The Nature of the Gods

Author: Cicero

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191623148

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 2515

`My present intention is to clear myself of any suspicion of partiality by presenting the views of the generality of philosophers concerning the nature of the gods.' Cicero's philosophical works are now exciting renewed interest, in part because he provides vital evidence of the views of the (largely lost) Greek philosophers of the Hellenistic age, and partly because of the light he casts on the intellectual life of first century Rome. The Nature of the Gods is a text of central significance, presenting a detailed account of the theologies of the Epicureans and of the Stoics, together with the critical objections to these doctrines raised by the Academic school. When these Greek theories of deity are translated into the Roman context, a fascinating clash of ideologies results. This fine translation by P. G. Walsh includes a summary of the Text, and an Index and Glossary of Names. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

On the Nature of the Universe

Author: Lucretius

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019162327X

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 320

View: 1395

`Therefore this terror and darkness of the mind Not by the sun's rays, nor the bright shafts of day, Must be dispersed, as is most necessary, But by the face of nature and her laws.' Lucretius' poem On the Nature of the Universe combines a scientific and philosophical treatise with some of the greatest poetry ever written. With intense moral fervour Lucretius demonstrates to humanity that in death there is nothing to fear since the soul is mortal, and the world and everything in it is governed not by the gods, but by the mechanical laws of nature. By believing this, men can live in peace of mind and happiness. Lucretius bases his argument on the atomic theory expounded by the Greek philosopher Epicurus. His poem explores sensation, sex, cosmology, meteorology, and geology through acute observation of the beauties of the natural world and with moving sympathy for man's place in it. Sir Ronald Melville's accessible and accurate verse translation is complemented by an introduction and notes situating Lucretius' scientific theories within the thought of 1st century BCE Rome and discussing the Epicurean philosophy that was his inspiration and why the issues Lucretius' poem raisies about the scientific and poetical views of the world continue to be important. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

The Nature of the Gods

Author: Marcus Tullius Cicero

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780192825117

Category: Social Science

Page: 230

View: 9912

`My present intention is to clear myself of any suspicion of partiality by presenting the views of the generality of philosophers concerning the nature of the gods.' Cicero's philosophical works are now exciting renewed interest, in part because he provides vital evidence of the views of the (largely lost) Greek philosophers of the Hellenistic age, and partly because of the light he casts on the intellectual life of first century Rome. The Nature of the Gods is a text of central significance, presenting a detailed account of the theologies of the Epicureans and of the Stoics, together with the critical objections to these doctrines raised by the Academic school. When these Greek theories of deity are translated into the Roman context, a fascinating clash of ideologies results. This fine translation by P. G. Walsh includes a summary of the Text, and an Index and Glossary of Names.

Cosmology, Ecology, and the Energy of God

Author: Donna Bowman,Clayton Crockett

Publisher: Fordham Univ Press

ISBN: 0823238954

Category: Religion

Page: 201

View: 8645

Cosmology, Ecology, and the Energy of God brings together process and postmodern theologians who reflect on the topic of energy. Approaches include dark energy in terms of physics; social and ecological aspects of the current energy use crisis; and connections between human conceptions of energy and divine spiritual energy in theological terms.

The Birth of Tragedy

Author: Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780192832924

Category: Philosophy

Page: 173

View: 4797

A new edition of Nietzsche's discussion of the nature of art, science, and religion, expounding on the origins of Greek tragedy and its relevance to the German culture of its time.

On Obligations

Author: Marcus Tullius Cicero

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780192839688

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 218

View: 2300

On Obligations (De officiis) was written by Cicero in late 44 BC after the assassination of Julius Caesar to provide principles of behaviour for aspiring politicians. It explores the apparent tensions between honourable conduct and expediency in public life, and the right and wrong ways ofattaining political leadership. The principles of honourable behaviour are based on the Stoic virtues of wisdom, justice, magnanimity, and propriety; in Cicero's view the intrinsically useful is always identical with the honourable. Cicero's famous treatise has played a seminal role in the formation of ethical values in western Christendom. Adopted by the fourth-century Christian humanists, it beame transmuted into the moral code of the high Middle Ages. Thereafter, in the Renaissance from the time of Petrarch, and in theAge of Enlightenment that followed, it was given central prominence in discussion of the government of states. Today, when corruption and conflict in political life are the focus of so much public attention, On Obligations is still the foremost guide to good conduct.

A Discourse on the Method

of Correctly Conducting One's Reason and Seeking Truth in the Sciences

Author: René Descartes

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191605107

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

View: 1199

'I concluded that I was a substance whose whole essence or nature resides only in thinking, and which, in order to exist, has no need of place and is not dependent on any material thing.' Descartes's A Discourse on the Method of Correctly Conducting One's Reason and Seeking Truth in the Sciences marks a watershed in European thought; in it, the author provides an informal intellectual autobiography in the vernacular for a non-specialist readership, sweeps away all previous philosophical traditions, and sets out in brief his radical new philosophy, which begins with a proof of the existence of the self (the famous 'cogito ergo sum'), next deduces from it the existence and nature of God, and ends by offering a radical new account of the physical world and of human and animal nature. This new translation is accompanied by a substantial introductory essay which draws on Descartes's correspondence to examine his motivation and the impact of his great work on his contemporaries. Detailed notes explain his philosophical terminology and ideas. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Selected Letters

Author: Cicero

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191607517

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 416

View: 5672

'How I wish that you had invited me to that most attractive feast on the Ides of March!' Cicero lived through some of the most turbulent years in the history of Rome, and witnessed at first-hand the overthrow of the republic and its replacement by a tyranny. His letters to friends and family are an astonishingly detailed record of daily life and politics in Rome. This selection, covering the years 68-43 BC, not merely documents in detail Cicero's career but simultaneously provides a month-by-month record of the final collapse of the Roman senatorial government. The letters provide from the inside a vivid picture of events from the high point of Cicero's consulship of 63, through the humiliation of his exile and subsequent subjection to the dynasts, to the assassination of Caesar in 44, and Cicero's brief hour of glory in leading senatorial resistance to the tyranny of Mark Antony. In P. G. Walsh's lively new translation, Cicero's correspondence once more brings alive the excitement and danger of ancient Rome. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Die Entschlüsselung des Himmels

Der erste Computer - ein 2000 Jahre altes Rätsel wird gelöst

Author: Jo Marchant

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644010110

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 8905

Im Jahr 1900 entdeckten Schwammtaucher im Mittelmeer ein antikes Schiffswrack aus der Zeit um 70 v. Chr. und bargen vom Meeresgrund unter anderem einen Klumpen korrodierter Bronze. Er erwies sich als eines der erstaunlichsten Artefakte, die die Naturwissenschaft kennt: heute weltbekannt als der Kalendercomputer von Antikythera. Dieses feinmechanische Wunderwerk ist Produkt eines technischen, astronomischen und mathematisch-physikalischen Wissens, das in den Jahrhunderten danach großteils wieder verlorenging. Eine analoge Rechenmaschine mit rund 30 Zahnrädern und epizyklischen Getriebezügen, die den elliptischen Verlauf der Planeten nachbildeten, und einem Differenzialgetriebe, das einen Sonnen- und einen Mondkalender synchronisierte – eine Getriebeart, wie sie in Westeuropa erst im 14. Jahrhundert neu erfunden wurde. Die Beschriftungen der Zahnräder deuten auf einen Ursprung in Syrakus, dorthin, wo nicht lange zuvor der große Archimedes gelebt hatte. Seit über hundert Jahren wird der Mechanismus von Forschern mit Hingabe untersucht und nachgebaut, einige von ihnen ruinierten sich gesundheitlich, sozial und finanziell – der Apparat übte einen unheimlichen Zauber aus auf alle, die sich damit beschäftigten. Doch Stück für Stück entschlüsselten sie ein 2000 Jahre altes Rätsel; dieses Buch erzählt ihre faszinierende Geschichte.

Anselm of Canterbury: The Major Works

Author: St. Anselm

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191605123

Category: Religion

Page: 544

View: 2469

`For I do not seek to understand so that I may believe; but I believe so that I may understand. For I believe this also, that unless I believe, I shall not understand.' Does God exist? Can we know anything about God's nature? Have we any reason to think that the Christian religion is true? What is truth, anyway? Do human beings have freedom of choice? Can they have such freedom in a world created by God? These questions, and others, were ones which Anselm of Canterbury (c.1033-1109) took very seriously. He was utterly convinced of the truth of the Christian religion, but he was also determined to try to make sense of his Christian faith. Recognizing that the Christian God is incomprehensible, he also believed that Christianity is not simply something to be swallowed with mouth open and eyes shut. For Anselm, the doctrines of Christianity are an invitation to question, to think, and to learn. Anselm is studied today because his rigour of thought and clarity of writing place him among the greatest of theologians and philosophers. This translation provides readers with their first opportunity to read all of his most important works within the covers of a single volume. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Dialogues and Natural History of Religion

Author: David Hume,John Charles Addison Gaskin

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780192838766

Category: Philosophy

Page: 218

View: 1957

David Hume is the greatest and also one of the most provocative philosophers to have written in the English language. No philosopher is more important for his careful, critical, and deeply perceptive examination of the grounds for belief in divine powers and for his sceptical accounts of the causes and consequences of religious belief, expressed most powerfully in the Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion and The Natural History of Religion. The Dialogues ask if belief in God can be inferred from the nature of the universe or whether it is even consistent with what we know about the universe. The Natural History of Religion investigates the origins of belief, and follows its development from harmless polytheism to dogmatic monotheism. Together they constitute the most formidable attack upon the rationality of religious belief ever mounted by a philosopher. This edition also includes Section XI of The Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and a letter concerning the Dialogues, as well as particularly helpful critical apparatus and abstracts of the main texts, enabling the reader to locate or relocate key topics.

Rome's Italian Wars

Author: Livy

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191640824

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 1567

'People have it in their minds that he would have been a match for Alexander, had Alexander turned his arms on Europe.' So Livy characterizes Papirius Cursor, one of Rome's famous generals in the fourth century BC. In Books 6 to 10 of his monumental history of Rome, Livy deals with the period in which Rome recovered from its Gallic disaster to impose mastery over almost the entire Italian peninsula in a series of ever greater wars. Along with Papirius, Livy paints vivid portraits of other notable figures, such as Camillus, who rescued the city from its Gallic captors in 390, young Manlius Torquatus, victor in a David-versus-Goliath duel with a Gallic chieftain, and Appius Claudius who built Rome's first major highway, the Appian Way. Livy's blend of factual narrative and imaginative recreation brings to life a critical era for the rise of Rome, and Books 6 to 10 of his work are the one complete account we have, as the city passes from myth and legend into the increasing light of reliable history. John Yardley's fluent translation is accompanied by an introduction and notes that set Livy in the context of Roman historiography. The complete Livy in English, available in five volumes from Oxford World's Classics. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation

Author: Peter France

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199247844

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 656

View: 2794

This guide highlights the place of translation in our culture, encouraging awareness of the process of translating and the choices involved, making the translator more 'visible'. Concentrating on major writers and works, it covers translations out of many languages, from Greek to Hungarian, Korean to Turkish. For some works (e.g. Virgil's Aeneid) which have been much translated, the discussion is historical and critical, showing how translation has evolved over the centuries and bringing out the differences between versions. Elsewhere, with less familiar literatures, the Guide examines the extent to which translation has done justice to the range of work available.

The Republic and The Laws

Author: Cicero

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191605239

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 5988

`However one defines Man, the same definition applies to us all. This is sufficient proof that there is no essential difference within mankind.' (Laws l.29-30) Cicero's The Republic is an impassioned plea for responsible governement written just before the civil war that ended the Roman Republic in a dialogue following Plato. Drawing on Greek political theory, the work embodies the mature reflections of a Roman ex-consul on the nature of political organization, on justice in society, and on the qualities needed in a statesman. Its sequel, The Laws, expounds the influential doctrine of Natural Law, which applies to all mankind, and sets out an ideal code for a reformed Roman Republic, already half in the realm of utopia. This is the first complete English translation of both works for over sixty years and features a lucid Introduction, a Table of Dates, notes on the Roman constitution, and an Index of Names. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Selected Speeches

Author: Demosthenes

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191645737

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 480

View: 6183

'Even if everyone else succumbs to slavery, we must still fight for our freedom.' Admired by many in the ancient world as the greatest of the classic Athenian orators, Demosthenes was intimately involved in the political events of his day. As well as showing a master orator at work, his speeches are a prime source for the history of the period, when Athens was engaged in a doomed struggle against the rising power of Macedon under the brilliant father and son, Philip and Alexander. Demosthenes wrote for the courts, both for political trials in which he was involved and for other cases in which he acted as ghost-writer for plaintiff or defendant, and his lawcourt speeches give an unrivalled glimpse of the daily life of ancient Athens. He also played a central role in education in Greece and Rome from the Hellenistic period onward, and was imitated by the greatest of Roman orators, Cicero. This selection includes the fullest range of Demosthenes' speeches, for trials both public and private and for the assembly, in a single volume.

Theaetetus

Author: Plato

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191507865

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 5765

'What exactly is knowledge?' The Theaetetus is a seminal text in the philosophy of knowledge, and is acknowledged as one of Plato's finest works. Cast as a conversation between Socrates and a clever but modest student, Theaetetus, it explores one of the key issues in philosophy: what is knowledge? Though no definite answer is reached, the discussion is penetrating and wide-ranging, covering the claims of perception to be knowledge, the theory that all is in motion, and the perennially tempting idea that knowledge and truth are relative to different individuals or states. The inquirers go on to explore the connection between knowledge and true judgement, and the famous threefold definition of knowledge as justified true belief. Packed with subtle arguments, the dialogue is also a work of literary genius, with an unforgettable portrait of Socrates as a midwife of wisdom. This new edition uses the acclaimed translation by John McDowell. It includes a valuable introduction that locates the work in Plato's oeuvre, and explains some of the competing interpretations of its overall meaning. The notes elucidate Plato's arguments and draw connections within the work and with other philosophical discussions. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Selected Letters

Author: Marcus Tullius Cicero,P. G. Walsh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199214204

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 369

View: 2698

This selection of Cicero's letters not merely documents in detail Cicero's career but simultaneously provides a month-by-month record of the collapse of the republic and its replacement by a tyranny. It provides a vivid picture of daily life and politics in Rome, the assassination of Caesar, and Cicero's vain resistance to the rise of Mark Antony.

The Confessions

Author: Saint Augustine,Henry Chadwick

Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks

ISBN: 0199537828

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 352

View: 1974

In his own day the dominant personality of the Western Church, Augustine of Hippo today stands as perhaps the greatest thinker of Christian antiquity, and his Confessions is one of the great works of Western literature. In this intensely personal narrative, Augustine relates his rare ascent from a humble Algerian farm to the edge of the corridors of power at the imperial court in Milan, his struggle against the domination of his sexual nature, his renunciation of secular ambition and marriage, and the recovery of the faith his mother Monica had taught him during his childhood. Now, Henry Chadwick, an eminent scholar of early Christianity, has given us the first new English translation in thirty years of this classic spiritual journey. Chadwick renders the details of Augustine's conversion in clear, modern English. We witness the future saint's fascination with astrology and with the Manichees, and then follow him through scepticism and disillusion with pagan myths until he finally reaches Christian faith. There are brilliant philosophical musings about Platonism and the nature of God, and touching portraits of Augustine's beloved mother, of St. Ambrose of Milan, and of other early Christians like Victorinus, who gave up a distinguished career as a rhetorician to adopt the orthodox faith. Augustine's concerns are often strikingly contemporary, yet his work contains many references and allusions that are easily understood only with background information about the ancient social and intellectual setting. To make The Confessions accessible to contemporary readers, Chadwick provides the most complete and informative notes of any recent translation, and includes an introduction to establish the context. The religious and philosophical value of The Confessions is unquestionable--now modern readers will have easier access to St. Augustine's deeply personal meditations. Chadwick's lucid translation and helpful introduction clear the way for a new experience of this classic. About the Series: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the broadest spectrum of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, voluminous notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Shakespeare's Common Prayers

The Book of Common Prayer and the Elizabethan Age

Author: Daniel Swift

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199977038

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 5159

Societies and entire nations draw their identities from certain founding documents, whether charters, declarations, or manifestos. The Book of Common Prayer figures as one of the most crucial in the history of the English-speaking peoples. First published in 1549 to make accessible the devotional language of the late Henry the VIII's new church, the prayer book was a work of monumental religious, political, and cultural importance. Within its rituals, prescriptions, proscriptions, and expressions were fought the religious wars of the age of Shakespeare. This diminutive book--continuously reformed and revised--was how that age defined itself. In Shakespeare's Common Prayers, Daniel Swift makes dazzling and original use of this foundational text, employing it as an entry-point into the works of England's most celebrated writer. Though commonly neglected as a source for Shakespeare's work, Swift persuasively and conclusively argues that the Book of Common Prayer was absolutely essential to the playwright. It was in the Book's ambiguities and its fierce contestations that Shakespeare found the ready elements of drama: dispute over words and their practical consequences, hope for sanctification tempered by fear of simple meaninglessness, and the demand for improvised performance as compensation for the failure of language to fulfill its promises. What emerges is nothing less than a portrait of Shakespeare at work: absorbing, manipulating, reforming, and struggling with the explosive chemistry of word and action that comprised early modern liturgy. Swift argues that the Book of Common Prayer mediates between the secular and the devotional, producing a tension that makes Shakespeare's plays so powerful and exceptional. Tracing the prayer book's lines and motions through As You Like It, Hamlet, Twelfth Night, Measure for Measure, Othello, and particularly Macbeth, Swift reveals how the greatest writer of the age--of perhaps any age--was influenced and guided by its most important book.

Complete Letters

Author: Pliny the Younger,

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199538948

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 9842

"In the introduction to his new translation, P.G. Walsh examines the background to these often intimate and enthralling letters."--Jacket.