Ecology and Management of Castor fiber
Author: Roisin Campbell-Palmer
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd
Beavers are widely recognised as a keystone species which play a pivotal role in riparian ecology. Their tree felling and dam building behaviours coupled with a suite of other activities create a wealth of living opportunities that are exploited by a range of other species. Numerous scientific studies demonstrate that beaver-generated living environments that are much richer in terms of both biodiversity and biomass than wetland environments from which they are absent. Emerging contemporary studies indicate clearly that the landscapes they create can afford sustainable, cost-effective remedies for water retention, flood alleviation, silt and chemical capture.Beaver activities, especially in highly modified environments, may be challenging to certain land use activities and landowners. Many trialled and tested methods to mitigate against these impacts, including a wide range of non-lethal management techniques, are regularly implemented across Europe and North America. Many of these techniques will be new to people, especially in areas where beavers are newly re-establishing. This handbook serves to discuss both the benefits and challenges in living with this species, and collates the wide range of techniques that can be implemented to mitigate any negative impacts.The authors of this handbook are all beaver experts and together they have a broad range of scientific knowledge and practical experience regarding the ecology, captive husbandry, veterinary science, pathology, reintroduction and management of beavers in both continental Europe and Britain.
Author: Róisín Campbell-Palmer,Derek Gow,Robert Needham,Simon Jones,Frank Rosell
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd
The Eurasian beaver was near extinction at the start of the twentieth century, hunted across Europe for its fur, meat and castoreum. But now the beaver is on the brink of a comeback, with wild beaver populations, licensed and unlicensed, emerging all over Britain.
The Dog’s Incredible Nose
Author: Frank Rosell
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Dogs and humans have worked side by side for thousands of years, and over the millennia we’ve come to depend upon our pooches as hunters, protectors, and faithful companions. But when it comes to the extraordinary quality of man’s best friend which we rely on most, the winner is clear—by a nose. In Secrets of the Snout, Frank Rosell blends storytelling and science as he sniffs out the myriad ways in which dogs have been trained to employe their incredible olfactory skills, from sussing out cancer and narcotics to locating endangered and invasive species, as well as missing persons (and golf balls). With 300 million receptors to our mere 5 million, a dog’s nose is estimated to be between 100,000 and 100 million times more sensitive than a human’s. No wonder, then, that our nasally inferior species has sought to unleash the prodigious power of canine shnozzes. Rosell here takes us for a walk with a pack of superhero sniffers including Tutta, a dog with a fine nose for fine wine; the pet-finder pooch AJ; search-and-rescue dog Barry; the hunting dog Balder; the police dogs Rasko and Trixxi; the warfare dog Lisa; the cancer detection dog Jack; Tucker, who scents floating killer whale feces; and even Elvis, who can smell when you’re ovulating. With each dog, Rosell turns his nose to the evolution of the unique olfactory systems involved, which odors dogs detect, and how they do it. A celebration of how the canine sense for scents works—and works for us—Secrets of the Snout will have dog lovers, trainers, and researchers alike all howling with delight. Exploring this most pointed of canine wonders, Rosell reveals the often surprising ways in which dogs are bettering our world, one nose at a time.
Author: Victoria Todd,Ian Todd,Jane Gardiner,Erica Morrin
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd
Marine Mammal Observer and Passive Acoustic Monitoring Handbook is the ultimate instruction manual for mitigation measures to minimise man-made acoustical and physical disturbances to marine mammals from industrial and defence activities.
Author: Jim Crumley
Employing his trademark beautiful prose and empathy for life in the wild, Crumley considers the future for Britain's beavers and makes the case for giving them their freedom despite their controversial status.
Author: Bryony Coles
Publisher: Oxbow Books Limited
Part ecology, part archaeology and part history, Beavers in Britain's Past explores the evidence for Castor fiber , the European beaver from late in the last ice age to the time of its extinction from Britain's native fauna. The first chapters introduce the beaver and its habitats in western Europe, where it is now flourishing. Based on original field survey in Brittany and southeastern France, the characteristic structures and features of three contrasting beaver territories are documented and analysed, with a view to identifying beaver activity in the archaeological record. Beavers are a keystone ecological species, modifying their waterside surroundings to the benefit of many other species, both plant and animal, including humans. The book then focuses on the archaeological and historical record, from the return of beavers after the severe cold of the last glaciation through 13000 years of living alongside humans, to their disappearance from the record. In the light of the field survey results, beaver influence is identified at a number of well-known wetland sites of prehistoric date, while the evidence for human exploitation of beavers becomes increasingly diverse through time. In the post-Roman period it expands to include place-names, carvings and illuminated manuscripts, written records and oral traditions. Analysing the record in the light of the field survey results and increasing knowledge of the behaviour of European beavers, it is argued that beavers vanished from human perception but did not become extinct until the later second millennium AD. Beavers in Britain's Past provides a new perspective on the archaeology and history of Britain and demonstrates the significance of beavers to the environment of Britain.
An Analysis of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Author: Jean-Christophe Vié,Craig Hilton-Taylor,S. N. Stuart
Wildlife in a Changing World presents an analysis of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Beginning with an explanation of the IUCN Red List as a key conservation tool, it goes on to discuss the state of the world’s species and provides the latest information on the patterns of species facing extinction in some of the most important ecosystems in the world, highlighting the reasons behind their declining status. Areas of focus in the report include: freshwater biodiversity, the status of the world’s marine species, species susceptibility to climate change impacts, the Mediterranean biodiversity hot spot, and broadening the coverage of biodiversity assessments.
The Science, Politics, and Economics of Coexisting with Wolves in Modern Times
Author: Ted B. Lyon and Will N. Graves,Will Graves
Publisher: Skyhorse Publishing Inc.
The Real Wolf is an in-depth study of the impact that wolves have had on big game and livestock populations as a federally protected species. Expert authors Ted B. Lyon and Will N. Graves, sift through the myths and misinformation surrounding wolves and present the facts about wolves in modern times. Each chapter in the book is meticulously researched and written by authors, biologists, geneticists, outdoor enthusiasts, and wildlife experts who have spent years studying wolves and wolf behavior. Every section describes a unique aspect of the wolf in the United States. The Real Wolf does not call for the eradication of wolves from the United States but rather advocates a new system of species management that would allow wolves, game animals, and farmers to coexist with one another in a way that is environmentally sustainable. Contributors to this groundbreaking environmental book include: Cat Urbigkit, award-winning wildlife author and photographer Dr. Valerius Geist, foremost expert of big game in North America Matthew Cronin, environmental researcher and geneticist Rob Arnaud, president of Montana Outfitters and Guides Association
Author: Paul A. Rees
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book is intended as an introductory text for students studying a wide range of courses concerned with animal management, zoo biology and wildlife conservation, and should also be useful to zookeepers and other zoo professionals. It is divided into three parts. Part 1 considers the function of zoos, their history, how zoos are managed, ethics, zoo legislation and wildlife conservation law. Part 2 discusses the design of zoos and zoo exhibits, animal nutrition, reproduction, animal behaviour (including enrichment and training), animal welfare, veterinary care, animal handling and transportation. Finally, Part 3 discusses captive breeding programmes, genetics, population biology, record keeping, and the educational role of zoos, including a consideration of visitor behaviour. It concludes with a discussion of the role of zoos in the conservation of species in the wild and in species reintroductions. This book takes an international perspective and includes a wide range of examples of the operation of zoos and breeding programmes particularly in the UK, Europe, North America and Australasia. Visit www.wiley.com/go/rees/zoo to access the artwork from the book.
Moving from Perspectives to Principles
Author: David B. Lindenmayer,Richard J. Hobbs
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The distinctive relationships between landscape change, habitat fragmentation, and biodiversity conservation are highlighted in this original and useful guide to the theory and practice of ecological landscape design. Using original, ecologically based landscape design principles, the text underscores current thinking in landscape management and conservation. It offers a blend of theoretical and practical information that is illustrated with case studies drawn from across the globe. Key insights by some of the world’s leading experts in landscape ecology and conservation biology make Managing and Designing Landscapes for Conservation an essential volume for anyone involved in landscape management, natural resource planning, or biodiversity conservation.
Author: Milton Friend,J. Christian Franson,U.S. Geological Survey
DO WILDLIFE DISEASES REALLY MATTER? The waterfowl manager who wakes up one morning to find ten thousand dead and dying birds in the marsh would think so. Yet virtually every wild bird and mammal harbors at least a few parasites seemingly without obvious adverse consequences. Parasites, viruses, bacteria, and fungi are component parts of the ecosystems in which wildlife are found, but do not necessarily cause disease. Millennia of coevolution have engendered a modus vivendi that assures the survival of both host and parasite populations. Then why the ten thousand sick and dying birds? Ecosystems are changing. Waterfowl are concentrated on shrinking wetlands and remain there for longer periods of time, facilitating bird-to-bird spread of the bacteria that cause avian cholera. Or permitting the buildup of parasites in their hosts from a small, relatively benign number to massive numbers that cause disease and death. Water quality of wetlands changes, favoring the production of deadly botulinum toxin by bacteria and its mobilization up the food chain to waterfowl. New, totally artificial habitats are created with unpredictable results. The extreme temperature, salinity, and other conditions of the Salton Sea have created an unusual ecosystem in which botulism occurs in fish and in birds through biological cycles that are not yet understood. Wetland loss in southern California leaves few alternative places for waterbirds to go, so they are attracted to the Salton Sea. Behavior changes. Mallard ducks take up residence on the ponds and lakes of city parks and lose their migratory habits. They share these bodies of water with exotic species, such as Muscovy ducks that have also taken up residence there after introduction by people, setting the scene for outbreaks of duck plague, and creating the risk of spread to migratory waterfowl that also use these areas. Raccoons and skunks become well adapted to urban life, bringing rabies and canine distemper with them into the city. The environment changes the physiology of wild animals. Human activity introduces into wildlife habitats chemical compounds that adversely affect physiological processes such as reproduction and immune responsiveness. These compounds become incorporated into the ecosystems, often becoming more concentrated as they move up food chains. Their effects can influence wildlife populations. Some of these endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDE, PCBs), interfere with normal endocrine function by mimicking natural hormones, with resulting eggshell thinning and breakage. Effects of these chemical compounds on immune-system responses to infectious and parasitic agents are less well understood. What to do? Incorporating disease-prevention measures into wildlife management practices requires more information than is usually available. The information-gathering process must begin in the field. Field biologists must monitor disease occurrence. This Field Manual is a valuable aid in identifying the diseases that are likely to be present, and in giving guidance on the gathering and treatment of specimens needed to establish the diagnosis in the laboratory. But the wildlife field biologist is in a position to provide valuable information that goes beyond the collection of samples from sick and dead individuals. Although diseased individuals are the basic unit of surveillance, the occurrence of disease must be put into ecological perspective. A careful description of the ecological setting in which the disease is occurring, and any changes that have occurred over time, are ultimately as important as a careful description of the lesions observed in the individual, if the epidemiology of that disease is to be understood, and the disease prevented through sound wildlife-management practices.
An Ecological Perspective
Author: Takuya Abe,Simon A. Levin,Masahiko Higashi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Despite acknowledgment that loss of living diversity is an international biological crisis, the ecological causes and consequences of extinction have not yet been widely addressed. In honor of Edward O. Wilson, winner of the 1993 International Prize for Biology, an international group of distinguished biologists bring ecological, evolutionary, and management perspectives to the issue of biodiversity. The roles of ecosystem processes, community structure and population dynamics are considered in this book. The goal, as Wilson writes in his introduction, is "to assemble concepts that unite the disciplines of systematics and ecology, and in so doing to create a sound scientific basis for the future management of biodiversity."
Author: Navjot S. Sodhi
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Conservation Biology for All provides cutting-edge but basic conservation science to a global readership. A series of authoritative chapters have been written by the top names in conservation biology with the principal aim of disseminating cutting-edge conservation knowledge as widely as possible. Important topics such as balancing conversion and human needs, climate change, conservation planning, designing and analyzing conservation research, ecosystem services, endangered species management, extinctions, fire, habitat loss, and invasive species are covered. Numerous textboxes describing additional relevant material or case studies are also included. The global biodiversity crisis is now unstoppable; what can be saved in the developing world will require an educated constituency in both the developing and developed world. Habitat loss is particularly acute in developing countries, which is of special concern because it tends to be these locations where the greatest species diversity and richest centres of endemism are to be found. Sadly, developing world conservation scientists have found it difficult to access an authoritative textbook, which is particularly ironic since it is these countries where the potential benefits of knowledge application are greatest. There is now an urgent need to educate the next generation of scientists in developing countries, so that they are in a better position to protect their natural resources.
Author: Henrique M. Pereira,Laetitia M. Navarro
Some European lands have been progressively alleviated of human pressures, particularly traditional agriculture in remote areas. This book proposes that this land abandonment can be seen as an opportunity to restore natural ecosystems via rewilding. We define rewilding as the passive management of ecological successions having in mind the long-term goal of restoring natural ecosystem processes. The book aims at introducing the concept of rewilding to scientists, students and practitioners. The first part presents the theory of rewilding in the European context. The second part of the book directly addresses the link between rewilding, biodiversity, and habitats. The third and last part is dedicated to practical aspects of the implementation of rewilding as a land management option. We believe that this book will both set the basis for future research on rewilding and help practitioners think about how rewilding can take place in areas under their management.
The Embodied Cognitive Science of LEGO Robots
Author: Michael Wilson,Brian Dupuis
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
Even simple agents, such as LEGO robots, are capable of exhibiting complex behaviour when they can sense and alter the world around them. From Bricks to Brains offers an introduction to embodied cognitive science and illustrates its foundational ideas through the construction and observation of LEGO Mindstorms robots. Discussing the characteristics that distinguish embodied cognitive science from classical cognitive science, the authors place a renewed emphasis on sensing and acting, on the importance of physical embodiment, and on the exploration of distributed notions of control. They also show how synthesizing simple systems and observing their behaviour can generate new theoretical insights. Numerous examples are brought forward to illustrate a key theme: the importance of environment to an actor. Even simple agents, such as LEGO robots, are capable of exhibiting complex behaviour when they can sense and alter the world around them.
Author: John Algeo
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Updated to reflect current research and rewritten for further clarity of presentation, the sixth edition of the best-selling THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE continues to take a linguistic-analysis approach and focuses on the facts of language rather than on theoretical approaches. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Author: Stephen C. Trombulak,Robert Baldwin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Hugh P. Possingham Landscape-scale conservation planning is coming of age. In the last couple of decades, conservation practitioners, working at all levels of governance and all spatial scales, have embraced the CARE principles of conservation planning – Comprehensiveness, Adequacy, Representativeness, and Efficiency. Hundreds of papers have been written on this theme, and several different kinds of software program have been developed and used around the world, making conservation planning based on these principles global in its reach and influence. Does this mean that all the science of conservation planning is over – that the discovery phase has been replaced by an engineering phase as we move from defining the rules to implementing them in the landscape? This book and the continuing growth in the literature suggest that the answer to this question is most definitely ‘no. ’ All of applied conservation can be wrapped up into a single sentence: what should be done (the action), in what place, at what time, using what mechanism, and for what outcome (the objective). It all seems pretty simple – what, where, when, how and why. However stating a problem does not mean it is easy to solve.
Author: Richard John Huggett
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
The new fourth edition of Fundamentals of Geomorphology continues to provide a comprehensive introduction to the subject by discussing the latest developments in the field, as well as covering the basics of Earth surface forms and processes. The revised edition has an improved logically cohesive structure, added recent material on Quaternary environments and landscapes, landscape evolution and tectonics, as well as updated information in fast-changing areas such as the application of dating techniques, digital terrain modelling, historical contingency, preglacial landforms, neocatastrophism, and biogeomorphology. The book begins with a consideration of the nature of geomorphology, process and form, history, and geomorphic systems, and moves on to discuss: Endogenic processes: structural landforms associated with plate tectonics and those associated with volcanoes, impact craters, and folds, faults, and joints. Exogenic processes: landforms resulting from, or influenced by, the exogenic agencies of weathering, running water, flowing ice and meltwater, ground ice and frost, the wind, and the sea; landforms developed on limestone; and long-term geomorphology, a discussion of ancient landforms, including palaeosurfaces, stagnant landscape features, and evolutionary aspects of landscape change. Featuring over 400 illustrations, diagrams, and tables, Fundamentals of Geomorphology provides a stimulating and innovative perspective on the key topics and debates within the field of geomorphology. Written in an accessible and lively manner, and providing guides to further reading, chapter summaries, and an extensive glossary of key terms, this is an indispensable undergraduate level textbook for students of physical geography.
A Practical Guide and Case Studies
Author: Clive Hurford,Michael Schneider,Ian Cowx
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
As in the terrestrial environment, most data collection from freshwater habitats to date falls into the survey, surveillance or research categories. The critical difference between these exercises and a monitoring project is that a monitoring project will clearly identify when we need to make a management response. A Model for Conservation Management and Monitoring Monitoring (as defined by Hellawell) is essentially a tool of practical conservation management, and Fig. 1.1 shows a simple, but effective, model for nature conser- tion management and monitoring. The need for clear decision-making is implicit in this model. First we must decide what would represent a favourable state for the key habitat or species, and then we must decide when to intervene if the state is (or becomes) unfavourable. A third, often overlooked, but equally important, decision concerns when we would consider the habitat or species to have recovered; this is unlikely to be the same point that we became concerned about it. This decision not only has resource imp- cations, it can also have major implications for other habitats and species (prey species are an obvious example). All of these decisions are essential to the devel- ment of an efficient and effective monitoring project.