The Human Use of Human Beings

Cybernetics and Society

Author: Norbert Wiener

Publisher: Perseus (for Hbg)

ISBN: 0306803208

Category: Science

Page: 199

View: 3076

Only a few books stand as landmarks in social and scientific upheaval. Norbert Wiener's classic is one in that small company. Founder of the science of cybernetics--the study of the relationship between computers and the human nervous system--Wiener was widely misunderstood as one who advocated the automation of human life. As this book reveals, his vision was much more complex and interesting. He hoped that machines would release people from relentless and repetitive drudgery in order to achieve more creative pursuits. At the same time he realized the danger of dehumanizing and displacement. His book examines the implications of cybernetics for education, law, language, science, technology, as he anticipates the enormous impact--in effect, a third industrial revolution--that the computer has had on our lives.

Dark Hero of the Information Age

In Search of Norbert Wiener, The Father of Cybernetics

Author: Flo Conway,Jim Siegelman

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0786735619

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 4305

Child prodigy and brilliant MIT mathematician, Norbert Wiener founded the revolutionary science of cybernetics and ignited the information-age explosion of computers, automation, and global telecommunications. His best-selling book, Cybernetics, catapulted him into the public spotlight, as did his chilling visions of the future and his ardent social activism.Based on a wealth of primary sources and exclusive access to Wiener's closest family members, friends, and colleagues, Dark Hero of the Information Age reveals this eccentric genius as an extraordinarily complex figure. No one interested in the intersection of technology and culture will want to miss this epic story of one of the twentieth century's most brilliant and colorful figures.

Red Star

The First Bolshevik Utopia

Author: Alexander Bogdanov

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 025301350X

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 533

"[A] surprisingly moving story." —The New Yorker "Bogdanov's novels reveal a great deal about their fascinating author, about his time and, ironically, ours, and about the genre of utopia as well as his contribution to it." —Slavic Review "Bogdanov's imaginative predictions for his utopia are both technological and social... Even more farsighted are [his] anxious forebodings about the limits and costs of the utopian future." —Science Fiction Studies "The contemporary reader will marvel at [Bogdanov's] foresight: nuclear fusion and propulsion, atomic weaponry and fallout, computers, blood transfusions, and (almost) unisexuality." —Choice A communist society on Mars, the Russian revolution, and class struggle on two planets is the subject of this arresting science fiction novel by Alexander Bogdanov (1873–1928), one of the early organizers and prophets of the Russian Bolshevik party. The red star is Mars, but it is also the dream set to paper of the society that could emerge on earth after the dual victory of the socialist and scientific-technical revolutions. While portraying a harmonious and rational socialist society, Bogdanov sketches out the problems that will face industrialized nations, whether socialist or capitalist.

Cybernetics

Second Edition

Author: Norbert Wiener

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781614275022

Category: Computers

Page: 234

View: 2698

2013 Reprint of 1961 Second Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. Acclaimed one of the "seminal books... comparable in ultimate importance to... Galileo or Malthus or Rousseau or Mill," "Cybernetics" was judged by twenty-seven historians, economists, educators, and philosophers to be one of those books published during the "past four decades," which may have a substantial impact on public thought and action in the years ahead." -- Saturday Review. Cybernetics was defined in the mid 20th century by Norbert Wiener as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine." Fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory, system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics), perceptual control theory, sociology, psychology (especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology), philosophy, architecture, and organizational theory. Contents: Part one: original edition - Newtonian and Bergsonian time - Groups and statistical mechanics - Time series, information, and communication - Feedback and oscillation - Computing machines and nervous system - Gestalt and universals - Cybernetics and psychopathology - Information, language, and society - Part two: supplement chapters - On learning and self - reproducing machines - Brain waves and self - organizing systems.

The Cybernetics Moment

Or Why We Call Our Age the Information Age

Author: Ronald R. Kline

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421416719

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 4720

Cybernetics—the science of communication and control as it applies to machines and to humans—originates from efforts during World War II to build automatic anti-aircraft systems. Following the war, this science extended beyond military needs to examine all systems that rely on information and feedback, from the level of the cell to that of society. In The Cybernetics Moment, Ronald R. Kline, a senior historian of technology, examines the intellectual and cultural history of cybernetics and information theory, whose language of "information," "feedback," and "control" transformed the idiom of the sciences, hastened the development of information technologies, and laid the conceptual foundation for what we now call the Information Age. Kline argues that, for about twenty years after 1950, the growth of cybernetics and information theory and ever-more-powerful computers produced a utopian information narrative—an enthusiasm for information science that influenced natural scientists, social scientists, engineers, humanists, policymakers, public intellectuals, and journalists, all of whom struggled to come to grips with new relationships between humans and intelligent machines. Kline traces the relationship between the invention of computers and communication systems and the rise, decline, and transformation of cybernetics by analyzing the lives and work of such notables as Norbert Wiener, Claude Shannon, Warren McCulloch, Margaret Mead, Gregory Bateson, and Herbert Simon. Ultimately, he reveals the crucial role played by the cybernetics moment—when cybernetics and information theory were seen as universal sciences—in setting the stage for our current preoccupation with information technologies.

Statistical Mechanics And The Physics Of Many-particle Model Systems

Author: Kuzemsky Alexander Leonidovich

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 981314565X

Category: Science

Page: 1260

View: 1686

The book is devoted to the study of the correlation effects in many-particle systems. It presents the advanced methods of quantum statistical mechanics (equilibrium and nonequilibrium), and shows their effectiveness and operational ability in applications to problems of quantum solid-state theory, quantum theory of magnetism and the kinetic theory. The book includes description of the fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis following the approach of N N Bogoliubov's school, including recent developments. It provides an overview that introduces the main notions of quantum many-particle physics with the emphasis on concepts and models. This book combines the features of textbook and research monograph. For many topics the aim is to start from the beginning and to guide the reader to the threshold of advanced researches. Many chapters include also additional information and discuss many complex research areas which are not often discussed in other places. The book is useful for established researchers to organize and present the advanced material disseminated in the literature. The book contains also an extensive bibliography. The book serves undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students, as well as researchers who have had prior experience with the subject matter at a more elementary level or have used other many-particle techniques.

Communication in Modern Social Ordering

History and Philosophy

Author: Kai Eriksson

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1441145796

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 5946

Communication in Modern Social Ordering investigates the modern history of communication in relation to the thinking of the political community in the United States. By illustrating the intertwining of the technological developments in communication methods and its community-building effects, the different representations of society and their political implications are examined against the development of communication systems from the telegraph, to the telephone, to computer networks. It was the telegraph that made communication a continual process, thus freeing it from the rhythmical motion of the postal service and from physical transportation in general, and provided both a model and a mechanism of control. Using the theories of both Foucault and Heidegger to provide a lens for new investigation, the author studies not the meanings of communication and its logic as such but rather the conditions and structures that allow meanings and logic to be formulated in the first place. The book offers an original combination of historical analysis with an ontological discussion of the evolution of telecommunications in the U.S. as a phenomenon of modern social ordering.

Ethical IT Innovation

A Value-Based System Design Approach

Author: Sarah Spiekermann

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482226367

Category: Computers

Page: 257

View: 8277

Explaining how ubiquitous computing is rapidly changing our private and professional lives, Ethical IT Innovation: A Value-Based System Design Approach stands at the intersection of computer science, philosophy, and management and integrates theories and frameworks from all three domains. The book explores the latest thinking on computer ethics, including the normative ethical theories currently shaping the debate over the good and bad consequences of technology. It begins by making the case as to why IT professionals, managers, and engineers must consider the ethical issues when designing IT systems, and then uses a recognized system development process model as the structural baseline for subsequent chapters. For each system development phase, the author discusses: the ethical issues that must be considered, who must consider them, and how that thought process can be most productive. In this way, an ‘Ethical SDLC’ (System Development Life Cycle) is created. The book presents an extensive case study that applies the "Ethical SDLC" to the example of privacy protection in RFID enabled environments. It explains how privacy can be built into systems and illustrates how ethical decisions can be consciously made at each stage of development. The final chapter revisits the old debate of engineers’ ethical accountability as well as the role of management. Explaining the normative theories of computer ethics, the book explores the ethical accountability of developers as well as stakeholders. It also provides questions at the end of each chapter that examine the ethical dimensions of the various development activities.

God and Golem, Inc

A Comment on Certain Points where Cybernetics Impinges on Religion

Author: Norbert Wiener

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262730112

Category: Philosophy

Page: 99

View: 3629

The new and rapidly growing field of communication sciences owes as much to Norbert Wiener as to any one man. He coined the word for it-- "cybernetics." In "God &; Golem, Inc.," the author concerned himself with major points in cybernetics which are relevant to religious issues. The first point he considers is that of the machine which learns. While learning is a property almost exclusively ascribed to the self-conscious living system, a computer now exists which not only can be programmed to play a game of checkers, but one which can "learn" from its past experience and improve on its own game. For a time, the machine was able to beat its inventor at checkers. "It did win, " writes the author, "and it did learn to win; "and the method of its learning was no different in principle from that of the human being who learns to play checkers." A second point concerns machines which have the capacity to reproduce themselves. It is our commonly held belief that God made man in his own image. The propagation of the race may also be interpreted as a function in which one living being makes another in its own image. But the author demonstrates that man has made machines which are "very well able to make other machines in their own image, " and these machine images are not merely "pictorial" representations but "operative" images. Can we then say: God is to Golem as man is to Machines? in Jewish legend, "golem" is an embryo Adam, shapeless and not fully created, hence a monster, an automation. The third point considered is that of the relation between man and machine. The concern here is ethical. "render unto man the things which are man's andunto the computer the things which are the computer's, " warns the author. In this section of the book, Dr. Wiener considers systems involving elements of man "and" machine. The book is written for the intellectually alert public and does not involve any highly technical knowledge. It is based on lectures given at Yale, at the Socié té Philosophique de Royaumont, and elsewhere.

Dark Hero of the Information Age

In Search of Norbert Wiener, The Father of Cybernetics

Author: Flo Conway,Jim Siegelman

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0786735619

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 5493

Child prodigy and brilliant MIT mathematician, Norbert Wiener founded the revolutionary science of cybernetics and ignited the information-age explosion of computers, automation, and global telecommunications. His best-selling book, Cybernetics, catapulted him into the public spotlight, as did his chilling visions of the future and his ardent social activism.Based on a wealth of primary sources and exclusive access to Wiener's closest family members, friends, and colleagues, Dark Hero of the Information Age reveals this eccentric genius as an extraordinarily complex figure. No one interested in the intersection of technology and culture will want to miss this epic story of one of the twentieth century's most brilliant and colorful figures.

Invention

The Care and Feeding of Ideas

Author: Norbert Wiener

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262731119

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 159

View: 8979

An insider's view of the history of discovery and invention.

The Modern Invention of Information

Discourse, History, and Power

Author: Ronald E Day

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 9780809328482

Category: History

Page: 139

View: 8509

In The Modern Invention of Information: Discourse, History, and Power, Ronald E. Day provides a historically informed critical analysis of the concept and politics of information. Analyzing texts in Europe and the United States, his critical reading method goes beyond traditional historiographical readings of communication and information by engaging specific historical texts in terms of their attempts to construct and reshape history. After laying the groundwork and justifying his method of close reading for this study, Day examines the texts of two pre–World War II documentalists, Paul Otlet and Suzanne Briet. Through the work of Otlet and Briet, Day shows how documentation and information were associated with concepts of cultural progress. Day also discusses the social expansion of the conduit metaphor in the works of Warren Weaver and Norbert Wiener. He then shows how the work of contemporary French multimedia theorist Pierre Lévy refracts the earlier philosophical writings of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari through the prism of the capitalist understanding of the “virtual society.” Turning back to the pre–World War II period, Day examines two critics of the information society: Martin Heidegger and Walter Benjamin. He explains Heidegger’s philosophical critique of the information culture’s model of language and truth as well as Benjamin’s aesthetic and historical critique of mass information and communication. Day concludes by contemplating the relation of critical theory and information, particularly in regard to the information culture’s transformation of history, historiography, and historicity into positive categories of assumed and represented knowledge.

Cybernetic Revolutionaries

Technology and Politics in Allende's Chile

Author: Eden Medina

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262525968

Category: Computers

Page: 344

View: 7297

A historical study of Chile's twin experiments with cybernetics and socialism, and what they tell us about the relationship of technology and politics.

The Art of Scientific Investigation

Author: W.I.B. Beveridge

Publisher: Edizioni Savine

ISBN: 8899914354

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8617

Elaborate apparatus plays an important part in the science of to-day, but I sometimes wonder if we are not inclined to forget that the most important instrument in research must always be the mind of man. It is true that much time and effort is devoted to training and equipping the scientist's mind, but little attention is paid to the technicalities of making the best use of it. There is no satisfactory book which systematises the knowledge available on the practice and mental skills—the art—of scientific investigation. This lack has prompted me to write a book to serve as an introduction to research. My small contribution to the literature of a complex and difficult topic is meant in the first place for the student about to engage in research, but I hope that it may also interest a wider audience. Since my own experience of research has been acquired in the study of infectious diseases, I have written primarily for the student of that field. But nearly all the book is equally applicable to any other branch of experimental biology and much of it to any branch of science. – (Cambridge, 1957. W.I.B. Beveridge)

Debating Humanity

Towards a Philosophical Sociology

Author: Daniel Chernilo

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107129338

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 548

Debating Humanity explores sociological and philosophical efforts to delineate key features of humanity that identify us as members of the human species. After challenging the normative contradictions of contemporary posthumanism, this book goes back to the foundational debate on humanism between Jean-Paul Sartre and Martin Heidegger in the 1940s and then re-assesses the implicit and explicit anthropological arguments put forward by seven leading postwar theorists: self-transcendence (Hannah Arendt), adaptation (Talcott Parsons), responsibility (Hans Jonas), language (Jrgen Habermas), strong evaluations (Charles Taylor), reflexivity (Margaret Archer) and reproduction of life (Luc Boltanski). Genuinely interdisciplinary and boldly argued, Daniel Chernilo has crafted a novel philosophical sociology that defends a universalistic principle of humanity as vital to any adequate understanding of social life.

Alice in Quantumland

Author: Robert Gilmore

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387914954

Category: Computers

Page: 184

View: 8882

Hurry, hurry, hurry! Step right up! Welcome to Quantumland! Fall into an atom and dodge electrons! See the amazing Emperor think his clothes into existence! Dance with the Three Quark Brothers at the Particle MASSquerade! An you need is a sense of adventure-no mathematics required! Alice in Quantumland is Robert Gilmore's amazing fantasy ride through the landscape of quantum physics-the interrelated group of theories on the nature of subatomic particles that modern scientists use to, explain the physical universe. Through the allegory of Alice's adventures and encounters, Gilmore makes the essential features of the quantum world clear and accessible. It is a thrilling introduction to some essential, often difficult-to-grasp concepts about the world we inhabit. You've heard about Alice's adventures through the looking glass. Well, Alice is about to embark on another amazing journey. She's going to shrink again-to the size of a nuclear particle-but she's not going down the rabbit hole. She's headed for Quantumland. And what is Quantumland? Think of it as an intellectual amusement park smaller than an atom, where every ride, game, and attraction demonstrates a different aspect of quantum mechanics-the often baffling, always intriguing theoretical framework that seems to provide the most accurate explanations of the way things arc in the physical world. In this masterful blend of fantasy and science, Robert Gilmore uses the allegory of Alice's travels to make the uncertainty principle, Pauli's principle, high-energy particle physics, and other crucial parts of quantum theory accessible and exciting. Once in Quantumland, Alice experiences various quantum effects (at one point going backward in time and running into herself). She also meets a number of strange characters who help her (and you) understand the nature of the quantum world. There is: * the Uncertain Accountant, whose attempts to balance the books at the Heisenberg Energy Bank arc being flummoxed by energy fluctuations; * the State Agent, Who shows Alice how atoms can bc two places at once; * the Three Quark Brothers, who take Alice around the floor in one of the Castle Rutherford's famous Collider Dances; * the Emperor, whose conscious mind makes his new clothes real; and more. Cleverly conceived and written, and delightfully illustrated, Alice in Quantumland brings some crucial yet often elusive scientific concepts within reach of the everyday reader. You don't need to know much about mathematics to follow our heroine's escapades. There is only one equation in the entire book! All you need is a taste for intellectual adventure and healthy curiosity about the world around us.

Upstream

Selected Essays

Author: Mary Oliver

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0698405625

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 192

View: 8612

One of O, The Oprah Magazine’s Ten Best Books of the Year! The New York Times bestselling collection of essays from beloved poet, Mary Oliver. “In the beginning I was so young and such a stranger to myself I hardly existed. I had to go out into the world and see it and hear it and react to it, before I knew at all who I was, what I was, what I wanted to be.” So begins Upstream, a collection of essays in which revered poet Mary Oliver reflects on her willingness, as a young child and as an adult, to lose herself within the beauty and mysteries of both the natural world and the world of literature. Emphasizing the significance of her childhood “friend” Walt Whitman, through whose work she first understood that a poem is a temple, “a place to enter, and in which to feel,” and who encouraged her to vanish into the world of her writing, Oliver meditates on the forces that allowed her to create a life for herself out of work and love. As she writes, “I could not be a poet without the natural world. Someone else could. But not me. For me the door to the woods is the door to the temple.” Upstream follows Oliver as she contemplates the pleasure of artistic labor, her boundless curiosity for the flora and fauna that surround her, and the responsibility she has inherited from Shelley, Wordsworth, Emerson, Poe, and Frost, the great thinkers and writers of the past, to live thoughtfully, intelligently, and to observe with passion. Throughout this collection, Oliver positions not just herself upstream but us as well as she encourages us all to keep moving, to lose ourselves in the awe of the unknown, and to give power and time to the creative and whimsical urges that live within us.

On Being Moved

From Mirror Neurons to Empathy

Author: Stein Bråten

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027252043

Category: Medical

Page: 333

View: 5189

In this collective volume the origins, neurosocial support, and therapeutic implications of (pre)verbal intersubjectivity are examined with a focus on implications of the discovery of mirror neurons. Entailing a paradigmatic revolution in the intersection of developmental, social and neural sciences, two radical turnabouts are entailed. First, no longer can be upheld as valid Cartesian and Leibnizian assumptions about monadic subjects with disembodied minds without windows to each other except as mediated by culture. Supported by a mirror system, specified in this volume by some of the discoverers, modes of participant perception have now been identified which entail embodied simulation and co-movements with others in felt immediacy. Second, no longer can be retained the Piagetian attribution of infant egocentricity. Pioneers who have broken new research grounds in the study of newborns, protoconversation, and early speech perception document in the present volume infant capacity for interpersonal communion, empathic identification, and learning by altercentric participation. Pertinent new findings and results are presented on these topics: (i) Origins and multiple layers of intersubjectivity and empathy (ii) Neurosocial support of (pre)verbal intersubjectivity, participant perception, and simulation of mind (iii) From preverbal sharing and early speech perception to meaning acquisition and verbal intersubjectivity (iv) New windows on other-centred movements and moments of meeting in therapy and intervention. (Series B)

The Mechanization of the Mind

On the Origins of Cognitive Science

Author: Jean Pierre Dupuy

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780691025742

Category: Philosophy

Page: 210

View: 7336

The development of a scientific theory of mind was thus significantly delayed."--BOOK JACKET.

Werner's Nomenclature of Colours

Adapted to Zoology, Botany, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Anatomy and the Arts

Author: PATRICK. SYME

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780565094454

Category:

Page: 78

View: 3396