The Making and Unmaking of Empires

Britain, India, and America C.1750-1783

Author: Peter James Marshall,Emeritus Professor of Imperial History King's College London Honorary Fellow P J Marshall

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199278954

Category: History

Page: 398

View: 767

In The Making and Unmaking of Empires P. J. Marshall, distinguished author of numerous books on the British Empire and former Rhodes Professor of Imperial History, provides a unified interpretation of British imperial history in the later eighteenth century. He brings together into a commonfocus Britain's loss of empire in North America and the winning of territorial dominion in parts of India and argues that these developments were part of a single phase of Britain's imperial history, rather than marking the closing of a 'first' Atlantic empire and the rise of a 'second' eastern one.In both India and North America Britain pursued similar objectives in this period. Fearful of the apparent enmity of France, Britain sought to secure the interests overseas which were thought to contribute so much to her wealth and power. This involved imposing a greater degree of control overcolonies in America and over the East India Company and its new possessions in India. Aspirations to greater control also reflected an increasing confidence in Britain's capacity to regulate the affairs of subject peoples, especially through parliament.If British objectives throughout the world were generally similar, whether they could be achieved depended on the support or at least acquiescence of those they tried to rule. Much of this book is concerned with bringing together the findings of the rich historical writing on both post-Mughal Indiaand late colonial America to assess the strengths and weaknesses of empire in different parts of the world. In North America potential allies who were closely linked to Britain in beliefs, culture and economic interest were ultimately alienated by Britain's political pretensions. Empire wasextremely fragile in two out of the three main Indian settlements. In Bengal, however, the British achieved a modus vivendi with important groups which enabled them to build a secure base for the future subjugation of the subcontinent.With the authority of one who has made the study of empire his life's work, Marshall provides a valuable resource for scholar and student alike.

Imperien der Weltgeschichte

Das Repertoire der Macht vom alten Rom und China bis heute

Author: Jane Burbank,Frederick Cooper

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 359339670X

Category: History

Page: 612

View: 3250

Für die Herrscher von Imperien galt es stets, die verschiedensten Bevölkerungsgruppen zu integrieren und trotz dieser Vielfalt ihre Macht zu bewahren. Das Repertoire an Machtstrategien, das sie dabei anwendeten, schildern Jane Burbank und Frederick Cooper in einer zwei Jahrtausende umspannenden Reise durch die Geschichte der großen Weltreiche. So konnten Imperien Hierarchien und soziale wie ethnische Unterschiede aufrechterhalten, neue begründen oder sie durch Integration aufheben. Dieser Umgang mit Vielfalt, die jeweilige Politik der Differenz, war – wie Burbank und Cooper zeigen – der Schlüssel für Aufstieg und Niedergang aller Imperien. Mit dieser Erkenntnis ermöglichen sie ein neues Verständnis der großen Reiche in der Weltgeschichte. Und erzählen dabei auf unterhaltsame Weise vom Schicksal zahlreicher Völker und Dynastien: vom antiken China und Rom über das Osmanische, das spanische und das Reich Karls des Großen bis hin zu Russland, Großbritannien und den USA.

Empire by Treaty

Negotiating European Expansion, 1600-1900

Author: Saliha Belmessous

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199391807

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 4542

Most histories of European appropriation of indigenous territories have, until recently, focused on conquest and occupation, while relatively little attention has been paid to the history of treaty-making. Yet treaties were also a means of extending empire. To grasp the extent of European legal engagement with indigenous peoples, Empire by Treaty: Negotiating European Expansion, 1600-1900 looks at the history of treaty-making in European empires (Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, French and British) from the early 17th to the late 19th century, that is, during both stages of European imperialism. While scholars have often dismissed treaties assuming that they would have been fraudulent or unequal, this book argues that there was more to the practice of treaty-making than mere commercial and political opportunism. Indeed, treaty-making was also promoted by Europeans as a more legitimate means of appropriating indigenous sovereignties and acquiring land than were conquest or occupation, and therefore as a way to reconcile expansion with moral and juridical legitimacy. As for indigenous peoples, they engaged in treaty-making as a way to further their interests even if, on the whole, they gained far less than the Europeans from those agreements and often less than they bargained for. The vexed history of treaty-making presents particular challenges for the great expectations placed in treaties for the resolution of conflicts over indigenous rights in post-colonial societies. These hopes are held by both indigenous peoples and representatives of the post-colonial state and yet, both must come to terms with the complex and troubled history of treaty-making over 300 years of empire. Empire by Treaty looks at treaty-making in Dutch colonial expansion, the Spanish-Portuguese border in the Americas, aboriginal land in Canada, French colonial West Africa, and British India.

The Men Who Lost America

Author: Andrew O'Shaughnessy

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780742479

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 5936

In 1781 the British Empire suffered its most devastating defeat in a war that most believed Britain ought to have won. Common wisdom has held that incompetent military commanders and political leaders in London must have been to blame, their arrogant confidence and outdated tactics proving no match for the innovative and determined Americans. But this is far from the truth. Weaving together the personal stories of ten prominent men who directed the British dimension of the war, Andrew O’Shaughnessy dispels the myths, emerging with a very different and much richer account of the conflict – one driven by able and at times even brilliant leadership. In interlinked biographical chapters, O’Shaughnessy follows the course of the war from the perspectives of King George III, Prime Minister Lord North, military leaders including General Burgoyne, the Earl of Sandwich, and others whose stories shed new light upon our understanding of how the war unfolded. Victories were frequent, and in fact the British conquered every American city at some stage of the Revolutionary War, retaining key strongholds even during the peace negotiations. Taking a wider lens to events, O’Shaughnessy looks past the surrender at Yorktown to British victories against the French and Spanish, demonstrating that, ultimately, many of the men who lost America would go on to save the empire.

The Culture of the Seven Years' War

Empire, Identity, and the Arts in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World

Author: Frans de Bruyn,Shaun Regan

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442696354

Category: History

Page: 372

View: 8167

The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) was the decisive conflict of the eighteenth century – Winston Churchill called it the first “world war” – and the clash which forever changed the course of North American history. Yet compared with other momentous conflicts like the Napoleonic Wars or the First World War, the cultural impact of the Seven Years’ War remains woefully understudied. The Culture of the Seven Years’ War is the first collection of essays to take a broad interdisciplinary and multinational approach to this important global conflict. Rather than focusing exclusively on political, diplomatic, or military issues, this collection examines the impact of representation, identity, and conceptions and experiences of empire. With essays by notable scholars that address the war’s impact in Europe and the Atlantic world, this volume is sure to become essential reading for those interested in the relationship between war, culture, and the arts.

The Age of the Ship of the Line

The British and French Navies, 1650-1815

Author: Jonathan R. Dull

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 080322267X

Category: History

Page: 250

View: 9249

For nearly two hundred years huge wooden warships called ships of the line dominated war at sea and were thus instrumental in the European struggle for power and the spread of imperialism. Foremost among the great naval powers were Great Britain and France, whose advanced economies could support large numbers of these expensive ships. This book, the first joint history of these great navies, offers a uniquely impartial and comprehensive picture of the two forces their shipbuilding programs, naval campaigns, and battles, and their wartime strategies and diplomacy. Jonathan R. Dull is the author of two award-winning histories of the French navy. Bringing to bear years of study of war and diplomacy, his book conveys the fine details and the high drama of the age of grand and decisive naval conflict. Dull delves into the seven wars that Great Britain and France, often in alliance with lesser naval powers such as Spain and the Netherlands, fought between 1688 and 1815. Viewing war as most statesmen of the time saw it as a contest of endurance he also treats the tragic side of the Franco-British wars, which shattered the greater security and prosperity the two powers enjoyed during their brief period as allies.

The Weight of Vengeance

The United States, the British Empire, and the War of 1812

Author: Troy Bickham

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199942625

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 733

In early 1815, Secretary of State James Monroe reviewed the treaty with Britain that would end the War of 1812. The United States Navy was blockaded in port; much of the army had not been paid for nearly a year; the capital had been burned. The treaty offered an unexpected escape from disaster. Yet it incensed Monroe, for the name of Great Britain and its negotiators consistently appeared before those of the United States. "The United States have acquired a certain rank amongst nations, which is due to their population and political importance," he brazenly scolded the British diplomat who conveyed the treaty, "and they do not stand in the same situation as at former periods." Monroe had a point, writes Troy Bickham. In The Weight of Vengeance, Bickham provides a provocative new account of America's forgotten war, underscoring its significance for both sides by placing it in global context. The Napoleonic Wars profoundly disrupted the global order, from India to Haiti to New Orleans. Spain's power slipped, allowing the United States to target the Floridas; the Haitian slave revolt contributed to the Louisiana Purchase; fears that Britain would ally with Tecumseh and disrupt the American northwest led to a pre-emptive strike on his people in 1811. This shifting balance of power provided the United States with the opportunity to challenge Britain's dominance of the Atlantic world. And it was an important conflict for Britain as well. Powerful elements in the British Empire so feared the rise of its former colonies that the British government sought to use the War of 1812 to curtail America's increasing maritime power and its aggressive territorial expansion. And by late 1814, Britain had more men under arms in North America than it had in the Peninsular War against Napoleon, with the war with America costing about as much as its huge subsidies to European allies. Troy Bickham has given us an authoritative, lucidly written global account that transforms our understanding of this pivotal war.

The Oxford Handbook of the American Revolution

Author: Edward G. Gray,Jane Kamensky

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199324034

Category: History

Page: 696

View: 1862

The Oxford Handbook of the American Revolution draws on a wealth of new scholarship to create a vibrant dialogue among varied approaches to the revolution that made the United States. In thirty-three essays written by authorities on the period, the Handbook brings to life the diverse multitudes of colonial North America and their extraordinary struggles before, during, and after the eight-year-long civil war that secured the independence of thirteen rebel colonies from their erstwhile colonial parent. The chapters explore battles and diplomacy, economics and finance, law and culture, politics and society, gender, race, and religion. Its diverse cast of characters includes ordinary farmers and artisans, free and enslaved African Americans, Indians, and British and American statesmen and military leaders. In addition to expanding the Revolution's who, the Handbook broadens its where, portraying an event that far transcended the boundaries of what was to become the United States. It offers readers an American Revolution whose impact ranged far beyond the thirteen colonies. The Handbook's range of interpretive and methodological approaches captures the full scope of current revolutionary-era scholarship. Its authors, British and American scholars spanning several generations, include social, cultural, military, and imperial historians, as well as those who study politics, diplomacy, literature, gender, and sexuality. Together and separately, these essays demonstrate that the American Revolution remains a vibrant and inviting a subject of inquiry. Nothing comparable has been published in decades.

Gender, Morality, and Race in Company India, 1765-1858

Author: J. Sramek

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230337627

Category: History

Page: 250

View: 6309

This book examines the relationship between colonial anxieties about personal behavior, gender, morality, and colonial rule in India during the first century of British rule, when the East India Company governed India rather than the British State directly, focusing on the ideology of "The Empire of Opinion."

Romantic Representations of British India

Author: Michael J Franklin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134183089

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 3949

Michael J. Franklin's Romantic Representations of British India is a timely study of the impact of Orientalist knowledge upon British culture during the Romantic period. The subject of the book is not so much India, but the British cultural understanding of India, particularly between 1750 and 1850. Franklin opens up new areas of investigation in Romantic-period culture, as those texts previously located in the ghetto of ‘Anglo-Indian writing’ are restored to a central place in the wider field of Romanticism. The essays within this collection cover a wide range of topics and are written by an impressive troupe of contributors including P.J. Marshall, Anne Mellor, and Nigel Leask. Students and academics involved with literary studies and history will find this book extremely useful, though musicologists and historians of science and of religion will also make good use of the book, as will those interested in questions of gender, race, and colonialism.

The British Empire

Themes and Perspectives

Author: Sarah E. Stockwell

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9781405125352

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 7756

This volume adopts a distinctive thematic approach to the history of British imperialism from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. It brings together leading scholars of British imperial history: Tony Ballantyne, John Darwin, Andrew Dilley, Elizabeth Elbourne, Kent Fedorowich, Eliga Gould, Catherine Hall, Stephen Howe, Sarah Stockwell, Andrew Thompson, Stuart Ward, and Jon Wilson. Each contributor offers a personal assessment of the topic at hand, and examines key interpretive debates among historians Addresses many of the core issues that constitute a broad understanding of the British Empire, including the economics of the empire, the empire and religion, and imperial identities

Eighteenth-century Britain, 1688-1783

Author: Jeremy Black

Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

ISBN: 9780230537507

Category: History

Page: 314

View: 8118

Jeremy Black sets the politics of eighteenth century Britain into the fascinating context of social, economic, cultural, religious and scientific developments. The second edition of this successful text by a leading authority in the field has now been updated and expanded to incorporate the latest research and scholarship.

War, Empire and Slavery, 1770-1830

Author: Richard Bessel,Nicholas Guyatt,Jane Rendall

Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 299

View: 4181

The imperial warfare of the period 1770-1830, including the American wars of independence and the Napoleonic wars, affected every continent. Covering southern India, the Caribbean, North and South America, and southern Africa, this volume explores the impact of revolutionary wars and how people's identities were shaped by their experiences.