The I.R.A. at War, 1916-1923

Author: Peter Hart

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199252580

Category: History

Page: 274

View: 6414

Between 1916 and 1923, Ireland experienced rebellion and mass mobilization, guerrilla and civil war, partition and ethnic conflict, and the transfer of power from British to Irish governments. The essays in The I.R.A. at War propose a new history of this Irish revolution: one that encompasses the whole of the island as well as Britain, all of the violence and its consequences, and the entire period from the Easter Rising to the end of the Civil War. When did the revolution start and when did it end? Why was it so violent and why were some areas so much worse than others? Why did the I.R.A. mount a terror campaign in England and Scotland but refuse to assassinate British politicians? Where did it get its guns? Was it democratic? What kind of people became guerrillas? What kind of people did they kill? Were Protestants ethnically cleansed from southern Ireland? Did a pogrom take place against Belfast Catholics? These and other questions are addressed using extensive new data on those involved and their actions, including the first complete figures for victims of the revolution. These events have never been numbered among the world's great revolutions, but in fact Irish republicans were global pioneers. Long before Mao or Tito, Sinn Fein and the Irish Republican Army were the first to use a popular political front to build a parallel underground state coupled with sophisticated guerrilla and international propaganda and fund-raising campaigns. Ireland'sis also perhaps the best documented revolution in modern history, so that almost any question can be answered, from who joined the I.R.A. to who ordered the assassination of Sir Henry Wilson. The intimacy and precision with which we are able to reconstruct and analyse what happened make this a key site for understanding not just Irish, but world, history.

The I.R.A. and Its Enemies

Violence and Community in Cork, 1916-1923

Author: Peter Hart

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198208068

Category: History

Page: 350

View: 1756

What is it like to be in the I.R.A. - or at their mercy? This fascinating study explores the lives and deaths of the enemies and victims of the County Cork I.R.A. between 1916 and 1923 - the most powerful and deadly branch of the I.R.A. during one of the most turbulent periods in twentieth-century Ireland. These years saw the breakdown of the British legal system and police authority, the rise of republican violence, and the escalation of the conflict into a full-scale guerilla war, leading to a wave of riots, ambushes, lootings, and reprisal killings, with civilians forming the majority of victims in this unacknowledged civil war. Religion may have provided the starting point for the conflict, but class prejudice, patriotism, and personal grudges all fuelled the development and continuation of widespread violence. Using an unprecedented range of sources - many of them only recently made public - Peter Hart explores the motivation behind such activity. His conclusions not only reveal a hidden episode of Ireland's troubled past but provide valuable insights into the operation of similar terrorist groups today.

The Irish Revolution and Its Aftermath, 1916-1923

Years of Revolt

Author: Francis J. Costello

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780716526339

Category: History

Page: 452

View: 5441

The Irish Revolution at the beginning of the twentieth century spawned the creation of the modern Irish state. This is the first full length analysis to offer a comprehensive framework of that revolution in its totality, taking into account the broad range of social, economic and political developments as well as the IRA's campaign of guerrilla warfare and the British response to it. Drawing on such previously unpublished sources as the Irish Department of Defense's Military History Bureau, the author paints a broad picture of the people and the key events in the Irish struggle for independence. The book also breaks new ground in presenting much of the behind the scenes debate within the British Government in the prosecution of its policies in response to the revolt in Ireland. British official frustration provoked by the acceptance of Dáil Eireann by the majority of the Irish people and the independent institutions it sought to set in place is also explicitly chronicled. New light is shed on the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations as well as on the divisions within Irish nationalism before and indeed afterwards which culminated in the Irish Civil War. The role of external forces including public opinion in the United States and British competing obligations at home and abroad are also covered. Considerable attention is given to the development of democratic government in the fledgling Irish Free State in the midst of domestic upheaval, and to the broader effort at nation building which followed after the Civil War.

The Republic

The Fight for Irish Independence, 1918-1923

Author: Charles Townshend

Publisher: Allen Lane

ISBN: 9780713999839

Category: Ireland

Page: 536

View: 4660

The protracted, terrible fight for independence pitted the Irish against the British, and the Irish against themselves. It was both a physical battle of shocking violence against a regime increasingly seen as alien and unacceptable, and an intellectual battle for a new sort of country. The damage done, the betrayals and grim compromises put the new nation into a state of trauma for at least a generation, but at a high cost the struggle ended: a new republic was born. Charles Townshend's Easter 1916 opened up the astonishing events around the Rising for a new generation, and in The Republic he deals, with the same unflinchingly wish to get to the truth behind the legend, with the most critical years in Ireland's history. There has been a great temptation to view these years through the prisms of martyrdom, stereotypes and simple good-and-evil. The picture painted by Townshend is far more nuanced and sceptical - but also never loses sight of the ordinary forms of heroism performed by Irish men and women trapped in extraordinary times.

Michael's War

A Story of the Irish Republican Army

Author: Daniel Ford

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 0595297331

Category: Fiction

Page: 206

View: 3500

When he set out on his road to rebellion, Michael Ford only wanted to keep the foxes out of Hannon's Glen. But before he was done, he found himself exchanging rifle fire with the British army, with an unlikely ally in the form of Annabel Love, the squire's daughter. "Michael's War" tracks the course of revolution and civil war that rended Ireland from 1916 to 1923. It ends with its hero escaping to America-but what sweetheart will he ask to join him in the new world?

Terror in Ireland, 1916-1923

Author: David Patrick Brian Fitzpatrick

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781843511991

Category: Ireland

Page: 248

View: 6888

This collection of essays illuminates the origins, forms and consequences of terror, whether perpetrated by republicans or government forces.

The Lost Revolution

The Story of the Official IRA and the Workers' Party

Author: Brian Hanley,Scott Millar

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141935014

Category: History

Page: 688

View: 783

The story of contemporary Ireland is inseparable from the story of the official republican movement, a story told here for the first time - from the clash between Catholic nationalist and socialist republicanism in the 1960s and '70s through the Workers' Party's eventual rejection of irredentism. A roll-call of influential personalities in the fields of politics, trade unionism and media - many still operating at the highest levels of Irish public life - passed though the ranks of this secretive movement, which never achieved its objectives but had a lasting influence on the landscape of Irish politics. 'A vibrant, balanced narrative' Diarmaid Ferriter, Irish Times Books of the Year 'An indispensable handbook' Maurice Hayes, Irish Times 'Hugely impressive' Irish Mail on Sunday 'Excellent' Sunday Business Post

The IRA in Britain, 1919-1923

'in the Heart of Enemy Lines'

Author: Gerard Noonan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1781380260

Category: History

Page: 371

View: 360

Based on archival sources and memoirs, traces the history of the Irish Volunteers in Britain beginning with their establishment in 1914, highlighting the role played by participants outside of Ireland during the revolution.

The Irish War of Independence

Author: Michael Hopkinson

Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP

ISBN: 9780773528406

Category: History

Page: 274

View: 5063

The Irish War of Independence was a sporadic guerrilla campaign taht lasted from January 1919 until July 1921. Michael Hopkinson makes full use of the recently opened files of the Bureau of Military Archives in Dublin, which contain valuable first-hand contemporary accounts of the war, meticulously piecing together the many disparate local actions to create a coherent narrative. He stresses the importance of local and contingent issues over the idea of a master plan developed by the Dublin-based republican leadership. The war was prosecuted ruthlessly by the Irish Republican Army which, paralleling the political efforts of Sinn Fein, hoped to break Britain's will to rule Ireland and create an independent Irish republic. The British retaliated by introducing two new irregular forces into Ireland, the Black and Tans and the Auxiliaries, Fighting took place principally in counties Cork, Limerick, Tipperary, Monaghan, Armagh, Clare, Kerry, and Longford. It was sporadic but vicious, with fewer than 2,000 IRA volunteers facing over 50,000 crown forces. The IRA depended upon energetic local leaders - where there were none, there was little fighting.

Defying the Ira?

Author: Brian Hughes

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1781383545

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 4760

This book examines the grass-roots relationship between the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the civilian population during the Irish Revolution. It is primarily concerned with the attempts of the militant revolutionaries to discourage, stifle, and punish dissent among the local populations in which they operated, and the actions or inactions by which dissent was expressed or implied. Focusing on the period of guerilla war against British rule from c. 1917 to 1922, it uncovers the acts of 'everyday' violence, threat, and harm that characterized much of the revolutionary activity of this period. Moving away from the ambushes and assassinations that have dominated much of the discourse on the revolution, the book explores low-level violent and non-violent agitation in the Irish town or parish. The opening chapter treats the IRA's challenge to the British state through the campaign against servants of the Crown - policemen, magistrates, civil servants, and others - and IRA participation in local government and the republican counter-state. The book then explores the nature of civilian defiance and IRA punishment in communities across the island before turning its attention specifically to the year that followed the 'Truce' of July 1921. This study argues that civilians rarely operated at either extreme of a spectrum of support but, rather, in a large and fluid middle ground. Behaviour was rooted in local circumstances, and influenced by local fears, suspicions, and rivalries. IRA punishment was similarly dictated by community conditions and usually suited to the nature of the perceived defiance. Overall, violence and intimidation in Ireland was persistent, but, by some contemporary standards, relatively restrained.

Ernie O'Malley

Author: Richard English

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198205953

Category: History

Page: 267

View: 8215

Ernie O'Malley was a leader in the 1916-1923 Revolution in Ìreland, and a contemporary of Michael Collins and Eamon de Valera. This biography draws heavily on previously unseen archival material, and should be of interest to those studying modern Ìrish politics and the history of the ÌRA.

The Resurrection of Ireland

The Sinn Féin Party, 1916–1923

Author: Michael Laffan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139426299

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 1123

Between 1916 and 1923 Ireland experienced a political, as well as a military revolution. This book examines how, after the Easter Rising of 1916, radical revolutionaries formed a precarious coalition with (relatively) moderate politicians, and offers a sustained analysis of the political organisation of Irish republicanism during a crucial period. The new Sinn Féin party routed its enemies, co-operated uneasily with the underground Irish government, which it had helped to create, and achieved most of its objectives before disintegrating in 1922. Its rapid collapse should not distract from its achievements - in particular its role in 'democratising' the Irish revolution. Its successors have dominated the political life of independent Ireland. The book studies in detail the party's membership and ideology, and also its often tense relationship with the Irish Republican Army. A final chapter examines the fluctuating careers of the later Sinn Féin parties throughout the rest of the twentieth century.

The IRA in Britain, 1919-1923

'In the Heart of Enemy Lines'

Author: Gerard Noonan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1781385890

Category: History

Page: 385

View: 5950

Between 1919 and 1923, Ireland was engulfed by violence as the Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought a guerrilla campaign against the British state and later fellow Irishmen and women in pursuit of an Irish Republic. Police barracks and government offices were attacked and burned, soldiers and policemen were killed and the economic and social life of the country was dislocated. Britain itself was a theatre in the war too. 'In the heart of enemy lines', as one IRA leader put it, cities such as London, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Glasgow and their environs saw the establishment of IRA companies, Irish Republican Brotherhood circles, Cumann na mBan branches and Na Fianna Éireann troops. Composed of Irish emigrants and the descendants of emigrants, these organizations worked to help their comrades across the Irish Sea. Their most important activity was gunrunning, acquiring and smuggling weapons to Ireland. In November 1920, setting fire to warehouses and timber yards in Liverpool, they launched a campaign of violence. Meanwhile, mass-membership organizations such as the Irish Self-Determination League of Great Britain and Sinn Féin sought to persuade the British public of Ireland's right to independence. Republican leaders such as Michael Collins, Rory O'Connor and Liam Mellows took a keen interest in these exploits. Making extensive use of archival sources and memoirs, The IRA in Britain is the first book to study this little known aspect of the Irish Revolutionary period. Tracing the history of the Irish Volunteers in Britain from their establishment in 1914 and participation in the Easter Rising two years later, through the weapons' smuggling activities and violent operations of the War of Independence to the bitter divisions of the Civil War and the response of the authorities, The IRA in Britain highlights the important role played by those outside of Ireland in the Revolution.

Atlas of the Irish Revolution

Atlas of the Irish Revolution

Author: John Crowley,Donal Ó Drisceoil,Mike Murphy

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9781479834280

Category: History

Page: 750

View: 5329

The Atlas of the Irish Revolution is a definitive resource that brings to life this pivotal moment in Irish history and nation-building. Published to coincide with the centenary of the Easter Rising, this comprehensive and visually compelling volume brings together all of the current research on the revolutionary period, with contributions from leading scholars from around the world and from many disciplines. A chronological and thematically organized treatment of the period serves as the core of the Atlas, enhanced by over 400 color illustrations, maps and photographs. This academic tour de force illuminates the effects of the Revolution on Irish culture and politics, both past and present, and animates the period for anyone with a connection to or interest in Irish history.

Irish Freedom

A History of Nationalism in Ireland

Author: Richard English

Publisher: Pan Macmillan

ISBN: 0330475827

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 4804

Richard English's brilliant new book, now available in paperback, is a compelling narrative history of Irish nationalism, in which events are not merely recounted but analysed. Full of rich detail, drawn from years of original research and also from the extensive specialist literature on the subject, it offers explanations of why Irish nationalists have believed and acted as they have, why their ideas and strategies have changed over time, and what effect Irish nationalism has had in shaping modern Ireland. It takes us from the Ulster Plantation to Home Rule, from the Famine of 1847 to the Hunger Strikes of the 1970s, from Parnell to Pearse, from Wolfe Tone to Gerry Adams, from the bitter struggle of the Civil War to the uneasy peace of the early twenty-first century. Is it imaginable that Ireland might – as some have suggested – be about to enter a post-nationalist period? Or will Irish nationalism remain a defining force on the island in future years? 'a courageous and successful attempt to synthesise the entire story between two covers for the neophyte and for the exhausted specialist alike' Tom Garvin, Irish Times

Tom Barry

IRA Freedom Fighter

Author: Meda Ryan

Publisher: Mercier PressLtd

ISBN: 9781856354806

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 478

View: 7836

Controversial biography of this ruthless Republican activist.

Frank Aiken's War

The Irish Revolution, 1916-23

Author: Matthew Lewis

Publisher: Univ College Dublin Press

ISBN: 9781906359829

Category: History

Page: 243

View: 5453

Drawing on a wide variety of original archival sources, this book blends elements of biography and local study to offer both the first exhaustive account of Aiken's role in the conflict, and the first in-depth study of the broader context of republican politics and violence in Ulster in which he played such a pivotal role. This book creates a detailed map of Aiken's formative years, exploring the early movements of the man which would place him at the forefront of Irish and international Free State politics.--Provided by publisher

Mick

The Real Michael Collins

Author: Peter Hart

Publisher: Penguin Paperbacks

ISBN: 9780143038542

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 485

View: 3119

A behind-the-persona exploration of the Irish political leader's life discusses such topics as his role in the Easter Rising, organization of the I.R.A., and running of the nation's first independent government, in an account that also traces his troubled legacy and his pre-revolutionary life. Reprint. 25,000 first printing.

A Nation and Not a Rabble: The Irish Revolution 1913-1923

Author: Diarmaid Ferriter

Publisher: The Overlook Press

ISBN: 1468315412

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 1979

“An excellent, scholarly” (Library Journal) examination of the Irish revolutionary period from 1913-1923 Renowned Irish historian Diarmaid Ferriter presents a fresh look at the Irish revolutionary period from 1913-1923, drawing from newly available historical sources as well as the testimonies of the people who lived and fought through this extraordinary period. Ferriter highlights the gulf between rhetoric and reality in politics and violence, the role of women, the battle for material survival, the impact of key Irish unionist and republican leaders, as well as conflicts over health, land, religion, law and order, and welfare.

Vivid Faces: The Revolutionary Generation in Ireland, 1890-1923

The Revolutionary Generation in Ireland, 1890–1923

Author: R. F. Foster

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393245926

Category: History

Page: 480

View: 9994

A masterful history of Ireland’s Easter Rising told through the lives of ordinary people who forged a revolutionary generation. On Easter Monday, 1916, Irish rebels poured into Dublin’s streets to proclaim an independent republic. Ireland’s long struggle for self-government had suddenly become a radical and bloody fight for independence from Great Britain. Irish nationalists mounted a week-long insurrection, occupying public buildings and creating mayhem before the British army regained control. The Easter Rising provided the spark for the Irish revolution, a turning point in the violent history of Irish independence. In this highly original history, acclaimed scholar R. F. Foster explores the human dimension of this pivotal event. He focuses on the ordinary men and women, Yeats’s “vivid faces,” who rose “from counter or desk among grey / Eighteenth-century houses” and took to the streets. A generation made, not born, they rejected the inherited ways of the Church, their bourgeois families, and British rule. They found inspiration in the ideals of socialism and feminism, in new approaches to love, art, and belief. Drawing on fresh sources, including personal letters and diaries, Foster summons his characters to life. We meet Rosamond Jacob, who escaped provincial Waterford for bustling Dublin. On a jaunt through the city she might visit a modern art gallery, buy cigarettes, or read a radical feminist newspaper. She could practice the Irish language, attend a lecture on Freud, or flirt with a man who would later be executed for his radical activity. These became the roots of a rich life of activism in Irish and women’s causes. Vivid Faces shows how Rosamond and her peers were galvanized to action by a vertiginous sense of transformation: as one confided to his diary, “I am changing and things around me change.” Politics had fused with the intimacies of love and belief, making the Rising an event not only of the streets but also of the hearts and minds of a generation.