The Politics of Global AIDS

Institutionalization of Solidarity, Exclusion of Context

Author: Hakan Seckinelgin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319460137

Category: Political Science

Page: 193

View: 1653

This timely book looks critically at the policy response to AIDS and its institutionalization over time. It raises important questions about who benefits, who decides, and in whose interests decisions are made. Taking the early international response to the epidemic as its starting point, and focusing on the work of agencies such as UNAIDS, it identifies two logics underpinning strategy to date. First, the idea of HIV as a ‘global emergency’ which calls for an extraordinary response. Second, the claim that medicine offers the best way of dealing with it. The book also identified the rise of something more dominant – namely Global AIDS – or the logic and system that seeks to displace all others. Promulgated by UNAIDS and its partner agencies, Global AIDS claims to speak the truth on behalf of affected persons and communities everywhere. Founded on solidarity claims concerning the international HIV movement, and distinctive knowledge practices which determine what needs to be done. Alternative views about the nature of the epidemic or the best response are rejected as irrelevant for falling outside the master framing of the epidemic that Global AIDS provides. But to what extent is this biomedical and emergency framing of the epidemic sustainable, and to what extent does it speak to the sustainability of lives as affected people wish them to be lived? Does scientific and biomedical advance provide all the answers, or do important social and political issues need to be addressed? This book provides an innovative framework with which to think about these and other sustainability challenges for the future.

Evaluation of PEPFAR

Author: Board on Global Health,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on the Outcome and Impact Evaluation of Global HIV/AIDS Programs Implemented Under the Lantos-Hyde Act of 2008,Institute of Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309267803

Category: Medical

Page: 814

View: 7904

The U.S. government supports programs to combat global HIV/AIDS through an initiative that is known as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This initiative was originally authorized in the U.S. Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003 and focused on an emergency response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic to deliver lifesaving care and treatment in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with the highest burdens of disease. It was subsequently reauthorized in the Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde U.S. Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008 (the Lantos-Hyde Act). Evaluation of PEPFAR makes recommendations for improving the U.S. government's bilateral programs as part of the U.S. response to global HIV/AIDS. The overall aim of this evaluation is a forward-looking approach to track and anticipate the evolution of the U.S. response to global HIV to be positioned to inform the ability of the U.S. government to address key issues under consideration at the time of the report release.

The Republic of Therapy

Triage and Sovereignty in West Africa’s Time of AIDS

Author: Vinh-Kim Nguyen

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822393506

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 4667

The Republic of Therapy tells the story of the global response to the HIV epidemic from the perspective of community organizers, activists, and people living with HIV in West Africa. Drawing on his experiences as a physician and anthropologist in Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire, Vinh-Kim Nguyen focuses on the period between 1994, when effective antiretroviral treatments for HIV were discovered, and 2000, when the global health community acknowledged a right to treatment, making the drugs more available. During the intervening years, when antiretrovirals were scarce in Africa, triage decisions were made determining who would receive lifesaving treatment. Nguyen explains how those decisions altered social relations in West Africa. In 1994, anxious to “break the silence” and “put a face to the epidemic,” international agencies unwittingly created a market in which stories about being HIV positive could be bartered for access to limited medical resources. Being able to talk about oneself became a matter of life or death. Tracing the cultural and political logic of triage back to colonial classification systems, Nguyen shows how it persists in contemporary attempts to design, fund, and implement mass treatment programs in the developing world. He argues that as an enactment of decisions about who may live, triage constitutes a partial, mobile form of sovereignty: what might be called therapeutic sovereignty.

The Three Cultures

Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, and the Humanities in the 21st Century

Author: Jerome Kagan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521518423

Category: Philosophy

Page: 311

View: 7579

Examines the basic goals, vocabulary, and assumptions of the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, summarizing their unique contributions to our understanding of human nature and its variation.

Getting to Zero

2011-2015 Strategy

Author: Unaids

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: N.A

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 63

View: 3420

This document outlines the UNAIDS 2011-2015 strategy. It was approved by the UNAIDS Board in December 2010. It outlines three strategic directions to reach the UNAIDS vision of zero new HIV infections, zero Discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths: revolutionize HIV prevention; advance human rights and gender equality for the HIV response and catalyse the next phase of treatment, care and support.

Structural Dynamics of HIV

Risk, Resilience and Response

Author: Deanna Kerrigan,Clare Barrington

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319635220

Category: Medical

Page: 211

View: 3721

This book examines the structural dynamics of HIV among populations at heightened vulnerability to infection as the result of stigma, discrimination and marginalization. It first examines how the socio-structural context shapes HIV risk and how affected populations and national governments and programs have responded to these structural constraints. Chapters focus on structural determinants of HIV risk among transgender women in Guatemala, migrant workers in Mexico, Nigeria and Vietnam, and people who inject drugs in Tanzania. Next, the book examines resilience and community empowerment and mobilization among key populations such as female sex workers in the Dominican Republic and India, and young women and girls in Botswana, Malawi and Mozambique. A third set of chapters explores how national responses to HIV have addressed the role of structural factors in diverse political, geographic and epidemic settings including: Brazil, South Africa, Ukraine and the USA. Ultimately, effective and sustainable responses to HIV among marginalized groups must be grounded in an in-depth understanding of the factors that create vulnerability and risk and impede access to services. Throughout, this book brings together a rigorous social science research perspective with a strong rights-based approach to inform improvements in HIV programs and policies. It offers new insights into how to better address HIV and the health and human rights of historically excluded communities and groups.

AIDS in Africa

Three Scenarios to 2025

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9789291734108

Category: Medical

Page: 220

View: 5748

This report presents three hypothetical case studies for how the AIDS epidemic in Africa could evolve over the next 20 years based on policy decisions taken today by African leaders and the rest of the world; and considers the factors likely to drive the future responses of African countries and the international community. The scenarios draw on the age-old tradition of story-telling, rather than using data projections, to explore the wider context of the AIDS epidemic, reflecting the complexity of the subject matter.

The World Health Report 2008

Primary Health Care : Now More Than Ever

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241563737

Category: Medical

Page: 119

View: 1212

Provides information on medical care and health care policy from around the world.

World Report on Ageing and Health

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241565047

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 246

View: 1246

The WHO World report on ageing and health is not for the book shelf it is a living breathing testament to all older people who have fought for their voice to be heard at all levels of government across disciplines and sectors. - Mr Bjarne Hastrup President International Federation on Ageing and CEO DaneAge This report outlines a framework for action to foster Healthy Ageing built around the new concept of functional ability. This will require a transformation of health systems away from disease based curative models and towards the provision of older-person-centred and integrated care. It will require the development sometimes from nothing of comprehensive systems of long term care. It will require a coordinated response from many other sectors and multiple levels of government. And it will need to draw on better ways of measuring and monitoring the health and functioning of older populations. These actions are likely to be a sound investment in society's future. A future that gives older people the freedom to live lives that previous generations might never have imagined. The World report on ageing and health responds to these challenges by recommending equally profound changes in the way health policies for ageing populations are formulated and services are provided. As the foundation for its recommendations the report looks at what the latest evidence has to say about the ageing process noting that many common perceptions and assumptions about older people are based on outdated stereotypes. The report's recommendations are anchored in the evidence comprehensive and forward-looking yet eminently practical. Throughout examples of experiences from different countries are used to illustrate how specific problems can be addressed through innovation solutions. Topics explored range from strategies to deliver comprehensive and person-centred services to older populations to policies that enable older people to live in comfort and safety to ways to correct the problems and injustices inherent in current systems for long-term care.

Politics of the Possible

Gender Mainstreaming and Organizational Change : Experiences from the Field

Author: Maitrayee Mukhopadhyay,Gerard Steehouwer,Franz Wong

Publisher: Oxfam

ISBN: 9780855985707

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 5324

What actually happens to organizations during gender and organization change endeavors? This book takes an in-depth look at the experience of seven Novib partner organizations in the Middle East and South Asia who undertook the challenge of the Gender Focus Programme. It recounts their analysis of their organization, and the route they chose to follow. The book presents field experiences of managing the politically sensitive agenda of promoting gender equality in the NGOs and negotiating the contradictions between using Organizational Development tools and promoting gender equality. In doing so, it shows how organizational change for gender equality is an integral part of gender mainstreaming processes. As a decade of evidence suggests, gender mainstreaming is vulnerable to becoming technocratic and ineffective. These seven organizations, unable to separate entirely the integral change process from their extrernal work as NGOs, experiences a spillover of gender justice concerns into their work in the field, with a variety of program results.

The Fourth Wave

Violence, Gender, Culture & HIV in the 21st Century

Author: Jennifer Klot,Vinh-Kim Nguyen

Publisher: UNESCO

ISBN: 9789231041587

Category: AIDS (Disease)

Page: 534

View: 9258

Folk Devils and Moral Panics

Author: Stanley Cohen

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136807047

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 3513

'Richly documented and convincingly presented' -- New Society Mods and Rockers, skinheads, video nasties, designer drugs, bogus asylum seeks and hoodies. Every era has its own moral panics. It was Stanley Cohen’s classic account, first published in the early 1970s and regularly revised, that brought the term ‘moral panic’ into widespread discussion. It is an outstanding investigation of the way in which the media and often those in a position of political power define a condition, or group, as a threat to societal values and interests. Fanned by screaming media headlines, Cohen brilliantly demonstrates how this leads to such groups being marginalised and vilified in the popular imagination, inhibiting rational debate about solutions to the social problems such groups represent. Furthermore, he argues that moral panics go even further by identifying the very fault lines of power in society. Full of sharp insight and analysis, Folk Devils and Moral Panics is essential reading for anyone wanting to understand this powerful and enduring phenomenon. Professor Stanley Cohen is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the London School of Economics. He received the Sellin-Glueck Award of the American Society of Criminology (1985) and is on the Board of the International Council on Human Rights. He is a member of the British Academy.

The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Theory

Author: Michael J. Thompson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137558016

Category: Political Science

Page: 739

View: 8736

This handbook is the only major survey of critical theory from philosophical, political, sociological, psychological and historical vantage points. It emphasizes not only on the historical and philosophical roots of critical theory, but also its current themes and trends as well as future applications and directions. It addresses specific areas of interest that have forged the critical theory tradition, such as critical social psychology, aesthetics and the critique of culture, communicative action, and the critique of instrumental reason. It is intended for those interested in exploring the influential paradigm of critical theory from multiple, interdisciplinary perspectives and understanding its contribution to the humanities and the social sciences.

Solidarity in Europe

The History of an Idea

Author: Steinar Stjernø

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521605113

Category: History

Page: 408

View: 3563

How has solidarity been defined, and how has it changed from the early 19th century until today? This unique volume systematically compares the many different conceptions of this central political idea held by Europeans over the past two centuries. It covers social and political theory, Protestant and Catholic social ethics and an analysis of how social democratic, Christian democratic, communist and fascist parties in most European countries have viewed solidarity.

The HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins

Folding, Function and Vaccin Design

Author: Rogier Willem Sanders

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9789053566671

Category: Medical

Page: 337

View: 1347

The need for a vaccine against HIV is obvious, but the development of an effective vaccine has met with frustrations. The HIV envelope glycoproteins, residing in the viral membrane, are the sole viral proteins exposed on the outside of virus particles and.

Overcoming Political Exclusion

Strategies for Marginalized Groups to Successfully Engage in Political Decision-Making

Author: International Idea,Jenny Hedström,Julian Smith

Publisher: International Idea

ISBN: 9789186565961

Category: Political Science

Page: 106

View: 376

This book identifies hurdles preventing marginalised people from taking active part in customary and democratic decision-making. The publication describes how marginalised groups -- including people from religious, ethnic and linguistic minorities; people facing caste-based discrimination; people with disabilities; young people; indigenous peoples; people from remote geographical locations; and people discriminated against on the basis of their sexual orientation -- have worked to overcome barriers to their participation in governance. The publication draws on experience from 38 case studies. Strategies are identified reflecting how marginalised people managed transition from political exclusion to inclusion both in customary and democratic politics. From these strategies lessons are identified that other marginalised groups can consider adopting.

Diversity in Survey Questions on the Same Topic

Techniques for Improving Comparability

Author: Tineke de Jonge,Ruut Veenhoven,Wim Kalmijn

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319532618

Category: Social Science

Page: 202

View: 6871

This book describes why conventional methods fall short to solve the comparability problem and introduces three successive innovations to overcome these shortcomings. Comparability of results from different surveys using different items for the same topic is greatly hampered by the differences in response scales used. This reduces our accumulation of knowledge and has challenged researchers in the field of survey research for long to develop appropriate methods to transform ratings on different scales to attain comparable results and to correct for effects of changes in measurements and other influencing factors. The three innovations described in this volume are applied to data on happiness and life satisfaction, show better comparability of the survey results concerning the perceptions and opinions of people over time and across nations and at an increased opportunity for meta-analysis on these results.

HIV/AIDS in South Africa 25 Years On

Psychosocial Perspectives

Author: Poul Rohleder,Leslie Swartz,Seth C. Kalichman,Leickness Chisamu Simbayi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441903068

Category: Medical

Page: 393

View: 5412

Much has happened since the first appearance of AIDS in 1981: it has been identified, studied, and occasionally denied. The virus has shifted host populations and spread globally. Medicine, the social sciences, and world governments have joined forces to combat and prevent the disease. And South Africa has emerged as ground zero for the pandemic. The editors of HIV/AIDS in South Africa 25 Years On present the South African crisis as a template for addressing the myriad issues surrounding the epidemic worldwide, as the book brings together a widely scattered body of literature, analyzes psychosocial and sexual aspects contributing to HIV transmission and prevention, and delves into complex intersections of race, gender, class, and politics. Including largely overlooked populations and issues (e.g., prisoners, persons with disabilities, stigma), as well as challenges shaping future research and policy, the contributors approach their topics with rare depth, meticulous research, carefully drawn conclusions, and profound compassion. Among the topics covered: The relationship between HIV and poverty, starting from the question, "Which is the determinant and which is the consequence?" Epidemiology of HIV among women and men: concepts of femininity and masculinity, and gender inequities as they affect HIV risk; gender-specific prevention and intervention strategies. The impact of AIDS on infants and young children: risk and protective factors; care of children by HIV-positive mothers; HIV-infected children. Current prevention and treatment projects, including local-level responses, community-based work, and VCT (voluntary counseling and testing) programs. New directions: promoting circumcision, vaccine trials, "positive prevention." South Africa’s history of AIDS denialism. The urgent lessons in this book apply both globally and locally, making HIV/AIDS in South Africa 25 Years On uniquely instructive and useful for professionals working in HIV/AIDS and global public health.

Stigmatization, Discrimination and Illness

Experiences among HIV-Seropositive Women in Tanga, Tanzania

Author: Bohle, Leah Franziska

Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen

ISBN: 3863951085

Category: Social Science

Page: 119

View: 8598

“She was given her own plate, her own cup, everything of her own, even when she just touched a cloth then nobody wanted to touch it again.” (Halima, HIV-seropositive) The book sheds light on the profound influence of an HIV-seropositive diagnosis on the lives of women and their social environment in the United Republic of Tanzania. The author, a medical doctor and social anthropologist, tells the story of six Tanzanian HIV-seropositive women, focusing on their negotiation and perception of illness and disease. Furthermore, the high levels of discrimination and stigmatization in the context of HIV-seropositivity that they experience are presented in detail, weaving together the impacts of an HIV-seropositive diagnosis with results analyzed both from a Medical Anthropology and Public Health perspective. Despite a new era of antiretroviral treatment, available in Tanzania free of cost, that has given cause for hope in a change in how the disease is perceived, the book impressively underlines that being HIV-seropositive remains a great challenge and heavy burden for women in Tanzania.