The Impact of Health Insurance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Author: Maria-Luisa Escobar,Charles C. Griffin,R. Paul Shaw

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815705611

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 6817

Over the past twenty years, many low- and middle-income countries have experimented with health insurance options. While their plans have varied widely in scale and ambition, their goals are the same: to make health services more affordable through the use of public subsidies while also moving care providers partially or fully into competitive markets. Colombia embarked in 1993 on a fifteen-year effort to cover its entire population with insurance, in combination with greater freedom to choose among providers. A decade later Mexico followed suit with a program tailored to its federal system. Several African nations have introduced new programs in the past decade, and many are testing options for reform. For the past twenty years, Eastern Europe has been shifting from government-run care to insurance-based competitive systems, and both China and India have experimental programs to expand coverage. These nations are betting that insurance-based health care financing can increase the accessibility of services, increase providers' productivity, and change the population's health care use patterns, mirroring the development of health systems in most OECD countries. Until now, however, we have known little about the actual effects of these dramatic policy changes. Understanding the impact of health insurance–based care is key to the public policy debate of whether to extend insurance to low-income populations—and if so, how to do it—or to serve them through other means. Using recent household data, this book presents evidence of the impact of insurance programs in China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ghana, Indonesia, Namibia, and Peru. The contributors also discuss potential design improvements that could increase impact. They provide innovative insights on improving the evaluation of health insurance reforms and on building a robust knowledge base to guide policy as other countries tackle the health insurance challenge.

Impact of Health Insurance in Low- and Middle-income Countries

Author: Maria-Luisa Escobar,Charles C. Griffin,R. Paul Shaw

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815705468

Category: Social Science

Page: 221

View: 3992

Over the past twenty years, many low- and middle-income countries have experimented with health insurance options. While their plans have varied widely in scale and ambition, their goals are the same: to make health services more affordable through the use of public subsidies while also moving care providers partially or fully into competitive markets. Until now, however, we have known little about the actual effects of these dramatic policy changes. Understanding the impact of health insurance-based care is key to the public policy debate of whether to extend insurance to low-income populationsand if so, how to do itor to serve them through other means.

Private Voluntary Health Insurance in Development

Friend Or Foe?

Author: Alexander S. Preker,Richard M. Scheffler,Mark C. Bassett

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821366203

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 424

View: 2225

Private voluntary health insurance already plays an important role in the health sector of many low and middle income countries. The book reviews the context under which private insurance could contribute to an improvement in the financial sustainability of the health sector, financial protection against the costs of illness, household income smoothing, access to care, and market productivity. This volume is the third in aseries of in-depth reviews of the role of health care financing in providing access for low-income populations to needed healthcare, protecting them from the impoverishing effects of illness, and addressing the important issues of social exclusion in government financed programs.

Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Author: N.A

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0123756790

Category: Medical

Page: 1664

View: 1244

The Encyclopedia of Health Economics offers students, researchers and policymakers objective and detailed empirical analysis and clear reviews of current theories and polices. It helps practitioners such as health care managers and planners by providing accessible overviews into the broad field of health economics, including the economics of designing health service finance and delivery and the economics of public and population health. This encyclopedia provides an organized overview of this diverse field, providing one trusted source for up-to-date research and analysis of this highly charged and fast-moving subject area. Features research-driven articles that are objective, better-crafted, and more detailed than is currently available in journals and handbooks Combines insights and scholarship across the breadth of health economics, where theory and empirical work increasingly come from non-economists Provides overviews of key policies, theories and programs in easy-to-understand language

Social Health Insurance for Developing Nations

Author: R. Paul Shaw

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821369504

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 172

View: 1918

Specialist groups have often advised health ministers and other decision makers in developing countries on the use of social health insurance (SHI) as a way of mobilizing revenue for health, reforming health sector performance, and providing universal coverage. This book reviews the specific design and implementation challenges facing SHI in low- and middle-income countries and presents case studies on Ghana, Kenya, Philippines, Colombia, and Thailand.

Youth Employment in Sierra Leone

Sustainable Livelihood Opportunities in a Post-conflict Setting

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821379089

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 182

View: 1911

Creating job opportunities for a large and growing number of young people is a key development challenge for the government of Sierra Leone. Analyzing the supply and demand sides of the labor market, this book asseses the challenges and options for improving sustainable livelihood opportunities for youth in post-conflict Sierra Leone.

What's In, What's Out

Designing Benefits for Universal Health Coverage

Author: Amanda Glassman,Ursula Giedion,Peter C. Smith

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 1944691057

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 5998

Vaccinate children against deadly pneumococcal disease, or pay for cardiac patients to undergo lifesaving surgery? Cover the costs of dialysis for kidney patients, or channel the money toward preventing the conditions that lead to renal failure in the first place? Policymakers dealing with the realities of limited health care budgets face tough decisions like these regularly. And for many individuals, their personal health care choices are equally stark: paying for medical treatment could push them into poverty. Many low- and middle-income countries now aspire to universal health coverage, where governments ensure that all people have access to the quality health services they need without risk of impoverishment. But for universal health coverage to become reality, the health services offered must be consistent with the funds available—and this implies tough everyday choices for policymakers that could be the difference between life and death for those affected by any given condition or disease. The situation is particularly acute in low- and middle income countries where public spending on health is on the rise but still extremely low, and where demand for expanded services is growing rapidly. What’s In, What’s Out: Designing Benefits for Universal Health Coverage argues that the creation of an explicit health benefits plan—a defined list of services that are and are not available—is an essential element in creating a sustainable system of universal health coverage. With contributions from leading health economists and policy experts, the book considers the many dimensions of governance, institutions, methods, political economy, and ethics that are needed to decide what’s in and what’s out in a way that is fair, evidence-based, and sustainable over time.

Health Financing for Poor People

Resource Mobilization and Risk Sharing

Author: Alexander S. Preker,Guy Carrin

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821355252

Category: Medical

Page: 446

View: 7168

One of the most urgent development challenges facing many low and middle income countries is the need for adequate financing systems to pay for health care provision to the estimated 1.3 billion impoverished people living in rural areas or working in the informal sector in urban areas. This publication considers ways of improving the financing of health care at low income levels, as part of a global strategy for increased investment in health and poverty reduction. Topics discussed include: global and regional trends in healthcare financing; strengths and weaknesses of community-based health financing, and experiences in Asia and Africa; country case studies using household survey analysis from Senegal, Rwanda, India and Thailand; deficit financing; and the impact of risk sharing on achieving health system goals.

Going Universal

How 24 Developing Countries are Implementing Universal Health Coverage from the Bottom Up

Author: Daniel Cotlear,Somil Nagpal,Owen Smith,Ajay Tandon,Rafael Cortez

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 146480611X

Category: Medical

Page: 286

View: 5777

This book is about 24 developing countries that have embarked on the journey towards universal health coverage (UHC) following a bottom-up approach, with a special focus on the poor and vulnerable, through a systematic data collection that provides practical insights to policymakers and practitioners. Each of the UHC programs analyzed in this book is seeking to overcome the legacy of inequality by tackling both a “financing gap†? and a “provision gap†?: the financing gap (or lower per capita spending on the poor) by spending additional resources in a pro-poor way; the provision gap (or underperformance of service delivery for the poor) by expanding supply and changing incentives in a variety of ways. The prevailing view seems to indicate that UHC require not just more money, but also a focus on changing the rules of the game for spending health system resources. The book does not attempt to identify best practices, but rather aims to help policy makers understand the options they face, and help develop a new operational research agenda. The main chapters are focused on providing a granular understanding of policy design, while the appendixes offer a systematic review of the literature attempting to evaluate UHC program impact on access to services, on financial protection, and on health outcomes.

Governing Mandatory Health Insurance

Learning from Experience

Author: William D. Savedoff,Pablo Enrique Gottret

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821375490

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 277

View: 5993

Printbegrænsninger: Der kan printes 10 sider ad gangen og max. 40 sider pr. session.

The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics

Author: Sherry Glied,Peter C. Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199238820

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 967

View: 443

This book provides an engaging, comprehensive review of health economics, with a focus on policy implications in the developed and developing world. Authoritative, but non-technical, it stresses the wide reach of the discipline - across nations, health systems, and areas within health and medical care.

Insurance Against Covariate Shocks

The Role of Index-based Insurance in Social Protection in Low-income Countries of Africa

Author: Harold Alderman,Trina Haque

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821370375

Category: Social Science

Page: 34

View: 8666

Uninsured risk had far-reaching consequences for rural growth as well as poverty reduction. A range of informal mechanisms to insure rural households against the impact of shocks, but they are a modest component of a risk layering strategy for well-off households and even less protective for low-income households. Formal insurance mechanisms have inherent market imperfections. State interventions to address these limitations have proven costly and generally are targeted poorly. Recent developments in microfinance as well as in insurance marketing have opened new possibilities for household risk reduction. Index insurance, such as weather indexing, addresses other inherent problems in insurance by using an indicator that is not affected by individual behaviour and may address monitoring costs and moral hazard. A number of innovations using index insurance are being tried currently in diverse settings ranging from India to Mongolia to Malawi. Marketing costs may limit the provision of such insurance to small farmers, but even in such cases microfinance institutes may serve as market intermediaries. Moreover, state and submational governments can use insurance to achieve countercyclical funding programs. In this vein, municipal governments in Mexico have used insurance to finance disaster contingency while the World Food Program has insured a portion of its emergency assistance to Ethiopia. Humanitarian organizations and NGOs may also seek insurance in this manner.

The Economics of Public Health Care Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Author: David Coady,Mr. Benedict J. Clements,Mr. Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1475583788

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 380

View: 3852

Health care reform will be a key fiscal policy challenge in both advanced and emerging economies in coming years. In the advanced economies, the health sector has been one of the main drivers of government expenditure, accounting for about half of the rise in total spending over the past forty years. These spending pressures are expected to intensify over the next two decades, reflecting the aging of the population, income growth, and continued technological innovations in health care. These spending increases will come at a time when countries need to undertake fiscal consolidation to reduce public debt ratios in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the emerging economies, health care reform is also a key issue, given substantial lags in health indicators and limited fiscal resources. For these economies, the challenge will be to expand public coverage without undermining fiscal sustainability. This book provides new insights into these challenges and potential policy responses, with cross-country analysis and case studies.

National Health Insurance in the United States and Canada

Race, Territory, and the Roots of Difference

Author: Gerard W. Boychuk

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1589013778

Category: Medical

Page: 256

View: 2529

After World War II, the United States and Canada, two countries that were very similar in many ways, struck out on radically divergent paths to public health insurance. Canada developed a universal single-payer system of national health care, while the United States opted for a dual system that combines public health insurance for low-income and senior residents with private, primarily employer-provided health insurance—or no insurance—for everyone else. In National Health Insurance in the United States and Canada, Gerard W. Boychuk probes the historical development of health care in each country, honing in on the most distinctive social and political aspects of each country—the politics of race in the U.S. and territorial politics in Canada, especially the tensions between the national government and the province of Quebec. In addition to the politics of race and territory, Boychuk sifts through the numerous factors shaping health policy, including national values, political culture and institutions, the power of special interests, and the impact of strategic choices made at critical junctures. Drawing on historical archives, oral histories, and public opinion data, he presents a nuanced and thoughtful analysis of the evolution of the two systems, compares them as they exist today, and reflects on how each is poised to meet the challenges of the future.

Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development

A Synthesis of 11 Country Case Studies

Author: Akiko Maeda,Edson Araujo,Cheryl Cashin,Joseph Harris,Naoki Ikegami,Michael R. Reich

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 146480298X

Category: Medical

Page: 72

View: 8076

The goals of universal health coverage (UHC) are to ensure that all people can access quality health services, to safeguard all people from public health risks, and to protect all people from impoverishment due to illness, whether from out-of-pocket payments for health care or loss of income when a household member falls sick. Countries as diverse as Brazil, France, Japan, Thailand, and Turkey have shown how UHC can serve as vital mechanisms for improving the health and welfare of their citizens, and lay the foundation for economic growth and competitiveness grounded in the principles of equity and sustainability. Ensuring universal access to affordable, quality health services will be an important contribution to ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where most of the world's poor live. The book synthesizes the experiences from 11 countries – Bangladesh, Brazil, France, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam – in implementing policies and strategies to achieve and sustain UHC. These countries represent diverse geographic and economic conditions, but all have committed to UHC as a key national aspiration and are approaching it in different ways. The study examined the UHC policies for each country around three common themes: (i) the political economy and policy process for adopting, achieving, and sustaining UHC; (ii) health financing policies to enhance health coverage; and (iii) human resources for health policies for achieving UHC. The findings from these country studies are intended to provide lessons that can be used by countries aspiring to adopt, achieve, and sustain UHC. Although the path to UHC is specific to each country, countries can benefit from the experiences of others in learning about different approaches and avoiding potential risks.

Designing and Implementing Health Care Provider Payment Systems

How-to Manuals

Author: Jack Langenbrunner,Cheryl Cashin,Sheila O'Dougherty

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821378244

Category: Medical

Page: 321

View: 3534

Strategic purchasing of health services involves a continuous search for the best ways to maximize health system performance by deciding which interventions should be purchased, from whom these should be purchased, and how to pay for them. In such an arrangement, the passive cashier is replaced by an intelligent purchaser that can focus scarce resources on existing and emerging priorities rather than continuing entrenched historical spending patterns.Having experimented with different ways of paying providers of health care services, countries increasingly want to know not only what to do when paying providers, but also how to do it, particularly how to design, manage, and implement the transition from current to reformed systems. 'Designing and Implementing Health Care Provider Payment Systems: How-To Manuals' addresses this need.The book has chapters on three of the most effective provider payment systems: primary care per capita (capitation) payment, case-based hospital payment, and hospital global budgets. It also includes a primer on a second policy lever used by purchasers, namely, contracting. This primer can be especially useful with one provider payment method: hospital global budgets. The volume's final chapter provides an outline for designing, launching, and running a health management information system, as well as the necessary infrastructure for strategic purchasing.

Behavioral Science & Policy

Author: Craig Fox,Sim B. Sitkin

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815731094

Category: Political Science

Page: 96

View: 5408

The success of nearly all public- and private- sector policies hinges on the behavior of individuals, groups, and organizations. Today, such behaviors are better understood than ever, thanks to a growing body of practical behavioral science research. However, policymakers often are unaware of behavioral science findings that may help them craft and execute more effective and efficient policies. The pages of this new journal will become a meeting ground: a place where scientists and non-scientists can encounter clearly described behavioral research that can be put into action. By design, the scope of BSP is broad, with topics spanning health care, financial decisionmaking, energy and the environment, education and culture, justice and ethics, and work place practices. Contributions will be made by researchers with expertise in psychology, sociology, law, behavioral economics, organization science, decision science, and marketing. The journal is a key offering of the Behavioral Science & Policy Association in partnership with the Brookings Institution. The mission of BSPA is to foster dialog between social scientists, policymakers, and other practitioners in order to promote the application of rigorous empirical behavioral science in ways that serve the public interest. BSPA does not advance a particular agenda or political perspective. The first issue’s contents follow. Behavioral Science & Policy, vol. 2, no. 2 Contents: Evidence as a Tool for Racial Justice: An Introduction to Field Work with Police, Phillip Goff The Costs of Poor Health Plan Choice and Prescriptions for Reform, Saurabh Bhargava, George Loewenstein, and Shlomo Benartzi Using Identity-Based Motivation to Reduce Health Gaps and Disparities, Daphna Oyserman and Neil A. Lewis, Jr We Need Your Help: How Behavioral Sciences Can Help Address Five Major Economic Problems, Jason Furman SBST PAPERS Combating Biased Decision Making and Unequal Treatment Justice Behavioral Science Tools for Energy and Environmental Policy Using Organizational Science Research to Address U.S. Federal Agencies' Management and Labor Needs Policy Applications of Behavioral Insights to Household Financial Decision-Making Behavioral Science and Education Using Behavioral Science to Promote International Development Increasing Benefits and Reducing Costs to Society of Technological Innovations Behavioral Insights for Health Care Policy

Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

An Economic and Policy Perspective

Author: Richard D. Smith,Kara Hanson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199566763

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 288

View: 1014

Health systems in low- and middle-income countries: an economic and policy perspective outlines the key aspects and issues concerning health systems of low- and middle-income countries, recognising the current global context within which these systems operate and the dynamics of this context. It brings together a set of renowned authors to tackle the issues that face population health and health care in the twenty-first century. The focus is predominantly low- and middle-income countries, with a distinct meeting of economic and policy perspectives, and grounding analysis of key issues within the broader international context. The book therefore provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of health systems, with a very different and unique 'flavour' in the field. It should have wide appeal to those engaged in health and health care, including health professionals, researchers and students, as well as those outside traditional health professions but with increasing interest within health issues, such as trade policy makers, researchers and students.

Social Risk Management Strategies and Health Risk Exposure

Author: Gerald Leppert

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 3643906420

Category: Medical

Page: 336

View: 904

Risk exposure is a major cause of poverty, deprivation and persistent vulnerability worldwide. This volume analyses individuals' and households' responses to a variety of risks, with an emphasis on health risks. The study adapts the Social Risk Management (SRM) conceptual framework and extends it considerably for academic inquiry. Using household data from Ghana and Malawi, empirical evidence is provided on the complex relationship between high risk exposure and the application of proactive and reactive SRM strategies (inc. health insurance), showing their specific contributions to risk management.