The Crime of All Crimes

Toward a Criminology of Genocide

Author: Nicole Rafter

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479859486

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 9347

Cambodia. Rwanda. Armenia. Nazi Germany. History remembers these places as the sites of unspeakable crimes against humanity, and indisputably, of genocide. Yet, throughout the twentieth century, the world has seen many instances of violence committed by states against certain groups within their borders—from the colonial ethnic cleansing the Germans committed against the Herero tribe in Africa, to the Katyn Forest Massacre, in which the Soviets shot over 20,000 Poles, to anti-communist mass murders in 1960s Indonesia. Are mass crimes against humanity like these still genocide? And how can an understanding of crime and criminals shed new light on how genocide—the “crime of all crimes”—transpires? In The Crime of All Crimes, criminologist Nicole Rafter takes an innovative approach to the study of genocide by comparing eight diverse genocides--large-scale and small; well-known and obscure—through the lens of criminal behavior. Rafter explores different models of genocidal activity, reflecting on the popular use of the Holocaust as a model for genocide and ways in which other genocides conform to different patterns. For instance, Rafter questions the assumption that only ethnic groups are targeted for genocidal “cleansing," and she also urges that actions such as genocidal rape be considered alongside traditional instances of genocidal violence. Further, by examining the causes of genocide on different levels, Rafter is able to construct profiles of typical victims and perpetrators and discuss means of preventing genocide, in addition to delving into the social psychology of genocidal behavior and the ways in which genocides are brought to an end. A sweeping and innovative investigation into the most tragic of events in the modern world, The Crime of All Crimes will fundamentally change how we think about genocide in the present day.

Genozid im Völkerrecht

Author: William A. Schabas

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783930908882

Category: Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide

Page: 792

View: 9472

State Criminality

The Crime of All Crimes

Author: Dawn Rothe

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739126717

Category: Political Science

Page: 265

View: 9075

State crimes are historically and contemporarily ubiquitous and result in more injury and death than traditional street crimes such as robbery, theft, and assault. Consider that genocide during the 20th century in Germany, Rwanda, Darfur, Albania, Turkey, Ukraine, Cambodia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and other regions claimed the lives of tens of millions and rendered many more homeless, imprisoned, and psychologically and physically damaged. Despite the gravity of crimes committed by states and political leaders, until recently these harms have been understudied relative to conventional street crimes in the field of criminology. Over the past two decades, a growing number of criminologists have conducted rigorous research on state crime and have tried to disseminate it widely including attempts to develop courses that specifically address crimes of the state. Referencing a broad range of cases of state crime and international institutions of control, State Criminality provides a general framework and survey-style discussion of the field for teaching undergraduate and graduate students, and serves as a useful general reference point for scholars of state crime.

The Criminal Brain

Understanding Biological Theories of Crime

Author: Nicole Rafter

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814776566

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 9508

What is the relationship between criminality and biology? Nineteenth-century phrenologists insisted that criminality was innate, a trait inherent in the offender’s brain matter. While they were eventually repudiated as pseudo-scientists and self-deluded charlatans, today the pendulum has swung back. Both criminologists and biologists have begun to speak of a tantalizing but disturbing possibility: that criminality may be inherited as a set of genetic deficits that place one at risk for theft, violence, and sexual deviance. If that is so, we may soon confront proposals for genetically modifying “at risk” fetuses or doctoring up criminals so their brains operate like those of law-abiding citizens. In The Criminal Brain, well-known criminologist Nicole Rafter traces the sometimes violent history of these criminological theories and provides an introduction to current biological theories of crime, or biocriminology, with predictions of how these theories are likely to develop in the future. What do these new theories assert? Are they as dangerous as their forerunners, which the Nazis and other eugenicists used to sterilize, incarcerate, and even execute thousands of supposed “born” criminals? How can we prepare for a future in which leaders may propose crime-control programs based on biology? Enhanced with fascinating illustrations and written in lively prose, The Criminal Brain examines these issues in light of the history of ideas about the criminal brain. By tracing the birth and growth of enduring ideas in criminology, as well as by recognizing historical patterns in the interplay of politics and science, she offers ways to evaluate new theories of the criminal brain that may radically reshape ideas about the causes of criminal behavior.

Criminology Goes to the Movies

Crime Theory and Popular Culture

Author: Nicole Rafter,Michelle Brown

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814777414

Category: Law

Page: 236

View: 6634

From a look at classics like Psycho and Double Indemnity to recent films like Traffic and Thelma & Louise, Nicole Rafter and Michelle Brown show that criminological theory is produced not only in the academy, through scholarly research, but also in popular culture, through film. Criminology Goes to the Movies connects with ways in which students are already thinking criminologically through engagements with popular culture, encouraging them to use the everyday world as a vehicle for theorizing and understanding both crime and perceptions of criminality. The first work to bring a systematic and sophisticated criminological perspective to bear on crime films, Rafter and Brown’s book provides a fresh way of looking at cinema, using the concepts and analytical tools of criminology to uncover previously unnoticed meanings in film, ultimately making the study of criminological theory more engaging and effective for students while simultaneously demonstrating how theories of crime circulate in our mass-mediated worlds. The result is an illuminating new way of seeing movies and a delightful way of learning about criminology. Instructor's Guide

Täterschaft und Tatherrschaft

Author: Claus Roxin

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110366592

Category: Law

Page: 882

View: 1090

Roxins Buch ist die umfangreichste Monographie über die Abgrenzung von Täterschaft und Teilnahme im deutschen Strafrecht. Die Neuauflage bringt neben dem, wie immer unveränderten, Hauptteil des Buches einen durchgreifend bearbeiteten und erweiterten „Schlußteil 2015“. Darin wird die gesamte Rechtsprechung der letzten Jahrzehnte zu den Fragen der Täterlehre umfassend dokumentiert und kritisch analysiert.

Deutsche Herrschaft, ukrainischer Nationalismus, antijüdische Gewalt

Der Sommer 1941 in der Westukraine

Author: Kai Struve

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110399172

Category: History

Page: 754

View: 6733

This study investigates acts of anti-Semitic violence committed by Germans and Ukrainians in several dozen locations in Western Ukraine. The study’s broad consideration of contexts – the Holocaust, Soviet crimes, and Ukrainian state formation – leads to a new view of these events. The work is sure to become an indispensable resource in understanding controversies about Nazi and Soviet crimes.

Darfur

der "uneindeutige" Genozid

Author: Gérard Prunier

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783936096668

Category:

Page: 274

View: 7647

Parlament der Menschheit

die Vereinten Nationen und der Weg zur Weltregierung

Author: Paul M. Kennedy

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 9783406563287

Category: International relations

Page: 400

View: 3522

The Criminal Brain, Second Edition

Understanding Biological Theories of Crime

Author: Nicole Rafter,Chad Posick,Michael Rocque

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479825743

Category: Social Science

Page: 416

View: 4570

What is the relationship between criminality and biology? Nineteenth-century phrenologists insisted that criminality was innate, inherent in the offender’s brain matter. While they were eventually repudiated as pseudo-scientists, today the pendulum has swung back. Both criminologists and biologists have begun to speak of a tantalizing but disturbing possibility: that criminality may be inherited as a set of genetic deficits that place one at risk to commit theft, violence, or acts of sexual deviance. But what do these new theories really assert? Are they as dangerous as their forerunners, which the Nazis and other eugenicists used to sterilize, incarcerate, and even execute thousands of supposed “born” criminals? How can we prepare for a future in which leaders may propose crime-control programs based on biology? In this second edition of The Criminal Brain, Nicole Rafter, Chad Posick, and Michael Rocque describe early biological theories of crime and provide a lively, up-to-date overview of the newest research in biosocial criminology. New chapters introduce the theories of the latter part of the 20th century; apply and critically assess current biosocial and evolutionary theories, the developments in neuro-imaging, and recent progressions in fields such as epigenetics; and finally, provide a vision for the future of criminology and crime policy from a biosocial perspective. The book is a careful, critical examination of each research approach and conclusion. Both compiling and analyzing the body of scholarship devoted to understanding the criminal brain, this volume serves as a condensed, accessible, and contemporary exploration of biological theories of crime and their everyday relevance. Instructor's Guide

Internationales Handbuch der Gewaltforschung

Author: Wilhelm Heitmeyer,John Hagan

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322803767

Category: Social Science

Page: 1583

View: 3747

Die Forschung zur Gewalt in modernen westlichen Gesellschaften hat in den letzten Jahren zugenommen. Die Erklärungen dafür sind zahlreich: tatsächlicher Anstieg bei bestimmten Gewaltvarianten, neue Sensibilitäten, Rückkehr alter Gewaltformen, Verlagerung von Gewalt in andere gesellschaftliche Bereiche etc. Bisher fehlt jedoch ein systematischer Überblick über die tatsächlichen Entwicklungen. Das vorliegende Handbuch informiert umfassend über Gewalt als soziales Phänomen. Dabei wird fast allen Facetten dieses Themas Rechnung getragen: · Sozialstrukturelle Verhältnisse und Gewalt, · Sozialisation und Lernen von Gewalt, · Gewalterfahrungen und Gewalttätigkeit, · Gewaltopfer, · Gewalt in gesellschaftlichen Institutionen, · Gewalt durch politische Gruppen, · Gewaltdiskurse etc. In 62 Artikeln von Autorinnen und Autoren aus zehn Ländern liefert der Band ein komplexes, transdisziplinäres Bild eines Forschungsfeldes zwischen Ordnung, Zerstörung und Macht.

Oberst Hannes

Author: Daniel Defoe

Publisher: tredition

ISBN: 3842406738

Category:

Page: 208

View: 2598

Dieses Buch ist Teil der "Edition Projekt Gutenberg-DE", welche mehr als 3.000 Klassiker der deutschsprachigen Literatur umfasst. Die Werke dieser Edition umfassen Romane, Erzählungen, Novellen, Dramen, Gedichte und Sachbücher in deutscher Sprache von über 1.200 Autoren. Neben den Standardwerken deutscher Literatur sind so viele zum Teil seit Jahren vergriffene Titel wieder erhältlich. Die Edition erscheint im zeitlosen, klassischen Design, das zum Sammeln einlädt. Der tredition Verlag bietet alle Werke der "Edition Gutenberg-DE" als Paperback, als Hardcover und auch als Großdruck-Ausgaben an.

Moderne und Gewalt

ein europäische Genealogie des Nazi-Terrors

Author: Enzo Traverso

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783899001068

Category: Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)

Page: 160

View: 1249

Außenseiter

Zur Soziologie abweichenden Verhaltens

Author: Howard S. Becker

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658012544

Category: Social Science

Page: 197

View: 4755

​ „Der Mensch mit abweichendem Verhalten ist ein Mensch, auf den diese Bezeichnung erfolgreich angewandt worden ist; abweichendes Verhalten ist Verhalten, das Menschen als solches bezeichnen“: Es ist einer der klassischen Sätze der Devianzsoziologie in einem der Klassiker des Feldes. Howard S. Becker betont fernab von alten und simplistischen Fragen danach, „warum Menschen Regeln brechen“, welche Situationen und welche Prozesse dazu führen, dass Menschen in Positionen geraten, in denen sie als „Regelbrecher“ betitelt werden, wie sie mit diesen Positionen umgehen und sich auch gegen diese wehren. „Außenseiter“ erschien erstmals 1963 in New York und wurde 1981 bei S. Fischer in deutscher Übersetzung publiziert. Seit den frühen neunziger Jahren vergriffen, liegt hier nun eine von Michael Dellwing überarbeitete und herausgegebene Version vor.

A Critical Introduction to International Criminal Law

Author: Carsten Stahn

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108526438

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 9845

International criminal law has witnessed a rapid rise after the end of the Cold War. The UN refers to the birth of a new 'age of accountability', but certain historical objections, such as selectivity or victor's justice, have never fully gone away, and many of the justice dimensions of international criminal law remain unexplored. Various critiques have emerged in socio-legal scholarship or globalization discourse, revealing that there is a stark discrepancy between reality and expectation. Linking discussion of legal theories, case-law and practice to scholarship and opinion, A Critical Introduction to International Criminal Law explores these critiques through five main themes at the heart of contemporary dilemmas: • The shifting contours of criminality and international crimes • The tension between individual and collective responsibility • The challenges of domestic, international, hybrid and regional justice institutions • The foundations of justice procedures • Approaches towards punishment and reparation Suitable for students, academics and professionals from multiple fields wishing to understand contemporary theories, practices and critiques of international criminal law. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.

Genocide

A Comprehensive Introduction

Author: Adam Jones

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317533852

Category: Political Science

Page: 870

View: 6659

Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction is the most wide-ranging textbook on genocide yet published. The book is designed as a text for upper-undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a primer for non-specialists and general readers interested in learning about one of humanity’s enduring blights. Fully updated to reflect the latest thinking in this rapidly developing field, this unique book: Provides an introduction to genocide as both a historical phenomenon and an analytical-legal concept, including the concept of genocidal intent, and the dynamism and contingency of genocidal processes. Discusses the role of state-building, imperialism, war, and social revolution in fuelling genocide. Supplies a wide range of full-length case studies of genocides worldwide, each with a supplementary study. Explores perspectives on genocide from the social sciences, including psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science/international relations, and gender studies. Considers "The Future of Genocide," with attention to historical memory and genocide denial; initiatives for truth, justice, and redress; and strategies of intervention and prevention. Highlights of the new edition include: Nigeria/Biafra as a "contested case" of genocide Extensive new material on the Kurds, Islamic State/ISIS, and the civil wars/genocide in Iraq and Syria. Conflict and atrocities in the world’s newest state, South Sudan. The role, activities, and constraints of the United Nations Office of Genocide Prevention. Many new testimonies from genocide victims, survivors, witnesses—and perpetrators. Dozens of new images, including a special photographic essay. Written in clear and lively prose with over 240 illustrations and maps, Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction remains the indispensable text for new generations of genocide study and scholarship. An accompanying website (www.genocidetext.net) features a broad selection of supplementary materials, teaching aids, and Internet resources.

Supranational Criminology

Towards a Criminology of International Crimes

Author: Alette Smeulers,Roelof Haveman

Publisher: Intersentia Uitgevers N V

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 593

View: 5112

The study of international crimes - such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide - deserves to grow into a separate and fully fledged specialization within criminology, called supranational criminology. Supranational criminology entails the study of international crimes, behavior that shows affinity with these crimes, the causes and the situations in which they are committed, as well as interventions and their effectiveness. What exactly entails supranational criminology? What are international crimes? Should other forms of behavior also be qualified as international crimes? What are the specific characteristics of international crimes as forms of state sponsored or state facilitated crimes? Explanatory theories have to be developed which can be translated into testable hypotheses. Which theories from mainstream criminology can provide answers for the prevalence or causes of international crimes? Have the international courts and tribunals succeeded in their aim? This book repairs the fundamental and historical neglect of criminology and breaks out of a state of denial by putting international crimes on the criminological agenda.

Perpetrating Genocide

A Criminological Account

Author: Kjell Anderson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317234383

Category: Political Science

Page: 276

View: 4571

Focusing on the relationship between the micro level of perpetrator motivation and the macro level normative discourse, this book offers an in-depth explanation for the perpetration of genocide. It is the first comparative criminological treatment of genocide drawn from original field research, based substantially on the author’s interviews with perpetrators and victims of genocide and mass atrocities, combined with wide-ranging secondary and archival sources. Topics covered include: perpetration in organizations, genocidal propaganda, the characteristics of perpetrators, decision-making in genocide, genocidal mobilization, coping with killing, perpetrator memory and trauma, moral rationalization, and transitional justice. An interdisciplinary and comparative analysis, this book utilizes scientific methods with the objective of gaining some degree of insight into the causes of genocide and genocide perpetration. It is argued that genocide is more than a mere intellectual abstraction – it is a crime with real consequences and real victims. Abstraction and objectivity may be intellectual ideals but they are not ideally humane; genocide is ultimately about the destruction of humanity. Thus, this book avoids presenting an overly abstract image of genocide, but rather grounds its analysis in interviews with victims and perpetrators of genocide in Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Bosnia, Cambodia, Bangladesh, and Iraq. This book will be highly useful to students and scholars with an interest in genocide and the causes of mass violence. It will also be of interest to policy-makers engaged with the issues of genocide and conflict prevention.