Systems Thinking for Health Systems Strengthening

Author: Don De Savigny,Taghreed Adam,World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241563893

Category: Education

Page: 107

View: 8284

This report investigates how systems thinking can deepen the conceptual and practical underpinnings of system strengthening initiatives. This Flagship Report from the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research makes the case for systems thinking in an easily accessible form for a broad interdisciplinary audience, including health system stewards, programme implementers, researchers, evaluators and funding partners. It presents: What systems thinking is, and what it means for the health system; A health systems case illustration that demonstrates the "Ten Steps to Systems Thinking" - practical guidance in applying the systems perspective; The challenges and opportunities to applying systems thinking in real-world settings; An agenda for expanding the use of systems thinking for health systems strengthening.

Applied Systems Thinking for Health Systems Research

A Methodological Handbook

Author: Don De Savigny

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780335261321

Category: Medical care

Page: 247

View: 3515

Patient safety in health systems has become more and more important as a theme in health research, and so it is not surprising to see a growing interest in applying systems thinking to healthcare. However there is a difficulty, health systems are very complex and constantly adapting to respond to core drivers and fit needs. How do you apply systems thinking in this situation, and what methods are available? National health authorities, international donors and research practitioners need to know the “how-to” of conducting health systems research from a systems thinking perspective. This book will fill this gap and provide a range of tools that give clear guidance of ways to carry out systems thinking in health, with real-world examples. These methodologies include: System dynamics and causal loops ; Network analysis ; Outcome mapping ; Soft systems methodology.

Systems Thinking For Social Change

A Practical Guide to Solving Complex Problems, Avoiding Unintended Consequences, and Achieving Lasting Results

Author: David Peter Stroh

Publisher: Chelsea Green Publishing

ISBN: 1603585818

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 264

View: 7319

Donors, leaders of nonprofits, and public policy makers usually have the best of intentions to serve society and improve social conditions. But often their solutions fall far short of what they want to accomplish and what is truly needed. Moreover, the answers they propose and fund often produce the opposite of what they want over time. We end up with temporary shelters that increase homelessness, drug busts that increase drug-related crime, or food aid that increases starvation. How do these unintended consequences come about and how can we avoid them? By applying conventional thinking to complex social problems, we often perpetuate the very problems we try so hard to solve, but it is possible to think differently, and get different results. Systems Thinking for Social Change enables readers to contribute more effectively to society by helping them understand what systems thinking is and why it is so important in their work. It also gives concrete guidance on how to incorporate systems thinking in problem solving, decision making, and strategic planning without becoming a technical expert. Systems thinking leader David Stroh walks readers through techniques he has used to help people improve their efforts to end homelessness, improve public health, strengthen education, design a system for early childhood development, protect child welfare, develop rural economies, facilitate the reentry of formerly incarcerated people into society, resolve identity-based conflicts, and more. The result is a highly readable, effective guide to understanding systems and using that knowledge to get the results you want.

Implementation Research in Health

A Practical Guide

Author: David H. Peters,Nhan T. Tran,Taghreed Adam

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241506210

Category: Medical

Page: 67

View: 7082

Interest in implementation research is growing, largely in recognition of the contribution it can make to maximizing the beneficial impact of health interventions. As a relatively new and, until recently, rather neglected field within the health sector, implementation research is something of an unknown quantity for many. There is therefore a need for greater clarity about what exactly implementation research is, and what it can offer. This Guide is designed to provide that clarity. Intended to support those conducting implementation research, those with responsibility for implementing programs, and those who have an interest in both, the Guide provides an introduction to basic implementation research concepts and language, briefly outlines what it involves, and describes the many opportunities that it presents. The main aim of the Guide is to boost implementation research capacity as well as demand for implementation research that is aligned with need, and that is of particular relevance to health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Research on implementation requires the engagement of diverse stakeholders and multiple disciplines in order to address the complex implementation challenges they face. For this reason, the Guide is intended for a variety of actors who contribute to and/or are impacted by implementation research. This includes the decision-makers responsible for designing policies and managing programs whose decisions shape implementation and scale-up processes, as well as the practitioners and front-line workers who ultimately implement these decisions along with researchers from different disciplines who bring expertise in systematically collecting and analyzing information to inform implementation questions. The opening chapters (1-4) make the case for why implementation research is important to decision-making. They offer a workable definition of implementation research and illustrate the relevance of research to problems that are often considered to be simply administrative and provide examples of how such problems can be framed as implementation research questions. The early chapters also deal with the conduct of implementation research, emphasizing the importance of collaboration and discussing the role of implementers in the planning and designing of studies, the collection and analysis of data, as well as in the dissemination and use of results. The second half of the Guide (5-7) detail the various methods and study designs that can be used to carry out implementation research, and, using examples, illustrates the application of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method designs to answer complex questions related to implementation and scale-up. It offers guidance on conceptualizing an implementation research study from the identification of the problem, development of research questions, identification of implementation outcomes and variables, as well as the selection of the study design and methods while also addressing important questions of rigor.

Health Systems Improvement Across the Globe

Success Stories from 60 Countries

Author: Jeffrey Braithwaite,Russell Mannion,Yukihiro Matsuyama,Paul Shekelle,Stuart Whittaker,Samir Al-Adawi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1317123271

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 606

View: 1334

Following on from 2015’s Healthcare Reform, Quality and Safety: Perspectives, Participants, Partnerships and Prospects in 30 Countries, this book encompasses a global perspective on healthcare while shifting the focus from reform to showcasing success stories of healthcare systems worldwide. It provides explanations of why various facets of healthcare systems work well in different contexts and offers the reader alternative models for consideration. The book features contributions from 60 countries, going much further than the common practice of focusing on affluent Western nations, to provide a comprehensive exploration of the success of healthcare systems globally. The majority of literature on health-sector improvement attempts to address the problems within systems, relating the errors that can and do occur, for example, and offering solutions and preventative strategies. This book of country case studies will approach the enhancement of health systems, patient safety and the quality of care in a new and innovative way, comprehensively surveying and synthesizing the success stories of healthcare systems around the world, utilizing Hollnagel’s Safety-II approach to acknowledge the importance of exploring what goes right, what works well, and why it works. These success stories may include reference to macro, meso or micro levels of healthcare systems, various sectors (e.g., aged care, acute care or primary care), or specific programs or projects. Health System Improvement Across the Globe: Success Stories from 60 Countries is unprecedented in terms of both reach and positive emphasis, and as such will be instrumental in changing ways of thinking about and guiding health-sector improvement.

Getting Health Reform Right

A Guide to Improving Performance and Equity

Author: Marc Roberts,William Hsiao,Peter Berman,Michael Reich

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199888167

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 6496

This book provides a multi-disciplinary framework for developing and analyzing health sector reforms, based on the authors' extensive international experience. It offers practical guidance - useful to policymakers, consultants, academics, and students alike - and stresses the need to take account of each country's economic, administrative, and political circumstances. The authors explain how to design effective government interventions in five areas - financing, payment, organization, regulation, and behavior - to improve the performance and equity of health systems around the world.

Strategic Marketing For Health Care Organizations

Building A Customer-Driven Health System

Author: Philip Kotler,Joel Shalowitz,Robert J. Stevens

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118047176

Category: Medical

Page: 576

View: 480

This much-needed text offers an authoritative introduction to strategic marketing in health care and presents a wealth of ideas for gaining the competitive edge in the health care arena. Step by step the authors show how real companies build and implement effective strategies. It includes marketing approaches through a wide range of perspectives: hospitals, physician practices, social marketing, international health, managed care, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology. With Strategic Marketing for Health Care Organizations, students and future administrators will have a guide to the most successful strategies and techniques, presented ready to apply by the most knowledgeable authors.

Health Systems and the Challenge of Communicable Diseases

Experiences from Europe and Latin America

Author: Rifat A. Atun

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335236286

Category: Education

Page: 292

View: 4459

This fascinating book looks at two regions where rapid economic changes means that many health systems must undergo organisational transition and find ways of adapting to an ever changing context.

Local Politics and Contemporary Transformations in the Arab World

Governance Beyond the Center

Author: M. Bouziane,C. Harders,A. Hoffmann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137338695

Category: Political Science

Page: 242

View: 1877

The contributors link innovative analytical concepts and ethnographic in-depth case studies from the Arab world. Based on the debates on politics from below and dynamic concepts of state, all the chapters focus on informal institutions, non-elite actors, and the dynamic and contradictory relationship between state and society.

The Role of Public-Private Partnerships in Health Systems Strengthening

Workshop Summary

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Public-Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309381398

Category: Medical

Page: 126

View: 8996

Over the past several decades, the public and private sectors made significant investments in global health, leading to meaningful changes for many of the world's poor. These investments and the resulting progress are often concentrated in vertical health programs, such as child and maternal health, malaria, and HIV, where donors may have a strategic interest. Frequently, partnerships between donors and other stakeholders can coalesce on a specific topical area of expertise and interest. However, to sustain these successes and continue progress, there is a growing recognition of the need to strengthen health systems more broadly and build functional administrative and technical infrastructure that can support health services for all, improve the health of populations, increase the purchasing and earning power of consumers and workers, and advance global security. In June 2015, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop on the role of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in health systems strengthening. Participants examined a range of incentives, innovations, and opportunities for relevant sectors and stakeholders in strengthening health systems through partnerships; to explore lessons learned from pervious and ongoing efforts with the goal of illuminating how to improve performance and outcomes going forward; and to discuss measuring the value and outcomes of investments and documenting success in partnerships focused on health systems strengthening. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Management and organization of developing health systems

Author: Dr. Charles Collins

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 285

View: 2988

The health service is considered as whole in this book, which deals with organizational issues relating to health service provision, including hospitals and personnel management. It includes analysis and discussion of issues of international relevance, particularly health planning, human resource management, information systems, and financial and supplies management. It is ideal for managers with limited health service experience as well as established health professionals. An active approach is encouraged and exercises for individual or group use are included, to provoke further discussion of the concepts and ideas covered.

Health Organizations

Author: James A. Johnson,Caren C. Rossow

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 1284151964

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 292

View: 6221

Health Organizations explores theories of organization and knowledge of organization behavior in ways that foster change in productive and sustainable ways resulting in better outcomes. Readers will learn systematic planned approaches for organization development and team building and by examining power, influence, conflict, motivation, and leadership in the context of health service delivery.

Systems Concepts in Action

A Practitioner's Toolkit

Author: Bob Williams,Richard Hummelbrunner

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804770638

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 327

View: 5876

Systems Concepts in Action: A Practitioner's Toolkit offers out a wide range of systems methods to help readers investigate, evaluate and intervene in complex messy situations.

Reforming China's Rural Health System

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821379836

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 2517

Since 1978 when it embarked on sweeping agricultural and industrial reforms, China's economic growth has been remarkable. Its success in transforming itself within just three decades from a very poor low-income country to a successful middle-income country is unparalleled. During this period, however, and in contrast to the first 30 years of the People's Republic, progress in the health sector has been disappointing. For example, during the period 1980-2007, China increased its income per head as a percentage of the OECD average from 3 percent to 15 per cent, but infant mortality fell no faste.

HC 246 - Strengthening Health Systems in Developing Countries

Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: International Development Committee

Publisher: The Stationery Office

ISBN: 0215075935

Category: Medical

Page: 46

View: 8857

Better health is a basic human right and an end in itself. A healthy population is also essential to development. Recent years have seen some rapid improvements in health partly driven by the Millennium Development Goals and the large international funds set up to accelerate progress towards them. However, these improvements have at times been achieved despite the poor state of health systems in many developing countries. Stronger health systems will be required to ensure efficiency, tackle growing challenges such as non-communicable diseases and progress towards self-sufficiency. DFID has long had a good reputation for health system strengthening and this is reflected in its own work. But DFID now relies on international partners, which do not all share this reputation, in an increasing number of countries and to manage an ever-greater proportion of its expenditure. We recommend that DFID reviews in each country whether its funding arrangements enable its health systems strengthening objectives to be met. Assessing the effectiveness and value for money of health system strengthening work by DFID and its international partners is more difficult than it ought to be. Expenditure and performance figures are not published and the research base is inadequate. This must change. The UK has one of the best health systems in the world, but DFID makes only limited use of it. We call on DFID to work with the NHS in expanding volunteering schemes for doctors and nurses and making more use of NHS finance and management skills.

Governing Global Health

Who Runs the World and Why?

Author: Chelsea Clinton,Devi Sridhar

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190253290

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 6567

The past few decades have seen a massive increase in the number of international organizations focusing on global health. Campaigns to eradicate or stem the spread of AIDS, SARS, malaria, and Ebola attest to the increasing importance of globally-oriented health organizations. These organizations may be national, regional, international, or even non-state organizations-like Medicins Sans Frontieres. One of the more important recent trends in global health governance, though, has been the rise of public-private partnerships (PPPs) where private non-governmental organizations, for-profit enterprises, and various other social entrepreneurs work hand-in-hand with governments to combat specific maladies. A primary driver for this development is the widespread belief that by joining together, PPPs will attack health problems and fund shared efforts more effectively than other systems. As Chelsea Clinton and Devi Sridhar show in Governing Global Health, these partnerships are not only important for combating infectious diseases; they also provide models for developing solutions to a host of other serious global health challenges and questions beyond health. But what do we actually know about the accountability and effectiveness of PPPs in relation to the traditional multilaterals? According to Clinton and Sridhar, we have known very little because scholars have not accumulated enough data or developed effective ways to assess them-until now. In their analysis, they uncovered both strength and weaknesses of the model. Using principal-agent theory in which governments are the principals directing international agents of various type, they take a closer look at two major PPPs-the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria and the GAVI Alliance-and two major more traditional international organizations-the World Health Organization and the World Bank. An even-handed and thorough empirical analysis of one of the most pressing topics in world affairs, Governing Global Health will reshape our understanding of how organizations can more effectively prevent the spread of communicable diseases like AIDS and reduce pervasive chronic health problems like malnutrition.

Systems Approaches to Managing Change: A Practical Guide

Author: Martin Reynolds,Sue Holwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781848828094

Category: Computers

Page: 309

View: 4582

In a world of increasing complexity, instant information availability and constant flux, systems approaches provide the opportunity of a tangible anchor of purpose and iterate learning. The five approaches outlined in the book offer a range of interchangeable tools with rigorous frameworks of application tried and tested in the ‘real world’. The frameworks of each approach form a powerful toolkit to explore the dynamics of how societies emerge, how organisations create viability, how to facilitate chains of argument through causal mapping, how to embrace a multiplicity of perspectives identifying purposeful activity and how to look for the bigger picture across multiple disciplines. Systems Approaches offers an excellent first introduction for those seeking to understand what ‘systems thinking’ is all about as well as why the tools discussed herein should be applied to management and professional practice. This book provides a practical guide, and the chapters stand alone in explaining and developing each approach.

Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development

A Synthesis of 11 Country Case Studies

Author: Akiko Maeda,Edson Araujo,Cheryl Cashin,Joseph Harris,Naoki Ikegami,Michael R. Reich

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 146480298X

Category: Medical

Page: 72

View: 7494

The goals of universal health coverage (UHC) are to ensure that all people can access quality health services, to safeguard all people from public health risks, and to protect all people from impoverishment due to illness, whether from out-of-pocket payments for health care or loss of income when a household member falls sick. Countries as diverse as Brazil, France, Japan, Thailand, and Turkey have shown how UHC can serve as vital mechanisms for improving the health and welfare of their citizens, and lay the foundation for economic growth and competitiveness grounded in the principles of equity and sustainability. Ensuring universal access to affordable, quality health services will be an important contribution to ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where most of the world's poor live. The book synthesizes the experiences from 11 countries – Bangladesh, Brazil, France, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam – in implementing policies and strategies to achieve and sustain UHC. These countries represent diverse geographic and economic conditions, but all have committed to UHC as a key national aspiration and are approaching it in different ways. The study examined the UHC policies for each country around three common themes: (i) the political economy and policy process for adopting, achieving, and sustaining UHC; (ii) health financing policies to enhance health coverage; and (iii) human resources for health policies for achieving UHC. The findings from these country studies are intended to provide lessons that can be used by countries aspiring to adopt, achieve, and sustain UHC. Although the path to UHC is specific to each country, countries can benefit from the experiences of others in learning about different approaches and avoiding potential risks.

Handbook of Systems and Complexity in Health

Author: Joachim P Sturmberg,Carmel Martin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461449987

Category: Medical

Page: 954

View: 7461

This book is an introduction to health care as a complex adaptive system, a system that feeds back on itself. The first section introduces systems and complexity theory from a science, historical, epistemological, and technical perspective, describing the principles and mathematics. Subsequent sections build on the health applications of systems science theory, from human physiology to medical decision making, population health and health services research. The aim of the book is to introduce and expand on important population health issues from a systems and complexity perspective, highlight current research developments and their implications for health care delivery, consider their ethical implications, and to suggest directions for and potential pitfalls in the future.

Caring For People With Chronic Conditions: A Health System Perspective

A Health System Perspective

Author: Nolte, Ellen,McKee, Martin

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335233708

Category: Education

Page: 259

View: 867

This text systematically examines some of the key issues involved in the care of those with chronic diseases. It synthesises the evidence on what we know works (or does not) in different circumstances. From an international perspective, it addresses the prerequisites for effective policies and management of chronic disease.