The Making of Informal States

Statebuilding in Northern Cyprus and Transdniestria

Author: Daria Isachenko

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230360599

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 576

In a detailed study of the methods of statebuilding as practiced by informal states, Daria Isachenko focuses on Northern Cyprus and Transdniestria, which due to their unrecognized status occupy a politically ambiguous space within the international community, often labelled as de facto states or even weak states. This book investigates how they function under circumstances of non-recognition, using insights from political sociology to provide a conceptual framework capable of analysing the making and development of informal states. Tracing the historical trajectories of Northern Cyprus and Transdniestria towards unilateral declarations of independence, chapters explore the symbolic and economic dimensions of their statebuilding projects. Particular emphasis is placed on the effects of external support on the internal statebuilding process, challenging the assumption that these informal states are mere geopolitical pawns of their sponsors. The author instead argues that they are far from being isolated, but are active participants in international politics.

Ethnographies of the State in Central Asia

Performing Politics

Author: Madeleine Reeves,Johan Rasanayagam,Judith Beyer

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253011477

Category: Social Science

Page: 332

View: 1794

With fresh and provocative insights into the everyday reality of politics in post-Soviet Central Asia, this volume moves beyond commonplaces about strong and weak states to ask critical questions about how democracy, authority, and justice are understood in this important region. In conversation with current theories of state power, the contributions draw on extensive ethnographic research in settings that range from the local to the transnational, the mundane to the spectacular, to provide a unique perspective on how politics is performed in everyday life.

Acting Like a State

Kosovo and the Everyday Making of Statehood

Author: Gëzim Visoka

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351977881

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 8346

How do emerging states obtain international recognition and secure membership of international organisations in contemporary world politics? This book provides the first in-depth study of Kosovo’s diplomatic approach to becoming a sovereign state by obtaining international recognition and securing membership of international organisations. Analysing the everyday diplomatic discourses, performances, and entanglements, this book contends that state-becoming is not wholly determined by systemic factors, normative institutions, or the preferences of great powers; the diplomatic agency of the fledgling state plays a far more important role than is generally acknowledged. Drawing on institutional ethnographic research and first-hand observations, this book argues that Kosovo’s diplomatic success in consolidating its sovereign statehood has been the situational assemblage of multiple discourses, practiced through a broad variety of performative actions, and shaped by a complex entanglement with global assemblages of norms, actors, relations, and events. Accordingly, this book contributes to expanding our understanding of the everyday diplomatic agency of emerging states and the changing norms, politics, and practices regarding the diplomatic recognition of states and their admission to international society.

International Intervention and State-making

How Exception Became the Norm

Author: Selver B. Sahin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317674715

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 1436

This book analyses the changing dynamics of sovereignty resulting from contemporary international state-building interventions. It aims to highlight how the exercise of ‘exceptional’ forms of power by intervening agencies impacts on the sovereign capacity of intervened states. Drawing upon in-depth analyses of three case studies – Kosovo, East Timor and the Kurdistan Regional Government, the book shifts the focus of the debate to the nature of contemporary intervention as an act of statemaking, and argues that foreign intervention changes the dynamics of political power upon which sovereignty is structured. At the same time, it reveals how intervention reproduces the imposed conditions of international state-making, thus permanently internalising external regulatory mechanisms. International intervention, in other words, becomes the constitutive element of governance in the newly created state. This book will be of much interest to students of statebuilding, war and conflict studies, global governance, security studies and IR.

State, Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East

Author: Roger Owen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134432917

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 5879

Roger Owen has fully revised and updated his authoritative text to take into account the latest developments in the Middle East. This book continues to serve as an excellent introduction for newcomers to the modern history and politics of this fascinating region. This third edition continues to explore the emergence of individual Middle Eastern states since the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War and the key themes that have characterized the region since then.

Entrepreneurship in the Informal Economy

Models, Approaches and Prospects for Economic Development

Author: Mai Thi Thanh Thai,Ekaterina Turkina

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135076243

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 284

View: 4749

Although entrepreneurship in the informal economy occurs outside state regulatory systems, informal commercial activities account for an estimated 30% of economic activity around the world. Informal entrepreneurship goes unmonitored despite the fact that it significantly contributes to poverty reduction and economic development. As a result, the informal sector is open to unethical practices including corruption, worker exploitation, and natural environment abuse to name just a few. In the media, debates have formed around whether informal entrepreneurship should be assisted or legitimized. Hence, a deep understanding of the phenomenon is vitally important. This book is the first on the market to offer models and approaches to informal entrepreneurship as well as to its prospects for economic development. Offering an in-depth examination of informal entrepreneurship in many different countries, it reveals the motivations for engaging in entrepreneurship in the informal economy, characteristics of informal entrepreneurship, and informal entrepreneurs’ response to ethical issues. This volume illustrates the relationship between formal and informal economies and the conditions for the benefits of informal entrepreneurship to outweigh its disadvantages. And finally, it gives recommendations about when and how the informal economy can be formalized, which sectors should be formalized, and which ones can remain informal. This book offers much-needed guidance for stakeholders involved in economic development programs and scholars and entrepreneurs interested in the field of informal entrepreneurship as it is developing around the globe.

Rethinking The Informal City

Critical Perspectives from Latin America

Author: Felipe Hernandez,Peter Kellett,Lea Knudsen Allen

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857456083

Category: Architecture

Page: 264

View: 3981

Latin American cities have always been characterized by a strong tension between what is vaguely described as their formal and informal dimensions. However, the terms formal and informal refer not only to the physical aspect of cities but also to their entire socio-political fabric. Informal cities and settlements exceed the structures of order, control and homogeneity that one expects to find in a formal city; therefore the contributors to this volume - from such disciplines as architecture, urban planning, anthropology, urban design, cultural and urban studies and sociology - focus on alternative methods of analysis in order to study the phenomenon of urban informality. This book provides a thorough review of the work that is currently being carried out by scholars, practitioners and governmental institutions, in and outside Latin America, on the question of informal cities.

Entrepreneurship in the Informal Sector

An Institutional Perspective

Author: Colin C. Williams

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317406931

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 236

View: 3618

How many businesses start-ups conduct some or all of their trade ‘off-the-books’? And how many enterprises continue to do some of their work off-the-books once they are more established? What should be done about them? Should governments adopt ever more punitive measures to eradicate them? Or should we recognise this hidden enterprise culture and attempt to harness it? If so, how can this be done? What measures can be taken to ensure that businesses start-up in a proper manner? And what can be done to help those enterprises and entrepreneurs currently working off-the-books to legitimise their businesses? The aim of this book is to advance a new way of answering these questions. Drawing inspiration from institutional theory, informal sector entrepreneurship is explained as resulting from the asymmetry between the codified laws and regulations of a society’s formal institutions and the norms, values and beliefs that comprise a society’s informal institutions. The argument is that if the norms, values and beliefs of entrepreneurs (i.e., their individual morality) were wholly aligned with the codified laws and regulations (i.e., state morality), there would be no informal sector entrepreneurship. However, because the individual morality of entrepreneurs differs from state morality, such as due to their lack of trust in government and the rule of law, the result is the prevalence of informal sector entrepreneurship. The greater the degree of institutional asymmetry, the higher is the propensity to engage in informal sector entrepreneurship. This book provides evidence to show that this is the case both at the individual- and country-level and then discusses how this can be overcome. .

War and Peace in Islam

A Critique of Islamic/ist Political Discourses

Author: SM Farid Mirbagheri

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137001313

Category: Political Science

Page: 214

View: 3163

Mirbagheri traces the revival of Islamic/ist movements, and embarks on a theoretical study of some of the fundamental concepts in Islam and International Relations such as the self, Jihad, peace and universalism. Contemporary cases of conflict in the Middle East are analysed to pose a challenge to the universalist discourse of Western liberalism.

Learning from Museums

Visitor Experiences and the Making of Meaning

Author: John Howard Falk,Lynn Diane Dierking

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0742502945

Category: Education

Page: 272

View: 827

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Violent Entrepreneurs

The Use of Force in the Making of Russian Capitalism

Author: Vadim Volkov

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801487781

Category: History

Page: 201

View: 1446

Entering the shady world of what he calls "violent entrepreneurship," Vadim Volkov explores the economic uses of violence and coercion in Russia in the 1990s. Violence has played, he shows, a crucial role in creating the institutions of a new market economy. The core of his work is competition among so-called violence-managing agencies—criminal groups, private security services, private protection companies, and informal protective agencies associated with the state—which multiplied with the liberal reforms of the early 1990s. This competition provides an unusual window on the dynamics of state formation. Violent Entrepreneurs is remarkable for its research. Volkov conducted numerous interviews with members of criminal groups, heads of protection companies, law enforcement employees, and businesspeople. He bases his findings on journalistic and anecdotal evidence as well as on his own personal observation. Volkov investigates the making of violence-prone groups in sports clubs (particularly martial arts clubs), associations for veterans of the Soviet—Afghan war, ethnic gangs, and regionally based social groups, and he traces the changes in their activities across the decade. Some groups wore state uniforms and others did not, but all of their members spoke and acted essentially the same and were engaged in the same activities: intimidation, protection, information gathering, dispute management, contract enforcement, and taxation. Each group controlled the same resource—organized violence.

The Politics of Informal Justice

Volume 2: Comparative Studies

Author: Richard L. Abel

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483297357

Category: Political Science

Page: 338

View: 7908

The Politics of Informal Justice

The Making of the American Nation

Or, The Rise and Decline of Oligarchy in the West

Author: J. Arthur Partridge

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: United States

Page: 523

View: 4626

Informal Governance in the European Union

How Governments Make International Organizations Work

Author: Mareike Kleine

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801469392

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 6823

The European Union is the world’s most advanced international organization, presiding over a level of legal and economic integration unmatched in global politics. To explain this achievement, many observers point to its formal rules that entail strong obligations and delegate substantial power to supranational actors such as the European Commission. This legalistic view, Mareike Kleine contends, is misleading. More often than not, governments and bureaucrats informally depart from the formal rules and thereby contradict their very purpose. Behind the EU’s front of formal rules lies a thick network of informal governance practices. If not the EU’s rules, what accounts for the high level of economic integration among its members? How does the EU really work? In answering these questions, Kleine proposes a new way of thinking about international organizations. Informal governance affords governments the flexibility to resolve conflicts that adherence to EU rules may generate at the domestic level. By dispersing the costs that integration may impose on individual groups, it allows governments to keep domestic interests aligned in favor of European integration. The combination of formal rules and informal governance therefore sustains a level of cooperation that neither regime alone permits, and it reduces the EU’s democratic deficit by including those interests into deliberations that are most immediately affected by its decisions. In illustrating informal norms and testing how they work, Kleine provides the first systematic analysis, based on new material from national and European archives and other primary data, of the parallel development of the formal rules and informal norms that have governed the EU from the 1958 Treaty of Rome until today.

Leading Outside the Lines

How to Mobilize the Informal Organization, Energize Your Team, and Get Better Results

Author: Jon R. Katzenbach,Zia Khan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470621059

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 7812

An all-new approach to understanding the (in)formal connections of an organization From the bestselling coauthor of the business classic The Wisdom of Teams comes an all-new exploration of the modern workplace, and how leaders and managers must embrace it for success. Katzenbach and Khan examine how two distinct factions together form the bigger picture for how organizations actually work: the more defined "formal" organization of a company-the management structure, performance metrics, and processes-and the "informal"-the culture, social networks, and ad hoc communities that spring up naturally and can accelerate or hinder how the organization works. With dynamic examples from enterprises around the world, this book takes a timeless organizational approach and creates a powerful paradigm-shifting tool set for applying it. Includes self-assessment guidelines for senior leaders, front-line managers, and individual contributors Features organizations in business, government, the nonprofit sector, and academia-including the New York City schools system, Aetna, the Marines, United Nations, Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, Home Depot, Bell Canada, and the Houston Police Department Leading Outside the Lines illustrates how leaders can make the two distinct factions work together to get the best of both.

Out of the Shadows

Political Action and the Informal Economy in Latin America

Author: Patricia Fernández-Kelly,Jon Shefner

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271045590

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 9728

Since the beginning of scholarly writing about the informal economy in the mid-1970s, the debate has evolved from addressing survival strategies of the poor to considering the implications for national development and the global economy. Simultaneously, research on informal politics has ranged from neighborhood clientelism to contentious social movements basing their claims on a variety of social identities in their quest for social justice. Despite related empirical and theoretical concerns, these research traditions have seldom engaged in dialogue with one another. Out of the Shadows brings leading scholars of the informal economy and informal politics together to address how globalization has influenced local efforts to resolve political and economic needs&—and how these seemingly separate issues are indeed deeply related. In addition to the editors, contributors are Javier Auyero, Miguel Angel Centeno, Sylvia Chant, Robert Gay, Mercedes Gonz&ález de la Rocha, Jos&é Itzigsohn, Alejandro Portes, and Juan Manuel Ram&írez S&áiz.

The Making of America

Author: Robert Marion La Follette,William M. Handy,Charles Higgins

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Inventors

Page: N.A

View: 5459

Building China

Informal Work and the New Precariat

Author: Sarah Swider

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501701711

Category: Political Science

Page: 216

View: 9689

Roughly 260 million workers in China have participated in a mass migration of peasants moving into the cities, and construction workers account for almost half of them. In Building China, Sarah Swider draws on her research in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shanghai between 2004 and 2012, including living in an enclave, working on construction jobsites, and interviews with eighty-three migrants, managers, and labor contractors. This ethnography focuses on the lives, work, family, and social relations of construction workers. It adds to our understanding of China's new working class, the deepening rural-urban divide, and the growing number of undocumented migrants working outside the protection of labor laws and regulation. Swider shows how these migrants—members of the global "precariat," an emergent social force based on vulnerability, insecurity, and uncertainty—are changing China's class structure and what this means for the prospects for an independent labor movement. The workers who build and serve Chinese cities, along with those who produce goods for the world to consume, are mostly migrant workers. They, or their parents, grew up in the countryside; they are farmers who left the fields and migrated to the cities to find work. Informal workers—who represent a large segment of the emerging workforce—do not fit the traditional model of industrial wage workers. Although they have not been incorporated into the new legal framework that helps define and legitimize China's decentralized legal authoritarian regime, they have emerged as a central component of China’s economic success and an important source of labor resistance.

Linking the Formal and Informal Economy

Concepts and Policies

Author: Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis,Elinor Ostrom

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199204764

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 294

View: 7757

A collection of studies on formality and informality in developing countries, this volume contains contributions from anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and political scientists. It argues for moving beyond the formal-informal dichotomy, and offers information to develop guiding principles for intervention.