The Impact of Health Insurance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Author: Maria-Luisa Escobar,Charles C. Griffin,R. Paul Shaw

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815705611

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 9303

Over the past twenty years, many low- and middle-income countries have experimented with health insurance options. While their plans have varied widely in scale and ambition, their goals are the same: to make health services more affordable through the use of public subsidies while also moving care providers partially or fully into competitive markets. Colombia embarked in 1993 on a fifteen-year effort to cover its entire population with insurance, in combination with greater freedom to choose among providers. A decade later Mexico followed suit with a program tailored to its federal system. Several African nations have introduced new programs in the past decade, and many are testing options for reform. For the past twenty years, Eastern Europe has been shifting from government-run care to insurance-based competitive systems, and both China and India have experimental programs to expand coverage. These nations are betting that insurance-based health care financing can increase the accessibility of services, increase providers' productivity, and change the population's health care use patterns, mirroring the development of health systems in most OECD countries. Until now, however, we have known little about the actual effects of these dramatic policy changes. Understanding the impact of health insurance–based care is key to the public policy debate of whether to extend insurance to low-income populations—and if so, how to do it—or to serve them through other means. Using recent household data, this book presents evidence of the impact of insurance programs in China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ghana, Indonesia, Namibia, and Peru. The contributors also discuss potential design improvements that could increase impact. They provide innovative insights on improving the evaluation of health insurance reforms and on building a robust knowledge base to guide policy as other countries tackle the health insurance challenge.

Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

An Economic and Policy Perspective

Author: Richard D. Smith,Kara Hanson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199566763

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 288

View: 2886

Health systems in low- and middle-income countries: an economic and policy perspective outlines the key aspects and issues concerning health systems of low- and middle-income countries, recognising the current global context within which these systems operate and the dynamics of this context. It brings together a set of renowned authors to tackle the issues that face population health and health care in the twenty-first century. The focus is predominantly low- and middle-income countries, with a distinct meeting of economic and policy perspectives, and grounding analysis of key issues within the broader international context. The book therefore provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of health systems, with a very different and unique 'flavour' in the field. It should have wide appeal to those engaged in health and health care, including health professionals, researchers and students, as well as those outside traditional health professions but with increasing interest within health issues, such as trade policy makers, researchers and students.

Good Practices in Health Financing

Lessons from Reforms in Low and Middle-income Countries

Author: Pablo Enrique Gottret,George Schieber,Hugh Waters

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821375121

Category: Medical

Page: 504

View: 9373

This volume focuses on nine countries that have completed, or are well along in the process of carrying out, major health financing reforms. These countries have significantly expanded their people's health care coverage or maintained such coverage after prolonged political or economic shocks (e.g., following the collapse ofthe Soviet Union). In doing so, this report seeks to expand the evidence base on "good performance" in health financing reforms in low- and middle-income countries. The countries chosen for the study were Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Estonia, the Kyrgyz Republic, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tunisia, and Vietnam.

Disability and Equity at Work

Author: Jody Heymann,Michael Ashley Stein,Gonzalo Moreno

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019998123X

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 2888

Despite international and national guarantees of equal rights, there remains a great deal to be done to achieve global employment equality for individuals with disabilities. In OECD countries, the employment rate of persons with disabilities was just over 40%, compared to 75% for persons without a disability; in many low- and middle-income countries, the employment rates are even lower. There are numerous reasons why persons with disabilities fare poorly in the labor market; Disability and Equity at Work is the first book to document what can be done to improve this imbalance. Chapters in this volume address all relevant facets of this topic and include: ? Extensive examination of the factors contributing to inequitable access to work among persons with disability ? Analysis of the economic benefits of increasing employment equity ? Successful employment strategies at every stage of a worker's career ? Evidence-based recommendations and in-depth case studies of innovative policies and programs around the world Chapter contributors include leaders from international organizations, government, civil society, and academia, including experts from UN agencies, leaders in nongovernmental advocacy and research organizations, and senior academics in the field. Disability and Equity at Work fills a needed gap that will appeal to those interested in and engaged in public policy, global health, equal rights, business, labor, and other fields.

Global Marketplace for Private Health Insurance

Strength in Numbers

Author: Alexander S. Preker,Peter Zweifel,Onno P. Schellekens

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821376775

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 528

View: 6350

Financial protection against the cost of illness and inclusion of vulnerable groups will require better mobilization and use of private means. Private voluntary health insurance already plays an important role in mobilizing additional resources to the health sector and protecting against the catastrophic cost of illness in some countries. This review explores the context under which private voluntary health insurance could contribute to an improvement in the sustainability of the health sector and financial protection in other countries.

Social Health Insurance for Developing Nations

Author: R. Paul Shaw

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821369504

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 172

View: 9998

Specialist groups have often advised health ministers and other decision makers in developing countries on the use of social health insurance (SHI) as a way of mobilizing revenue for health, reforming health sector performance, and providing universal coverage. This book reviews the specific design and implementation challenges facing SHI in low- and middle-income countries and presents case studies on Ghana, Kenya, Philippines, Colombia, and Thailand.

Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development

A Synthesis of 11 Country Case Studies

Author: Akiko Maeda,Edson Araujo,Cheryl Cashin,Joseph Harris,Naoki Ikegami,Michael R. Reich

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 146480298X

Category: Medical

Page: 72

View: 6757

The goals of universal health coverage (UHC) are to ensure that all people can access quality health services, to safeguard all people from public health risks, and to protect all people from impoverishment due to illness, whether from out-of-pocket payments for health care or loss of income when a household member falls sick. Countries as diverse as Brazil, France, Japan, Thailand, and Turkey have shown how UHC can serve as vital mechanisms for improving the health and welfare of their citizens, and lay the foundation for economic growth and competitiveness grounded in the principles of equity and sustainability. Ensuring universal access to affordable, quality health services will be an important contribution to ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where most of the world's poor live. The book synthesizes the experiences from 11 countries – Bangladesh, Brazil, France, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam – in implementing policies and strategies to achieve and sustain UHC. These countries represent diverse geographic and economic conditions, but all have committed to UHC as a key national aspiration and are approaching it in different ways. The study examined the UHC policies for each country around three common themes: (i) the political economy and policy process for adopting, achieving, and sustaining UHC; (ii) health financing policies to enhance health coverage; and (iii) human resources for health policies for achieving UHC. The findings from these country studies are intended to provide lessons that can be used by countries aspiring to adopt, achieve, and sustain UHC. Although the path to UHC is specific to each country, countries can benefit from the experiences of others in learning about different approaches and avoiding potential risks.

Innovations in Health Care Financing in Low and Middle Income Countries

Author: Kara Hanson,Dov Chernichovsky

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1848556640

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 220

View: 9693

Low- and middle-income countries face major challenges to their health systems. These include a high burden of communicable disease and an emerging non-communicable disease burden. This work deals with the elements of health care financing, focusing on middle- and low-income settings.

International Encyclopedia of Public Health

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128037083

Category: Medical

Page: 4470

View: 7907

International Encyclopedia of Public Health, Second Edition is an authoritative and comprehensive guide to the major issues, challenges, methods, and approaches of global public health. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, this new edition combines complementary scientific fields of inquiry, linking biomedical research with the social and life sciences to address the three major themes of public health research, disease, health processes, and disciplines. This book helps readers solve real-world problems in global and local health through a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach. Covering all dimensions of the field, from the details of specific diseases, to the organization of social insurance agencies, the articles included cover the fundamental research areas of health promotion, economics, and epidemiology, as well as specific diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and reproductive health. Additional articles on the history of public health, global issues, research priorities, and health and human rights make this work an indispensable resource for students, health researchers, and practitioners alike. Provides the most comprehensive, high-level, internationally focused reference work available on public health Presents an invaluable resource for both researchers familiar with the field and non-experts requiring easy-to-find, relevant, global information and a greater understanding of the wider issues Contains interdisciplinary coverage across all aspects of public health Incorporates biomedical and health social science issues and perspectives Includes an international focus with contributions from global domain experts, providing a complete picture of public health issues

Going Universal

How 24 Developing Countries are Implementing Universal Health Coverage from the Bottom Up

Author: Daniel Cotlear,Somil Nagpal,Owen Smith,Ajay Tandon,Rafael Cortez

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 146480611X

Category: Medical

Page: 286

View: 3814

This book is about 24 developing countries that have embarked on the journey towards universal health coverage (UHC) following a bottom-up approach, with a special focus on the poor and vulnerable, through a systematic data collection that provides practical insights to policymakers and practitioners. Each of the UHC programs analyzed in this book is seeking to overcome the legacy of inequality by tackling both a “financing gap†? and a “provision gap†?: the financing gap (or lower per capita spending on the poor) by spending additional resources in a pro-poor way; the provision gap (or underperformance of service delivery for the poor) by expanding supply and changing incentives in a variety of ways. The prevailing view seems to indicate that UHC require not just more money, but also a focus on changing the rules of the game for spending health system resources. The book does not attempt to identify best practices, but rather aims to help policy makers understand the options they face, and help develop a new operational research agenda. The main chapters are focused on providing a granular understanding of policy design, while the appendixes offer a systematic review of the literature attempting to evaluate UHC program impact on access to services, on financial protection, and on health outcomes.

The Elgar Companion to Health Economics

Author: Andrew M. Jones

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 0857938134

Category: Medical

Page: 550

View: 4026

ÔThe Elgar Companion to Health Economics is a comprehensive and accessible look at the field, as seen by its leading figures.Õ Ð Joseph Newhouse, Harvard Medical School, US Acclaim for the first edition: ÔThis Companion is a timely addition. . . It contains 50 chapters, from 90 contributors around the world, on the topical and policy-relevant aspects of health economics. . . there is a balanced coverage of theoretical and empirical materials, and conceptual and practical issues. . . I have found the Companion very useful.Õ Ð Sukhan Jackson, Economic Analysis and Policy ÔThis encyclopedic work provides interested readers with an authoritative and comprehensive overview of many, if not all, of the current research issues in health economics. Highly recommended. Upper-level undergraduates and above.Õ Ð R.M. Mullner, Choice This comprehensive collection brings together more than 50 contributions from some of the most influential researchers in health economics. It authoritatively covers theoretical and empirical issues in health economics, with a balanced range of material on equity and efficiency in health care systems, health technology assessment and issues of concern for developing countries. This thoroughly revised second edition is expanded to include four new chapters, while all existing chapters have been extensively updated. The Elgar Companion to Health Economics, Second Edition intends to take an audience of advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers to the current frontier of research by providing concise and readable introductions to key topics.

Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology, Adult Disorders

Author: Michel Hersen,Peter Sturmey

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118144759

Category: Psychology

Page: 768

View: 2556

Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology, Volume 2 covers the evidence-based practices now identified for treating adults with a wide range of DSM disorders. Topics include fundamental issues, adult cognitive disorders, substance-related disorders, psychotic, mood, and anxiety disorders, and sexual disorders. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of the evidence-based practice literature for each disorder and then covers several different treatment types for clinical implementation. Edited by the renowned Peter Sturmey and Michel Hersen and featuring contributions from experts in the field, this reference is ideal for academics, researchers, and libraries.

The Evolving Sphere of Food Security

Author: Rosamond L. Naylor

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199398542

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 416

View: 8360

Hundreds of millions of people still suffer from chronic hunger and food insecurity despite sufficient levels of global food production. The poor's inability to afford adequate diets remains the biggest constraint to solving hunger, but the dynamics of global food insecurity are complex and demand analysis that extends beyond the traditional domains of economics and agriculture. How do the policies used to promote food security in one country affect nutrition, food access, natural resources, and national security in other countries? How do the priorities and challenges of achieving food security change over time as countries develop economically? The Evolving Sphere of Food Security seeks to answer these two important questions and others by exploring the interconnections of food security to security of many kinds: energy, water, health, climate, the environment, and national security. Through personal stories of research in the field and policy advising at local and global scales, a multidisciplinary group of scholars provide readers with a real-world sense of the opportunities and challenges involved in alleviating food insecurity. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, management of HIV/AIDS, the establishment of an equitable system of land property rights, and investment in solar-powered irrigation play an important role in improving food security---particularly in the face of global climate change. Meanwhile, food price spikes associated with the United States' biofuels policy continue to have spillover effects on the world's rural poor with implications for stability and national security. The Evolving Sphere of Food Security traces four key areas of the food security field: 1) the political economy of food and agriculture; 2) challenges for the poorest billion; 3) agriculture's dependence on resources and the environment; and 4) food in a national and international security context. This book connects these areas in a way that tells an integrated story about human lives, resource use, and the policy process.

The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics

Author: Sherry Glied,Peter C. Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199238820

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 967

View: 9665

This book provides an engaging, comprehensive review of health economics, with a focus on policy implications in the developed and developing world. Authoritative, but non-technical, it stresses the wide reach of the discipline - across nations, health systems, and areas within health and medical care.

Manson's Tropical Diseases

Author: Gordon C. Cook,Alimuddin Zumla

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 070204332X

Category: Medical

Page: 1800

View: 656

From the difficult to diagnose to the difficult to treat, be prepared for whatever your patients bring back. The revised and updated 22nd edition of Manson’s Tropical Diseases provides you with the latest coverage on emerging and re-emerging diseases from around the world, such as multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis and malaria, the avian flu, and more. Boxes and tables highlight key information on current therapies. Covers every aspect of Tropical Medicine in detail, not just infections. Takes both a system-based and a disease approach, with extensive cross-referencing to minimize duplication. Includes a strong clinical focus, emphasized by clinical management diagrams. Features leading experts in the field, with contributions from clinicians who are based full-time in the tropics. Features up-to-date information on HIV/AIDS, with an emphasis on Africa; malaria; tropical gastroenterological problems; dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever; tuberculosis; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; SARS; avian flu; bartonellosis, cat-scratch disease, trench fever, human erlichiosis; and more. Describes the latest therapies, such as recently approved drugs and new treatment options, so you can incorporate them into to your practice. Presents global perspectives from the world’s leaders in this specialty to put the latest expert knowledge to work for you and your patients. Highlights key information with more boxes and tables so you can find what you need easily and apply it quickly.

Older-age Parents and the AIDS Epidemic in Thailand

Changing Impacts in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

Author: United Nations,John E. Knodel

Publisher: United Nations Publications UNIDIR

ISBN: 9789211205961

Category: Political Science

Page: 71

View: 2672

"The purpose of this publication is to disseminate the findings of the report on "Older-age parents and the AIDS epidemic in Thailand:Changing impacts in the era of Antiretroviral Therapy" to assist policymakers addressing similar contextual environments to further understand the epidemic and its impact on elderly caregivers. The report represents one of the few research works on the impact of HIV and AIDS on the lives of persons living with HIV/AIDS and their families in the region. It serves to fill the gap in the dearth of research on the implications of the AIDS epidemic on older aged parents, in particular in the context of the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy."--Publisher's website.

The Global Economic Crisis and HIV Prevention and Treatment Programmes

Vulnerabilities and Impact

Author: Unaids

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9291738077

Category: Medical

Page: 25

View: 1669

The global economic crisis threatens recent gains in health and poverty reduction in developing countries. What is the effect of the crisis on HIV programmes, especially in high HIV prevalence countries? What are the possible consequences? What can be done to avoid negative impacts? Much is at risk: increased mortality and morbidity, unplanned interruptions or curtailed access to treatment, with increased risk of HIV transmission, higher future financial costs, increased burden on health systems and reversal of economic and social development gains.