The Consistency of the Axiom of Choice and of the Generalized Continuum-hypothesis with the Axioms of Set Theory

Author: Kurt G?del,Kurt Goedel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691079271

Category: Mathematics

Page: 66

View: 1701

Kurt Gödel, mathematician and logician, was one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century. Gödel fled Nazi Germany, fearing for his Jewish wife and fed up with Nazi interference in the affairs of the mathematics institute at the University of Göttingen. In 1933 he settled at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where he joined the group of world-famous mathematicians who made up its original faculty. His 1940 book, better known by its short title, The Consistency of the Continuum Hypothesis, is a classic of modern mathematics. The continuum hypothesis, introduced by mathematician George Cantor in 1877, states that there is no set of numbers between the integers and real numbers. It was later included as the first of mathematician David Hilbert's twenty-three unsolved math problems, famously delivered as a manifesto to the field of mathematics at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900. In The Consistency of the Continuum Hypothesis Gödel set forth his proof for this problem. In 1999, Time magazine ranked him higher than fellow scientists Edwin Hubble, Enrico Fermi, John Maynard Keynes, James Watson, Francis Crick, and Jonas Salk. He is most renowned for his proof in 1931 of the 'incompleteness theorem,' in which he demonstrated that there are problems that cannot be solved by any set of rules or procedures. His proof wrought fruitful havoc in mathematics, logic, and beyond.

Consistency of the Continuum Hypothesis. (AM-3)

Author: Kurt Gödel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400881633

Category: Mathematics

Page: 69

View: 3390

Kurt Gödel, mathematician and logician, was one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century. Gödel fled Nazi Germany, fearing for his Jewish wife and fed up with Nazi interference in the affairs of the mathematics institute at the University of Göttingen. In 1933 he settled at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where he joined the group of world-famous mathematicians who made up its original faculty. His 1940 book, better known by its short title, The Consistency of the Continuum Hypothesis, is a classic of modern mathematics. The continuum hypothesis, introduced by mathematician George Cantor in 1877, states that there is no set of numbers between the integers and real numbers. It was later included as the first of mathematician David Hilbert's twenty-three unsolved math problems, famously delivered as a manifesto to the field of mathematics at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900. In The Consistency of the Continuum Hypothesis Gödel set forth his proof for this problem. In 1999, Time magazine ranked him higher than fellow scientists Edwin Hubble, Enrico Fermi, John Maynard Keynes, James Watson, Francis Crick, and Jonas Salk. He is most renowned for his proof in 1931 of the 'incompleteness theorem,' in which he demonstrated that there are problems that cannot be solved by any set of rules or procedures. His proof wrought fruitful havoc in mathematics, logic, and beyond.

Set Theory and the Continuum Hypothesis

Author: Paul J. Cohen,Martin Davis

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486469212

Category: Mathematics

Page: 154

View: 5526

This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. Written by an award-winning professor at Stanford University, it employs intuitive explanations as well as detailed mathematical proofs in a self-contained treatment. This unique text and reference is suitable for students and professionals. 1966 edition. Copyright renewed 1994.

Set Theory and the Continuum Problem

Author: Raymond M. Smullyan,Melvin Fitting

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780486474847

Category: Mathematics

Page: 315

View: 431

A lucid, elegant, and complete survey of set theory, this three-part treatment explores axiomatic set theory, the consistency of the continuum hypothesis, and forcing and independence results. 1996 edition.

Philosophy of Mathematics

Selected Readings

Author: Paul Benacerraf,Hilary Putnam

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107268133

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1526

The twentieth century has witnessed an unprecedented 'crisis in the foundations of mathematics', featuring a world-famous paradox (Russell's Paradox), a challenge to 'classical' mathematics from a world-famous mathematician (the 'mathematical intuitionism' of Brouwer), a new foundational school (Hilbert's Formalism), and the profound incompleteness results of Kurt Gödel. In the same period, the cross-fertilization of mathematics and philosophy resulted in a new sort of 'mathematical philosophy', associated most notably (but in different ways) with Bertrand Russell, W. V. Quine, and Gödel himself, and which remains at the focus of Anglo-Saxon philosophical discussion. The present collection brings together in a convenient form the seminal articles in the philosophy of mathematics by these and other major thinkers. It is a substantially revised version of the edition first published in 1964 and includes a revised bibliography. The volume will be welcomed as a major work of reference at this level in the field.

The Evolution of Logic

Author: W. D. Hart

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139491202

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 528

Examines the relations between logic and philosophy over the last 150 years. Logic underwent a major renaissance beginning in the nineteenth century. Cantor almost tamed the infinite, and Frege aimed to undercut Kant by reducing mathematics to logic. These achievements were threatened by the paradoxes, like Russell's. This ferment generated excellent philosophy (and mathematics) by excellent philosophers (and mathematicians) up to World War II. This book provides a selective, critical history of the collaboration between logic and philosophy during this period. After World War II, mathematical logic became a recognized subdiscipline in mathematics departments, and consequently but unfortunately philosophers have lost touch with its monuments. This book aims to make four of them (consistency and independence of the continuum hypothesis, Post's problem, and Morley's theorem) more accessible to philosophers, making available the tools necessary for modern scholars of philosophy to renew a productive dialogue between logic and philosophy.

Badiou's Being and Event and the Mathematics of Set Theory

Author: Burhanuddin Baki

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472578716

Category: Philosophy

Page: 272

View: 3699

Alain Badiou's Being and Event continues to impact philosophical investigations into the question of Being. By exploring the central role set theory plays in this influential work, Burhanuddin Baki presents the first extended study of Badiou's use of mathematics in Being and Event. Adopting a clear, straightforward approach, Baki gathers together and explains the technical details of the relevant high-level mathematics in Being and Event. He examines Badiou's philosophical framework in close detail, showing exactly how it is 'conditioned' by the technical mathematics. Clarifying the relevant details of Badiou's mathematics, Baki looks at the four core topics Badiou employs from set theory: the formal axiomatic system of ZFC; cardinal and ordinal numbers; Kurt Gödel's concept of constructability; and Cohen's technique of forcing. Baki then rebuilds Badiou's philosophical meditations in relation to their conditioning by the mathematics, paying particular attention to Cohen's forcing, which informs Badiou's analysis of the event. Providing valuable insights into Badiou's philosophy of mathematics, Badiou's Being and Event and the Mathematics of Set Theory offers an excellent commentary and a new reading of Badiou's most complex and important work.

Theory of Relations

Author: R. Fraïssé

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080960413

Category: Mathematics

Page: 410

View: 8111

The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning. The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criterion of Pouzet-Vaught for saturated relations). The notion of bound of a relation (due to the author) leads to important calculus of thresholds by Frasnay, Hodges, Lachlan and Shelah. The redaction systematically goes back to set-theoretic axioms and precise definitions (such as Tarski's definition for finite sets), so that for each statement it is mentioned either that ZF axioms suffice, or what other axioms are needed (choice, continuum, dependent choice, ultrafilter axiom, etc.).

Descriptive Set Theory

Author: Yiannis N. Moschovakis

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821848135

Category: Mathematics

Page: 502

View: 4237

Descriptive Set Theory is the study of sets in separable, complete metric spaces that can be defined (or constructed), and so can be expected to have special properties not enjoyed by arbitrary pointsets. This subject was started by the French analysts at the turn of the 20th century, most prominently Lebesgue, and, initially, was concerned primarily with establishing regularity properties of Borel and Lebesgue measurable functions, and analytic, coanalytic, and projective sets. Its rapid development came to a halt in the late 1930s, primarily because it bumped against problems which were independent of classical axiomatic set theory. The field became very active again in the 1960s, with the introduction of strong set-theoretic hypotheses and methods from logic (especially recursion theory), which revolutionized it. This monograph develops Descriptive Set Theory systematically, from its classical roots to the modern ``effective'' theory and the consequences of strong (especially determinacy) hypotheses. The book emphasizes the foundations of the subject, and it sets the stage for the dramatic results (established since the 1980s) relating large cardinals and determinacy or allowing applications of Descriptive Set Theory to classical mathematics. The book includes all the necessary background from (advanced) set theory, logic and recursion theory.

The One True Platonic Heaven

A Scientific Fiction of the Limits of Knowledge

Author: John Casti

Publisher: Joseph Henry Press

ISBN: 0309513634

Category: Science

Page: 147

View: 2801

By the author of The Cambridge Quintet, John L. Casti’s new book continues the tradition of combining science fact with just the right dose of fiction. Part novel, part science – wholly informative and entertaining. In the fall of 1933 the newly founded Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, welcomed its first faculty member, Albert Einstein. With this superstar on the roster, the Institute was able to attract many more of the greatest scholars, scientists, and poets from around the world. It was to be an intellectual haven, a place where the most brilliant minds on the planet, sheltered from the outside world’s cares and calamities, could study and collaborate and devote their time to the pure and exclusive pursuit of knowledge. For many of them, it was the “one, true, platonic heaven.” Over the years, key figures at the Institute began to question the limits to what science could tell us about the world, pondering the universal secrets it might unlock. Could science be the ultimate source of truth; or are there intrinsic limits, built into the very fabric of the universe, to what we can learn? In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, this important question was being asked and pondered upon by some of the Institute’s deepest thinkers. Enter the dramatis personae to illuminate the science and the philosophy of the time. Mathematical logician Kurt Godel was the unacknowledged Grant Exalted Ruler of this platonic estate – but he was a ruler without a scepter as he awaited the inexplicably indefinite postponement of his promotion to full, tenured professor. Also in residence was his colleague, the Hungarian-American polymath, John van Neumann, developer of game theory, the axiomatic foundations of quantum mechanics, and the digital computer – stymied by the Institute’s refusal to sanction his bold proposal to actually build a computer. One of Godel’s closest friends figures large in this story: Albert Einstein, by common consensus the greatest physicist the 20th century had ever known. And, of course, the director the Institute, J. Robert Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, must by necessity be key to any story that focuses in on this time and place. Author Casti elegantly sets the stage and then masterfully directs this impressive cast of characters—with able assists by many “minor-character” icons like T. S. Eliot, Wolfgang Pauli, Freeman Dyson, and David Bohm, to tell a story of science, history, and ideas. As we watch events unfold (some of which are documented fact while others are creatively imagined fiction), we are witness to the discussions and deliberations of this august group privy to wide-ranging conversations on thinking machines, quantum logic, biology as physics, weather forecasting, the structure of economic systems, the distinction between mathematics and natural science, the structure of the universe, and the powers of the human mind – all centered around the question of the limits to scientific knowledge. Imaginatively conceived and artfully executed, The One True Platonic Heaven is an accessible and intriguing presentation of some of the deepest scientific and philosophical ideas of the 20th century.

Featured Reviews in Mathematical Reviews 1997-1999

With Selected Reviews of Classic Books and Papers from 1940-1969

Author: Donald G. Babbitt,Jane E. Kister

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821896709

Category: Mathematics

Page: 541

View: 461

This second volume of Featured Reviews makes available special detailed reviews of some of the most important mathematical articles and books published from 1997 through 1999. Also included are excellent reviews of several classic books and articles published prior to 1970. Among those reviews, for example, are the following: Homological Algebra by Henri Cartan and Samuel Eilenberg, reviewed by G. Hochschild; Faisceaux algebriques coherents by Jean-Pierre Serre, reviewed by C. Chevalley; and On the Theory of General Partial Differential Operators by Lars Hormander, reviewed by J. L. Lions. In particular, those seeking information on current developments outside their own area of expertise will find the volume very useful. By identifying some of the best publications, papers, and books that have had or are expected to have a significant impact in applied and pure mathematics, this volume will serve as a comprehensive guide to important new research across all fields covered by MR.

Functional Analysis

Author: Erdogan Suhubi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402016165

Category: Mathematics

Page: 691

View: 4381

Functional Analysis is primarily concerned with the structure of infinite dimensional vector spaces and the transformations, which are frequently called operators, between such spaces. The elements of these vector spaces are usually functions with certain properties, which map one set into another. Functional analysis became one of the success stories of mathematics in the 20th century, in the search for generality and unification.

Empiricism, Logic and Mathematics

Philosophical Papers

Author: Hans Hahn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400989822

Category: Science

Page: 142

View: 9649

The role Hans Hahn played in the Vienna Circle has not always been sufficiently appreciated. It was important in several ways. In the ftrst place, Hahn belonged to the trio of the original planners of the Circle. As students at the University of Vienna and throughout the fIrst decade of this century, he and his friends, Philipp Frank and Otto Neurath, met more or less regularly to discuss philosophical questions. When Hahn accepted his fIrSt professorial position, at the University of Czernowitz in the north east of the Austrian empire, and the paths of the three friends parted, they decided to continue such informal discussions at some future time - perhaps in a somewhat larger group and with the cooperation of a philosopher from the university. Various events delayed the execution of the project. Drafted into the Austrian army during the first world war" Hahn was wounded on the Italian front. Toward the end of the war he accepted an offer from the University of Bonn extended in recognition of his remarkable 1 mathematical achievements. He remained in Bonn until the spring of 1921 when he returm:d to Vienna and a chair of mathe matics at his alma mater. There, in 1922, the Mach-Boltzmann professorship for the philosophy of the inductive sciences became vacant by the death of Adolf Stohr; and Hahn saw a chance to realize his and his friends' old plan.

Schöne Sätze der Mathematik

Ein Überblick mit kurzen Beweisen

Author: Jörg Neunhäuserer

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642546900

Category: Mathematics

Page: 210

View: 3741

In diesem Buch finden Sie Perlen der Mathematik aus 2500 Jahren, beginnend mit Pythagoras und Euklid über Euler und Gauß bis hin zu Poincaré und Erdös. Sie erhalten einen Überblick über schöne und zentrale mathematische Sätze aus neun unterschiedlichen Gebieten und einen Einblick in große elementare Vermutungen. Die Vielfalt an schönen Resultaten bietet eine einzigartige mathematisch-allgemeinbildende Lektüre auf akademischem Niveau. Die Beweise in diesem Buch sind möglichst einfach und kurz gehalten und vermitteln Ihnen wesentliche Ansätze, Ideen und Strategien ohne große Vorkenntnisse vorauszusetzen. Die verwendeten Begriffe werden zumeist im Text eingeführt und zu grundlegenden Begriffen steht Ihnen zusätzlich ein Anhang zur Verfügung. Als Student der Mathematik oder Naturwissenschaften können Sie das Buch verwenden, um Ihre Perspektive zu erweitern und Ihre mathematische Bildung zu vertiefen. Hochschullehrer können jedes Kapitel des Buches zur Ausgestaltung eines Proseminars heranziehen. Wenn Sie einfach nur an Mathematik interessiert sind, und die Analysis und Lineare Algebra ein wenig kennen, wird Sie dieses Buch in das Reich der reinen Mathematik entführen.

Kurt Gödel: Collected Works: Volume II

Publications 1938-1974

Author: Kurt Gödel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195039726

Category: Mathematics

Page: 407

View: 6456

This second volume of a comprehensive edition of Kurt Godel's works collects the remainder of his published work, covering the period 1938-1974. (Volume I included all of his publications from 1929-1936). Each article or closely related group of articles is preceded by an introductory note that elucidates it and places it in historical context.

General Topology

Author: Stephen Willard

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486434797

Category: Mathematics

Page: 369

View: 9142

Among the best available reference introductions to general topology, this volume is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Includes historical notes and over 340 detailed exercises. 1970 edition. Includes 27 figures.

Kurt Gödel: Collected Works: Volume III

Unpublished Essays and Lectures

Author: Kurt Gödel,Solomon Feferman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195072556

Category: Mathematics

Page: 552

View: 2303

Kurt Gödel was the greatest logician of this century. This third volume of his collected works consists of previously unpublished material, both essays and lectures.