management in Agroecosystems

Author: Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466513462

Category: Nature

Page: 568

View: 5178

With the use of high-level soil management technology, Africa could feed several billion people, yet food production has generally stagnated since the 1960s. No matter how powerful the seed technology, the seedling emerging from it can flourish only in a healthy soil. Accordingly, crop yields in Africa, South Asia, and the Caribbean could be doubled or tripled through adoption of technologies based on laws of sustainable soil management. Principles of Sustainable Soil Management in Agroecosystems describes the application of these laws to enhance ecosystem services while restoring degraded soils and promoting sustainable use. With chapters contributed by world-class soil scientists, ecologists, and social scientists, this book outlines critical changes in management of agricultural soils necessary to achieve food security and meet the food demands of the present and projected future population. These changes include conversion to no-till and conservation agriculture; adoption of strategies of integrated nutrient management, water harvesting, and use of drip sub-irrigation; complex cropping/farming systems such as cover cropping and agroforestry; and use of nano-enhanced fertilizers. The book is based on the premise that it is not possible to extract more from a soil than what is put into it without degrading its quality. The strategy is to replace what is removed, respond wisely to what is changed, and be pro-active to what may happen because of natural and anthropogenic perturbations. The chapters, which exemplify these ideas, cover a range of topics including organic farming, soil fertility, crop-symbiotic soil microbiota, human-driven soil degradation, soil degradation and restoration, carbon sink capacity of soils, soil renewal and sustainability, and the marginality principle.

Food Security and Soil Quality

Author: Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439800588

Category: Nature

Page: 430

View: 2617

Just five years ago, it was generally believed that the number of food insecure people in the world was on continuous decline. Unfortunately, widespread soil degradation along with resistance to recommended agronomic practices, and little attempt to restore degraded soils have conspired with significant droughts (in regions that could least tolerate them) to swell the ranks of the food insecure to over a billion people. The U.N. Millennium Development Goals’ intent to halve hunger by 2015 will not be realized. Food Security and Soil Quality brings together leading experts from across the world to provide a concise and factually supported exploration of the problem at hand and the critical steps needed to reverse it. Edited by Rattan Lal, and B.A. Stewart, two of the world’s most respected soil scientists, this important work — Assesses farming systems and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa, with special emphasis on land degradation Examines concerns with and approaches to soil quality management in Brazil and China Details achievable methods for improving soil quality for sustainable production Provides an insightful comparison of temporal changes in agricultural systems productivity in Punjab, India and Ohio Discusses the human dimension of the crisis including the influence of culture and spiritual beliefs Dr. Lal himself writes that despite the existence of scientific data on sustainable management of soil and water resources, problems of soil and environmental degradation have persisted and have been aggravated. And that these problems are rooted in land misuse and soil mismanagement. This book does provide policymakers and others with an understanding of the depth, complexity, and immediacy of this crisis, but more than a call to action, it also offers soil scientists working in this area with an understanding of what is being done and what needs to be done. Most importantly, this book helps us understand that the situation is not beyond remediation were we to act with great resolve and a sense of urgency. A tree's leaves may be ever so good, So may its bark, so may its wood; But unless you put the right thing to its root, It never will show much flower or fruit. — from Leaves Compared With Flowers, by Robert Frost

Soil and Climate

Author: Rattan Lal,B. A. Stewart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0429945442

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 434

View: 3137

Climate is a soil-forming factor and soil can mitigate climate change through a reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases and sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Thus, there is a growing interest in soil management practices capable of mitigating climate change and enhancing environmental quality. Soil and Climate addresses global issues through soil management and outlines strategies for advancing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Special topics on soil as a source or sink of CO2, silicate weathering and carbon sequestration, nutrients required for carbon sequestration, physical protection and the mean resident time, and predicting soil carbon stocks are discussed in detail throughout the book.

Catchment2Coast: A Systems Approach to Coupled River-Coastal Ecosystem Science and Management

Author: P.M.S. Monteiro,M. Marchand

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1607504472

Category: Science

Page: 92

View: 5641

Catchment2Coast was an interdisciplinary research and modelling project that aimed to improve understanding of the linkages between coastal ecosystems and the adjacent river catchments. The project involved nine partner organisations from three European and three southern African countries, including Mozambique, where the project was conducted. Catchment2Coast has tackled a problem which is at the interface of many different domains: between river and the sea, between bay and ocean, between water and soil, but also between ecology and economy. It used a variety of tools and methods, ranging from continuous hydrodynamic monitoring and biochemistry flux measurements to remote sensing and mathematical modelling techniques. But perhaps even more important was the integration of disciplines that took place during the project, which consisted of experts from different countries both from Europe and Southern Africa. The knowledge gained through this research provides a sound basis for the setting of environmental flow requirements for the Maputo, Incomati and similar river systems in sub-Saharan Africa. And what is more, it may serve as an example and stimulus for continued cooperation between experts from different disciplinary and cultural backgrounds.

Evapotranspiration and Water Research as Related to Riparian and Phreatophyte Management

An Abstract Bibliography

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Evapotranspiration

Page: 192

View: 3348

The purpose of this abstract bibliography is to bring together published information that will help land managers and research workers to: (1) Evaluate relations of vegetation to water loss and (2) estimate the probable effect of water yield on manipulating vegetation.

Management and Effects of Coalbed Methane Produced Water in the Western United States

Author: Committee on Earth Resources,Committee on Management and Effects of Coalbed Methane Development and Produced Water in the Western United States,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Water Science and Technology Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309154324

Category: Science

Page: 238

View: 7747

In some coalbeds, naturally occurring water pressure holds methane--the main component of natural gas--fixed to coal surfaces and within the coal. In a coalbed methane (CBM) well, pumping water from the coalbeds lowers this pressure, facilitating the release of methane from the coal for extraction and use as an energy source. Water pumped from coalbeds during this process--CBM 'produced water'--is managed through some combination of treatment, disposal, storage, or use, subject to compliance with federal and state regulations. CBM produced water management can be challenging for regulatory agencies, CBM well operators, water treatment companies, policy makers, landowners, and the public because of differences in the quality and quantity of produced water; available infrastructure; costs to treat, store, and transport produced water; and states' legal consideration of water and produced water. Some states consider produced water as waste, whereas others consider it a beneficial byproduct of methane production. Thus, although current technologies allow CBM produced water to be treated to any desired water quality, the majority of CBM produced water is presently being disposed of at least cost rather than put to beneficial use. This book specifically examines the Powder River, San Juan, Raton, Piceance, and Uinta CBM basins in the states of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. The conclusions and recommendations identify gaps in data and information, potential beneficial uses of CBM produced water and associated costs, and challenges in the existing regulatory framework.

Optimizing Nitrogen Management in Food and Energy Production and Environmental Protection

Proceedings of the 2nd International Nitrogen Conference on Science and Policy, Potomac, MD, USA, 14-18 October 2001

Author: J. Galloway,C. Jordan,Joe Wisniewski,J.W. Erisman,E. Cowling

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789026519277

Category: Science

Page: 1022

View: 855

The production of food and energy interfere with the natural nitrogen cycle of the earth. Many of these changes are beneficial, while others are detrimental to societies and the environment. The changing nature of nitrogen in the global environment crosses scientific disciplines, geographical boundaries and political divisions and challenges the creative minds of natural and social scientists, economists, engineers, business leaders and planners. The papers in this book give readers a panoramic view of the changing nature of reactive nitrogen in the global environment, enabling them to make better choices about nitrogen management in food production and consumption, energy production and use, and environmental protection.