The Discovery of DNA
Author: Robert Olby
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Written by a noted historian of science, this in-depth account traces how Watson and Crick achieved one of science's most dramatic feats: their 1953 discovery of the molecular structure of DNA.
Author: Henry S. Turner
Publisher: A&C Black
Category: Literary Criticism
What does it mean to make life? This book focuses on one of the key questions for culture and science in both Shakespeare's time and our own. Shakespeare wrote A Midsummer Night's Dream during a period when the 'new science' had begun to unsettle the foundations of knowledge about the natural world. Through close analysis of the play and reflection on modern genetic engineering, Turner examines developments in early modern culture as it sought to come to terms with the new forces of magic, astrology, alchemy and mechanics - fields of knowledge that preoccupied the most adventurous intellects of Shakespeare's period and that promised limitless power over nature. Shakespeare's writing sheds light on current developments in science, ethics, law, and religion in contemporary culture. This book reveals the richness and peculiarity of early scientific thought in Shakespeare's time and shows how the questions he poses remain fundamental as the nature of 'life' has become one of the most pressing political, ethical, and philosophical problems for society today.
The Quest to Uncover the Structure of DNA
Author: Glen Phelan
Publisher: National Geographic Society
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Presents the scientific knowledge and breakthroughs that led to the discovery of DNA and its structure.
Author: T. Shinn,Richard P. Whitley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The prevailing view of scientific popularization, both within academic circles and beyond, affirms that its objectives and procedures are unrelated to tasks of cognitive development and that its pertinence is by and large restricted to the lay public. Consistent with this view, popularization is frequently portrayed as a logical and hence inescapable consequence of a culture dominated by science-based products and procedures and by a scientistic ideology. On another level, it is depicted as a quasi-political device for chan nelling the energies of the general public along predetermined paths; examples of this are the nineteenth-century Industrial Revolution and the U. S. -Soviet space race. Alternatively, scientific popularization is described as a carefully contrived plan which enables scientists or their spokesmen to allege that scientific learn ing is equitably shared by scientists and non-scientists alike. This manoeuvre is intended to weaken the claims of anti-scientific protesters that scientists monopolize knowledge as a means of sustaining their social privileges. Pop ularization is also sometimes presented as a psychological crutch. This, in an era of increasing scientific specialisation, permits the researchers involved to believe that by transcending the boundaries of their narrow fields, their endeavours assume a degree of general cognitive importance and even extra scientific relevance. Regardless of the particular thrust of these different analyses it is important to point out that all are predicated on the tacit presupposition that scientific popularization belongs essentially to the realm of non-science, or only concerns the periphery of scientific activity.
Their Psychology, Circumstances, and Success
Author: Eileen A. Gavin, PhD,Aphrodite Clamar, PhD,Mary Anne Siderits, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
Category: Social Science
From the reviews: "Women of Vision blends biographical narrative with psychological perspectives on human development, resulting in a moving and passionate book that is suitable for both academic and nonacademic readers. It is a useful tool for teaching purposes or for simple, enjoyable, and informative reading." --Psychology of Women Quarterly "...a fascinating look of preservation and perceptiveness that is differentiated from its predecessors in its range of disciplines and emphasis...This new 'life course' approach to understanding female leaders gives valuable insight into the lives of these imminent women, furnishing insights into how the social-economic-political milieu and the attitudes and values of the time played a significant role in the lives of these women but also in all our lives. Women of Vision will serve as a springboard for exploration of how the psychologies of individual human lives affect their life-course and as a galvanizing step for many more future women of vision and leadership....The accounts in the book should be of substantial significance for readers interested in gender issues. However, the book will appeal to an even wider audience. Persons hoping to move in new directions in their own lives (e.g., women looking wistfully at new academic and occupational paths after years in stereotypic niches) can surely also find inspiration in the various accounts."--SirReadaLot.org We all know of women of great vision; women whose efforts and accomplishments have had a major impact on the arts, politics, women's rights, sports, or science. But often we may not understand how they became such powerful agents of change and what sorts of questions we should ask of their pasts to understand how the trajectories of their lives were formed. In this extraordinary textbook, leading experts cast new light on the role of circumstance, accomplishments, and personality in the development of various twentieth-century women of vision. This is a brand new life-course approach to understanding female leaders and gives valuable insight into the lives of such eminent women as Rachel Carson, Evelyn Gentry Hooker, Georgia O'Keeffe, Eleanor Roosevelt, "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias, Ella Fitzgerald, Alice Paul, Lucille Ball, and many others. Study questions and exercises at the end of each chapter further enhance the text. Women of Vision will serve as the springboard for exploration of how the psychologies of individual human lives affect their life-course and a galvanizing step for many more future women of vision and leadership.
A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA
Author: James D. Watson
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
The classic personal account of Watson and Crick’s groundbreaking discovery of the structure of DNA, now with an introduction by Sylvia Nasar, author of A Beautiful Mind. By identifying the structure of DNA, the molecule of life, Francis Crick and James Watson revolutionized biochemistry and won themselves a Nobel Prize. At the time, Watson was only twenty-four, a young scientist hungry to make his mark. His uncompromisingly honest account of the heady days of their thrilling sprint against other world-class researchers to solve one of science’s greatest mysteries gives a dazzlingly clear picture of a world of brilliant scientists with great gifts, very human ambitions, and bitter rivalries. With humility unspoiled by false modesty, Watson relates his and Crick’s desperate efforts to beat Linus Pauling to the Holy Grail of life sciences, the identification of the basic building block of life. Never has a scientist been so truthful in capturing in words the flavor of his work.
Author: Thomas Russell
Miami Winter Symposia, Volume 16: From Gene to Protein: Information Transfer in Normal and Abnormal Cells presents the expression and processing of genetic information at the levels of both proteins and nucleic acids. This book deals with the reassembly and mobilization of genetic information. Organized into 105 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the discovery of the double helix and the search for the genetic code and the three-dimensional structure of protein. This text then examines the molecular mechanism by which steroid hormones regulate specific gene expression. Other chapters consider the possible hazards inherent to hybrid DNA technology. This book discusses as well the various problems of gene control in higher organisms, which are illustrated by the changes that occur in the hemoglobin of mammals. The final chapter deals with the characterization of adenovirus-2 mRNAs. This book is a valuable resource for biochemists, genetic engineers, enzymologists, scientists, geneticists, and molecular biologists.
William Astbury and the Forgotten Road to the Double-Helix
Author: Kersten T. Hall
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Sir Isaac Newton once declared that his momentous discoveries were only made thanks to having 'stood on the shoulders of giants'. The same might also be said of the scientists James Watson and Francis Crick. Their discovery of the structure of DNA was, without doubt, one of the biggest scientific landmarks in history and, thanks largely to the success of Watson's best-selling memoir 'The Double Helix', there might seem to be little new to say about this story. But much remains to be said about the particular 'giants' on whose shoulders Watson and Crick stood. Of these, the crystallographer Rosalind Franklin, whose famous X-ray diffraction photograph known as 'Photo 51' provided Watson and Crick with a vital clue, is now well recognised. Far less well known is the physicist William T. Astbury who, working at Leeds in the 1930s on the structure of wool for the local textile industry, pioneered the use of X-ray crystallography to study biological fibres. In so doing, he not only made the very first studies of the structure of DNA culminating in a photo almost identical to Franklin's 'Photo 51', but also founded the new science of 'molecular biology'. Yet whilst Watson and Crick won the Nobel Prize, Astbury has largely been forgotten. The Man in the Monkeynut Coat tells the story of this neglected pioneer, showing not only how it was thanks to him that Watson and Crick were not left empty-handed, but also how his ideas transformed biology leaving a legacy which is still felt today.
Author: R. N. Albright
Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
This unique look at the study of DNA goes beyond the science and explores the lives of four great scientists: James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin. It was through their complex personal interactions and their devotion to the science that led to breakthroughs surrounding the structure of DNA and our modern understanding of genetics. Readers can learn that science is not about one individual and his or her discoveries, but is the work of many. Numerous scientific breakthroughs can be attributed to competition and rivalry.
Author: J. Schuster,R.R. Yeo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The institutionalization of History and Philosophy of Science as a distinct field of scholarly endeavour began comparatively earl- though not always under that name - in the Australasian region. An initial lecturing appointment was made at the University of Melbourne immediately after the Second World War, in 1946, and other appoint ments followed as the subject underwent an expansion during the 1950s and 1960s similar to that which took place in other parts of the world. Today there are major Departments at the University of Melbourne, the University of New South Wales and the University of Wollongong, and smaller groups active in many other parts of Australia and in New Zealand. "Australasian Studies in History and Philosophy of Science" aims to provide a distinctive publication outlet for Australian and New Zealand scholars working in the general area of history, philosophy and social studies of science. Each volume comprises a group of essays on a connected theme, edited by an Australian or a New Zealander with special expertise in that particular area. Papers address general issues, however, rather than local ones; parochial topics are avoided. Further more, though in each volume a majority of the contributors is from Australia or New Zealand, contributions from elsewhere are by no means ruled out. Quite the reverse, in fact - they are actively encour aged wherever appropriate to the balance of the volume in question.
On Resistance and Neglect
Author: Ernest B. Hook
Publisher: Univ of California Press
"In preparing this remarkable book, Ernest Hook persuaded an eminent group of scientists, historians, sociologists and philosophers to focus on the problem: why are some discoveries rejected at a particular time but later seen to be valid? The interaction of these experts did not produce agreement on 'prematurity' in science but something more valuable: a collection of fascinating papers, many of them based on new research and analysis, which sometimes forced the author to revise a previously-held opinion. The book should be enthusiastically welcomed by all readers who are interested in how science works."—Stephen G. Brush, co-author of Physics, The Human Adventure: From copernicus to Einstein and Beyond "Prematurity and Scientific Discovery contains interesting and insightful papers by numerous well-known scientists and scholars. It will be of wide interest, not only to science studies scholars but also to working scientists and to science-literate general readers."—Thomas Nickles, editor of Scientific Discovery, Logic, and Rationality
Author: Nancy Werlin
Category: Young Adult Fiction
Eighteen-year-old Eli discovers a shocking secret about his life and his family while working for a Nobel Prize-winning scientist whose specialty is genetic engineering.
Dorothy Wrinch and the Cultures of Science
Author: Marjorie Senechal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In the vein of A Beautiful Mind, The Man Who Loved Only Numbers, and Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA, this volume tells the poignant story of the brilliant, colorful, controversial mathematician named Dorothy Wrinch. Drawing on her own personal and professional relationship with Wrinch and archives in the United States, Canada, and England, Marjorie Senechal explores the life and work of this provocative, scintillating mind. Senechal portrays a woman who was learned, restless, imperious, exacting, critical, witty, and kind. A young disciple of Bertrand Russell while at Cambridge, the first women to receive a doctor of science degree from Oxford University, Wrinch's contributions to mathematical physics, philosophy, probability theory, genetics, protein structure, and crystallography were anything but inconsequential. But Wrinch, a complicated and ultimately tragic figure, is remembered today for her much publicized feud with Linus Pauling over the molecular architecture of proteins. Pauling ultimately won that bitter battle. Yet, Senechal reminds us, some of the giants of mid-century science--including Niels Bohr, Irving Langmuir, D'Arcy Thompson, Harold Urey, and David Harker--took Wrinch's side in the feud. What accounts for her vast if now-forgotten influence? What did these renowned thinkers, in such different fields, hope her model might explain? Senechal presents a sympathetic portrait of the life and work of a luminous but tragically flawed character. At the same time, she illuminates the subtler prejudices Wrinch faced as a feisty woman, profound culture clashes between scientific disciplines, ever-changing notions of symmetry and pattern in science, and the puzzling roles of beauty and truth.
Beiträge zur Geschichte
Author: Heinz Bielka
In dem vorliegenden Titel beschreibt der über mehr als vier Jahrzehnte in diesen Einrichtungen tätige Autor erstmals die Geschichte der traditionsreichen und weit über die Grenzen Deutschlands hinaus bekannten medizinisch-biologischen Forschungsinstitute in Berlin-Buch. Damit werden wichtige Etappen und Wissenschaftlerpersönlichkeiten der Hirnforschung, der Genetik, der Krebs- und Herz-Kreislaufforschung und der molekularen Medizin in Deutschland in ihren wechselvollen Umfeldern verschiedener Gesellschaftssysteme der letzten sieben Jahrzehnte vorgestellt.
Author: James E. Strick
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Wilhelm Reich’s experiments in the 1930s with cutting-edge light microscopy and time-lapse micro-cinematography were considered discredited, but not because of shoddy lab technique, as has been claimed. Scientific opposition to Reich’s experiments, James Strick argues, grew out of resistance to his unorthodox sexual theories and Marxist leanings.
Author: Gregory J. Feist, PhD,Michael E. Gorman, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
"Highly recommended."--Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries This handbook is the definitive resource for scholars and students interested in how research and theory within each of the major domains of psychologyódevelopmental, cognitive, personality, and socialóhave been applied to understand the nature of scientific thought and behavior. Edited by two esteemed pioneers in the emerging discipline of the psychology of science, it is the first empirically based compendium of its time. The handbook provides a comprehensive examination of how scientific thinking is learned and evolves from infancy to adolescence and adulthood, and combines developmental and cognitive approaches to show the categorical similarities and differences in thinking between children, adolescents, adults, and scientists. Chapters highlight the breadth and depth of psychological perspectives in the studies of science, from creativity and genius, gender, and conflict and cooperation, to postmodernism and psychobiography. A section on applications offers findings and ideas that can be put to use by educators, policymakers, and science administrators. Contributors examine the importance of mental models in solving difficult technical problems, and the significance of leadership and organizational structure in successful innovation. The final section of the book is devoted to the future of this new field, focusing on how to continue to develop a healthy psychology of science. Key Features: Presents the only empirically based compendium of current knowledge about the psychology of scientific thought and behavior Edited by two pioneers in the discipline of psychology of science Describes how scientific thinking is learned and changes throughout the life span Addresses creativity and genius, gender, conflict and cooperation, postmodernism, and psychobiography Covers applications of the psychology of science that can be used by educators, policymakers, and science administrators
A CHF Reading List
Author: Chemical Heritage Foundation
Publisher: Chemical Heritage Foundation
An introductory guide that is designed particularly for teachers and their students, but is useful in many other contexts. This new edition lists reference works; histories of science and technology; histories of the chemical sciences and industries including company histories; autobiographies and biographies; edited classical texts; and journals.
Religious Violence from the Crusades to Jihad
Author: Heather Selma Gregg
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
In the wake of 9/11, policy analysts, journalists, and academics have tried to make sense of the rise of militant Islam, particularly its role as a motivating and legitimating force for violence against the United States. The general perception is that Islam is more violence-prone than other religions and that scripture and beliefs within the faith, such as the doctrines of jihad and martyrdom, demonstrate the inherently violent nature of Islam. Here, however, Heather Selma Gregg draws comparisons across religious traditions to investigate common causes of religious violence. The author sets side-by-side examples of current and historic Islamic violence with similar acts by Christian, Jewish, Buddhist, and Hindu adherents. Based on her findings, Gregg challenges the assumption that religious violence stems from a faithÆs scriptures. Instead, Gregg argues that religious violence is the result of interpretations of a religionÆs beliefs and scriptures. Interpretations calling for violence in the name of a faith are the product of individuals, but it is important to understand the conditions under which these violent interpretations of a religion occur. These conditions must be considered by identifying who is interpreting the religion and by what authority; the social, political, and economic circumstances surrounding these violent interpretations; and the believability of these interpretations by members of religious communities.
The Race and the Rivalry to be the First in Science
Author: Morton Meyers, M.D.
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
We often think of scientists as dispassionate and detached, nobly laboring without any expectation of reward. But scientific research is much more complicated and messy than this ideal, and scientists can be torn by jealousy, impelled by a need for recognition, and subject to human vulnerability and fallibility. In Prize Fight , Emeritus Chair at SUNY School of Medicine Morton Meyers pulls back the curtain to reveal the dark side of scientific discovery. From allegations of stolen authorship to fabricated results and elaborate hoaxes, he shows us how too often brilliant minds are reduced to petty jealousies and promising careers cut short by disputes over authorship or fudged data. Prize Fight is a dramatic look at some of the most notable discoveries in science in recent years, from the discovery of insulin, which led to decades of infighting and even violence, to why the 2003 Nobel Prize in Medicine exposed how often scientific objectivity is imperiled.
Pt. I: 9th International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, Proceedings
Author: Rajiv Khosla,Robert J. Howlett
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Business & Economics
Dear delegates,friendsand membersofthe growingKES professionalcommunity,w- come to the proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Knowledge-Based and IntelligentInformationandEngineeringSystemshostedbyLa TrobeUniversityin M- bourne Australia. The KES conference series has been established for almost a decade, and it cont- ues each year to attract participants from all geographical areas of the world, including Europe, the Americas, Australasia and the Paci?c Rim. The KES conferences cover a wide range of intelligent systems topics. The broad focus of the conference series is the theory and applications of intelligent systems. From a pure research ?eld, intel- gent systems have advanced to the point where their abilities have been incorporated into many business and engineering application areas. KES 2005 provided a valuable mechanism for delegates to obtain an extensive view of the latest research into a range of intelligent-systems algorithms, tools and techniques. The conference also gave de- gates the chance to come into contact with those applying intelligent systems in diverse commercial areas. The combination of theory and practice represented a unique opp- tunity to gain an appreciation of the full spectrum of leading-edge intelligent-systems activity. The papers for KES 2005 were either submitted to invited sessions, chaired and organized by respected experts in their ?elds, or to a general session, managed by an extensive International Program Committee, or to the Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIHMSP) Workshop, managed by an International Workshop Technical Committee.