Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics
Author: Roger A. Pielke, Jr
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
Scientists have a choice concerning what role they should play in political debates and policy formation, particularly in terms of how they present their research. This book is about understanding this choice, what considerations are important to think about when deciding, and the consequences of such choices for the individual scientist and the broader scientific enterprise. Rather than prescribing what course of action each scientist ought to take, the book aims to identify a range of options for individual scientists to consider in making their own judgments about how they would like to position themselves in relation to policy and politics. Using examples from a range of scientific controversies and thought-provoking analogies from other walks of life, The Honest Broker challenges us all - scientists, politicians and citizens - to think carefully about how best science can contribute to policy-making and a healthy democracy.
Author: Mark B. Brown,Justus Lentsch,Peter Weingart
Politik ist auf wissenschaftliche Beratung angewiesen - nicht nur um gute Entscheidungen zu treffen, sondern auch um ihre Entscheidungen gegenüber der Öffentlichkeit zu legitimieren. Gerade in Bezug auf die Legislative stellt das Legitimationsproblem die zentrale Herausforderung für die Integration wissenschaftlicher Beratung in die demokratische Gestaltung von Politik dar. In der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik hat das Parlament gegenüber der Regierung jedoch erst mit einiger zeitlicher Verzögerung eine eigenständige und regierungsunabhängige Beratungsstruktur aufgebaut und institutionell etabliert. Gegenstand dieses Buches ist eine politiktheoretische Einordnung der verschiedenen Formen von Politikberatung des Parlaments in Deutschland und wie sie sich in das Netzwerk bestehender politischer Institutionen fügen.
Author: Hinnerk Onken
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
Category: Arequipa (Peru)
Issues and Dilemmas - A Reader in Science Communication
Author: John K. Gilbert,Susan M. Stocklmayer
Science communication seeks to engage individuals and groups with evidence-based information about the nature, outcomes, and social consequences of science and technology. This text provides an overview of this burgeoning field ─ the issues with which it deals, important influences that affect it, the challenges that it faces. It introduces readers to the research-based literature about science communication and shows how it relates to actual or potential practice. A "Further Exploration" section provides suggestions for activities that readers might do to explore the issues raised. Organized around five themes, each chapter addresses a different aspect of science communication: • Models of science communication – theory into practice • Challenges in communicating science • Major themes in science communication • Informal learning • Communication of contemporary issues in science and society Relevant for all those interested in and concerned about current issues and developments in science communication, this volume is an ideal text for courses and a must-have resource for faculty, students, and professionals in this field.
Author: Ahjond S. Garmestani,Craig R. Allen
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Environmental law envisions ecological systems as existing in an equilibrium state, reinforcing a rigid legal framework unable to absorb rapid environmental changes and innovations in sustainability. For the past four decades, "resilience theory," which embraces uncertainty and nonlinear dynamics in complex adaptive systems, has provided a robust, invaluable foundation for sound environmental management. Reforming American law to incorporate this knowledge is the key to sustainability. This volume features top legal and resilience scholars speaking on resilience theory and its legal applications to climate change, biodiversity, national parks, and water law.
Reporting Risk and Uncertainty
Author: James Painter
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Scientists and politicians are increasingly using the language of risk to describe the climate change challenge. Some researchers have argued that stressing the ‘risks’ posed by climate change rather than the ‘uncertainties’ can create a more helpful context for policy makers and a stronger response from the public. However, understanding the concepts of risk and uncertainty - and how to communicate them - is a hotly debated issue. In this book, James Painter analyses how the international media present these and other narratives surrounding climate change. He focuses on the coverage of reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and of the melting ice of the Arctic Sea, and includes six countries: Australia, France, India, Norway, the UK and the USA.
From Pre-Disciplinary to Post-Normal
Author: S. Turner
Category: Political Science
American Sociology has changed radically since 1945. This volume traces these changes to the present, with special emphasis on the feminization of sociology and the decline of the science ideal as well as the challenges sociology faces in the new environment for universities.
Monitoring, Challenges and Direction
Author: Emma Burns,Andrew Lowe,Nicole Thurgate,David Lindenmayer
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
This data-rich book demonstrates the value of existing national long-term ecological research in Australia for monitoring environmental change and biodiversity. Long-term ecological data are critical for informing trends in biodiversity and environmental change. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a major initiative of the Australian Government and one of its key areas of investment is to provide funding for a network of long-term ecological research plots around Australia (LTERN). LTERN researchers and other authors in this book have maintained monitoring sites, often for one or more decades, in an array of different ecosystems across the Australian continent – ranging from tropical rainforests, wet eucalypt forests and alpine regions through to rangelands and deserts. This book highlights some of the temporal changes in the environment that have occurred in the various systems in which dedicated field-based ecologists have worked. Many important trends and changes are documented and they often provide new insights that were previously poorly understood or unknown. These data are precisely the kinds of data so desperately needed to better quantify the temporal trajectories in the environment in Australia. By presenting trend patterns (and often also the associated data) the authors aim to catalyse governments and other organisations to better recognise the importance of long-term data collection and monitoring as a fundamental part of ecologically-effective and cost-effective management of the environment and biodiversity.
The Legacy of Charles Elton
Author: David M. Richardson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Invasion ecology is the study of the causes and consequences of the introduction of organisms to areas outside their native range. Interest in this field has exploded in the past few decades. Explaining why and how organisms are moved around the world, how and why some become established and invade, and how best to manage invasive species in the face of global change are all crucial issues that interest biogeographers, ecologists and environmental managers in all parts of the world. This book brings together the insights of more than 50 authors to examine the origins, foundations, current dimensions and potential trajectories of invasion ecology. It revisits key tenets of the foundations of invasion ecology, including contributions of pioneering naturalists of the 19th century, including Charles Darwin and British ecologist Charles Elton, whose 1958 monograph on invasive species is widely acknowledged as having focussed scientific attention on biological invasions.
The Politics of Collective Memory in Midcentury America
Author: Gary Alan Fine
Category: Social Science
Sticky Reputations focuses on reputational entrepreneurs and support groups shaping how we think of important figures, within a crucial period in American history – from the 1930s through the 1950s. Why are certain figures such as Adolf Hitler, Joe McCarthy, and Martin Luther King cemented into history unable to be challenged without reputational cost to the proposer of the alternative perspective? Why are the reputations of other political actors such as Harry Truman highly variable and changeable? Why, in the 1930s, was it widely believed that American Jews were linked to the Communist Party of America but by the 1950s this belief had largely vanished and was not longer a part of legitimate public discourse? This short, accessible book is ideal for use in undergraduate teaching in social movements, collective memory studies, political sociology, sociological social psychology, and other related courses.
Author: Reiner Grundmann,Nico Stehr
Category: Climatic changes
Author: Dirk Lanzerath,Minou Friele
Category: Business & Economics
Biodiversity may refer to the diversity of genes, species or ecosystems in general. These varying concepts of biodiversity occasionally lead to conflicts among researchers and policy makers, as each of them require a customized type of protection strategy. This book addresses the questions surrounding the merits of conserving an existing situation, evolutionary development or the intentional substitution of one genome, species or ecosystem for another. Any practical steps towards the protection of biodiversity demand a definition of that which is to be protected and, in turn, the motivations for protecting biodiversity. Is biodiversity a necessary model which is also useful, or does it carry intrinsic value? Debates like this are particularly complex when interested parties address it from different conceptual and moral perspectives. Comprised of three parts, each complemented by a short introductory paragraph, this collection presents a variety of approaches to this challenge. The chapters cover the perspectives of environmental scientists with expertise in evolutionary, environmental biology, systematic zoology and botany, as well as those of researchers with expertise in philosophy, ethics, politics, law and economics. This combination facilitates a truly interdisciplinary debate by highlighting hitherto unacknowledged implications that inform current academic and political debates on biodiversity and its protection. The book should be of interest to students and researchers of environment studies, biodiversity, environmental philosophy, ethics and management.
Grundlagen und Anwendungen zwischen qualitativer und quantitativer Diskursanalyse
Author: Matthias Lemke,Gregor Wiedemann
Category: Social Science
Die Analyse von Sprache ermöglicht Rückschlüsse auf Gesellschaft und Politik. Im Zeitalter digitaler Massenmedien liegt Sprache als maschinenlesbarer Text in einer Menge vor, die ohne Hilfsmittel nicht mehr angemessen zu bewältigen ist. Die maschinelle Auswertung von Textdaten kann in den Sozialwissenschaften, die Text bislang in der Regel qualitativ und weniger quantitativ, also sprachstatistisch, analysieren, wertvolle neue Erkenntnisse liefern. Vor diesem Hintergrund führt der Band in die Verwendung von Text Mining in den Sozialwissenschaften ein. Anhand exemplarischer Analysen eines Korpus von 3,5 Millionen Zeitungsartikeln zeigt er für konkrete Forschungsfragen, wie Text Mining angewandt werden kann.
Form und Funktion wissenschaftlicher Politikberatung in Deutschland
Author: Peter Weingart,Justus Lentsch
Category: Executive advisory bodies
Glacier Retreat, Science, and Society
Author: Ben Orlove,Ellen Wiegandt,Brian H. Luckman
Publisher: Univ of California Press
"Retreat of mountain glaciers ranks alongside sea level rise and extermination of species as one of the greatest threats posed by continued global warming. The authoritative picture painted in Darkening Peaks should help bring humanity to its senses and to spur the actions needed."—James E. Hansen, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies "This important and timely book elucidates how glacier retreat is affecting physical, biological, and human systems simultaneously. The authors' perspectives from mountain regions worldwide provide key insights at both global and local scales."—Cynthia Rosenzweig, Earth Institute, Columbia University "From an impressive range of disciplinary perspectives and geographic locations, Darkening Peaks provides a refreshing look at the real complexities involved with the causes and consequences of environmental change."—Roger A. Pielke, Jr., author of The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics "Glaciers play a major role in teaching us about our planet's past, and in warning us about its future. They inspire fear, awe, and fascination. Whatever your interest in glaciers, you will find this rich, broadly ranging volume exciting."—Jared Diamond, author of Guns, Germs, and Steel and Collapse "Darkening Peaks is a dazzling fusion of hard science, historical narrative, and cultural context that outlines social responses for coping with our changing environment."—Stephen H. Schneider, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change "Combining the latest research results from the social and natural sciences, Darkening Peaks succeeds in giving a timely and detailed account of the cultural perceptions, scientific observations, trends, impacts, and responses associated with glacial retreat. Highly recommended."—John Schellnhuber CBE, Chief Science Advisor to the German government and Director, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
Author: Joseph J. Ellis
Drawing from the newly catalogued Washington papers at the University of Virginia, the author paints a full portrait of Washington's life and career in the context of eighteenth-century America, richly detailing his private life and illustrating the ways in which it influenced his public persona.