Structure Analysis by Electron Diffraction

Author: B. K. Vainshtein

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483164756

Category: Science

Page: 430

View: 9172

Structure Analysis by Electron Diffraction focuses on the theory and practice of studying the atomic structure of crystalline substances through electron diffraction. The publication first offers information on diffraction methods in structure analysis and the geometrical theory of electron diffraction patterns. Discussions focus on the fundamental concepts of the theory of scattering and structure analysis of crystals, structure analysis by electron diffraction, formation of spot electron diffraction patterns, electron diffraction texture patterns, and polycrystalline electron diffraction patterns. The text then ponders on intensities of reflections, including atomic scattering, temperature factor, structure amplitude, experimental measurements of intensity, and review of equations for intensities of reflections in electron diffraction patterns. The manuscript examines the Fourier methods in electron diffraction and experimental electron diffraction structure investigations. Topics include the determination of the structure of the hydrated chlorides of transition metals; structures of carbides and nitrides of certain metals and semi-conducting alloys; electron diffraction investigation of clay minerals; and possibilities inherent in structure analysis by electron diffraction. The book is a helpful source of data for readers interested in structure analysis by electron diffraction.

Electron Crystallography

Novel Approaches for Structure Determination of Nanosized Materials

Author: Thomas E. Weirich,Xiaodong Zou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402039188

Category: Crystallography

Page: 536

View: 6658

International Tables for Crystallography, Volume B

Reciprocal Space

Author: Uri Shmueli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402082054

Category: Science

Page: 696

View: 7306

International Tables for Crystallography are no longer available for purchase from Springer. For further information please contact Wiley Inc. (follow the link on the right hand side of this page). Volume B presents accounts of the numerous aspects of reciprocal space in crystallographic research. After an introductory chapter, Part 1 presents the reader with an account of structure-factor formalisms, an extensive treatment of the theory, algorithms and crystallographic applications of Fourier methods, and fundamental as well as advanced treatments of symmetry in reciprocal space. In Part 2, these general accounts are followed by detailed expositions of crystallographic statistics, the theory of direct methods, Patterson techniques, isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering, and treatments of the role of electron microscopy and diffraction in crystal structure determination, including applications of direct methods to electron crystallography. Part 3 deals with applications of reciprocal space to molecular geometry and `best'-plane calculations, and contains a treatment of the principles of molecular graphics and modelling and their applications. A convergence-acceleration method of importance in the computation of approximate lattice sums is presented and the part concludes with a discussion of the Ewald method. Part 4 contains treatments of various diffuse-scattering phenomena arising from crystal dynamics, disorder and low dimensionality (liquid crystals), and an exposition of the underlying theories and/or experimental evidence. Polymer crystallography and reciprocal-space images of aperiodic crystals are also treated. Part 5 of the volume contains introductory treatments of the theory of the interaction of radiation with matter (dynamical theory) as applied to X-ray, electron and neutron diffraction techniques. The simplified trigonometric expressions for the structure factors in the 230 three-dimensional space groups, which appeared in Volume I of International Tables for X-ray Crystallography, are now given in Appendix 1.4.3 to Chapter 1.4 of this volume. Volume B is a vital addition to the library of scientists engaged in crystal structure determination, crystallographic computing, crystal physics and other fields of crystallographic research. Graduate students specializing in crystallography will find much material suitable for self-study and a rich source of references to the relevant literature.

Electron Crystallography

Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction

Author: Xiaodong Zou,Sven Hovmöller,Peter Oleynikov

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199580200

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 2067

Includes bibliographical references and index.

Electron-Diffraction Analysis of Clay Mineral Structures

Author: B. B. Zvyagin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461586127

Category: Science

Page: 364

View: 5522

As a method of structure analysis, electron diffraction has its own spe cial possibilities and advantages in comparison to the X -ray method for the study of finely dispersed minerals with layer or pseudolayer structures. How ever, possibly because of the prior existence of the X-ray method, which found universal application in different fields and attracted the main efforts of spe cialists, electron diffraction has been unevenly disseminated and developed in different countries. In particular, the oblique texture method, which gives very complete and detailed structural information, has been mainly used in the Soviet Union, where electron-diffraction cameras specially suited to the method have been constructed. In other countries, studies have been made of micro-single crystals, because these studies could be carried out with existing electron microscopes. It should be recognized that the scale of distribution and use attained by electron-diffraction methods, at present limited by exist ing experimental conditions. is more than justified by the value of the results which may be obtained by their aid. The author hopes that the present book will give the reader a fuller idea of the valuable advantages of the method, and of the structural crystallography picture which has been built up for clay minerals, and layer silicates in general, from electron-diffraction data. The time between the appearance of this book and that of the Russian edition has been comparatively short.

Structural Electron Crystallography

Author: D.L. Dorset

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475766211

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 7239

This authoritative text on electron diffraction and crystal structure analysis is the first to describe direct phasing techniques in electron crystallography. Written for electron diffractionists and electron microscopists, this fully illustrated volume presents methods for specimen preparation, data collection and structure analysis. Chapters feature numerous detailed examples of actual structure analyses and contain over 350 illustrations.

The Science and Technology of Carbon Nanotubes

Author: T. Yamabe,K. Fukui,Kazuyoshi Tanaka

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080540757

Category: Science

Page: 750

View: 9204

Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) is the material lying between fullerenes and graphite as a new member of carbon allotropes. The study of CNT has gradually become more and more independent from that of fullerenes. As a novel carbon material, CNTs will be far more useful and important than fullerenes from a practical point of view, in that they will be directly related to an ample field of nanotechnology. This book presents a timely, second-generation monograph covering as far as practical, application of CNT as the newest science of these materials. Most updated summaries for preparation, purification and structural characterisation of single walled CNT and multi walled CNT are given. Similarly, the most recent developments in the theoretical treatments of electronic structures and vibrational structures are covered. The newest magnetic, optical and electrical solid-state properties providing a vital base to actual application technologies are described. Explosive research trends towards application of CNTs, including the prospect for large-scale synthesis, are also introduced. It is the most remarkable feature of this monograph that it devotes more than a half of the whole volume to practical aspects and offers readers the newest developments of the science and technological aspects of CNTs.

Electron Diffraction Techniques

Author: John Maxwell Cowley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198557333

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 5335

Volume 2 deals with those aspects when there is a stronger correlation of the diffraction phenomena with the electron microscope imaging.

Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction

Author: Ayahiko Ichimiya,Philip I.. Cohen,Philip I. Cohen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521453738

Category: Science

Page: 353

View: 3765

An introduction to RHEED for beginners plus detailed experimental and theoretical treatments for experts.

Unconventional Electron Microscopy for Molecular Structure Determination

Author: W. Hoppe,R. Mason

Publisher: Vieweg+Teubner Verlag

ISBN: 9783528081171

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 8044

Generally it is not sufficiently appreciated that electron microscopy is in fact a diffraction method. In essential aspects electron microscopes are more closely related to X-ray diffracto· meters than to light microscopes. In electron microscopes monochromatized radiation and coherent illumination (never used in light microscopy) correspond in X-ray diffractometers to the primary beam with a small divergence. Imaging ina general sense can take place in interference experiments between a primary beam and a scattered beam, or between diffe­ rent deflected scattered beams. This leads to the realization of an old dream in diffracto­ metry, namely to a general experimental solution of the "phase problem". The most im­ pressive analogy, however, concerns the potential of the electron microscope as a tool for structure determination (where the radiation wavelenght is smaller than the atomic distan­ ces). It was therefore considered timely to treat this topic in this series. It was a fortunate cioncidence that in 1976 a Workshop on "Unconventional Electron Microscope Methods for the Investigation of Molecular Structures" (sponsored by the European Molecular Biology Organisation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Max-Planck-Gesell­ schaft) took place, and that most speakers presenting introductory lectures agreed to publish their contributions in an expanded version in this volume. This volume is thus not a symposium report in the usual sense since it contains the majority of these introductory lectures only.

Electron Microscopy of Polymers

Author: Goerg H. Michler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540363521

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 473

View: 1675

The study of polymers by electron microscopy (EM) needs special techniques, precautions and preparation methods, including ultramicrotomy. General characteristics of the different techniques of EM, including scanning force microscopy, are given in this hands-on book. The application of these techniques to the study of morphology and properties, particularly micromechanical properties, is described in detail. Examples from all classes of polymers are presented.

Structure Analysis of Advanced Nanomaterials

Nanoworld by High-Resolution Electron Microscopy

Author: Takeo Oku

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110305011

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 178

View: 7260

High-resolution electron microscopy allows the imaging of the crystallographic structure of a sample at an atomic scale. It is a valuable tool to study nanoscale properties of crystalline materials such as superconductors, semiconductors, solar cells, zeolite materials, carbon nanomaterials or BN nanotubes.

Advances in Structure Research by Diffraction Methods

Fortschritte der Strukturforschung mit Beugungsmethoden

Author: R. Brill,R. Mason

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483152286

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 3893

Advances in Structure Research by Diffraction Methods reviews advances in the use of diffraction methods in structure research. Topics covered include the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, with emphasis on Ewald waves in theory and experiment; dynamical theory of electron diffraction; small angle scattering; and molecular packing. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with an overview of the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, especially in terms of how it explains all the absorption and propagation properties of X-rays at the Bragg setting in a perfect crystal. The next chapter describes the dynamical theory of electron diffraction, paying particular attention to unconventional structure analysis in connection with the problems of absorption. The most important features of the background of small angle analysis are then examined, and some examples showing the direct analysis of small angle scattering (sometimes in combination with wide angle scattering) are provided. The last chapter deals with crystals built from molecules and their peculiar geometrical features. The principle of close packing of molecules in an organic crystal is also described, along with lattice dynamics, hydrogen bonds in crystals, and the rotational crystalline state. This monograph will be a useful resource for practitioners and researchers in physics and crystallography.

Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering

Author: L.A. Feigin,D.I. Svergun

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475766246

Category: Science

Page: 335

View: 4837

Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.