The Politics of Resource Extraction

Indigenous Peoples, Multinational Corporations and the State

Author: Suzana Sawyer,Edmund Terence Gomez

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 023034772X

Category: Political Science

Page: 314

View: 2329

Transnational Governmentality in the Context of Resource Extraction-- S.Sawyer & E.T.Gomez On Indigenous Identity and a Language of Rights-- S.Sawyer & E.T.Gomez State, Capital, Multinational Institutions and Indigenous Peoples-- S.Sawyer & E.T.Gomez Indigenous Rights, Mining Corporations and the Australian State-- J.Altman Extracting Justice: Natural Gas, Indigenous Mobilization and the Bolivian State-- T.Perreault The Broker State and the 'Inevitability' of Progress: The Camisea Project and Indigenous Peoples in Peru-- P.Urteaga-Crovetto Development, Power and Identity Politics in the Philippines-- R.D.Rovillos & V.Tauli-Corpuz The Nigerian State, Multinational Oil Corporations and the Indigenous Communities of the Niger Delta-- B.Naanen Identity, Power and Development: The Kondhs in Orissa, India-- V.Xaxa Public-Private Partnership and Institutional Capture: The State, International Institutions and Indigenous Peoples in Chad and Cameroon-- K.Horta Identity, Power and Rights: The State, International Institutions and Indigenous Peoples in Canada-- M.Davis Attending to the Paradox: Public Governance and Inclusive International Platforms-- S.Sawyer & E.T.Gomez Appendix 1: International Conventions and IFI Policies on Indigenous Rights Appendix 2: Cross-Section of Domestic Legislation Pertaining to Indigenous Rights Appendix 3: Legal Institutions and Authorities for the Enforcement of Indigenous Rights.

The Global Crisis and Transformative Social Change

Author: Peter Utting,Shahra Razavi,Rebecca Varghese Buchholz

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 023029782X

Category: Political Science

Page: 289

View: 7405

Global crises not only impact the economy and people's livelihoods, they also unsettle basic ideas and assumptions about the meaning and drivers of development. This collection of theoretical and empirical studies contributes to the global debate about the substance and politics of policy change three years into the 2007/8 crisis. It examines the challenges and dynamics involved from the perspective of development and developing countries. In doing so it engages with some of the most pressing and contested issues. To what extent does the crisis provide an opportunity for moving away from the doctrines and policies that reinforced inequality and vulnerability? What new directions in policy, especially social policy, are required, and are developing countries moving in such directions? Are social forces and political coalitions supportive of transformative change able to mobilize? While the political underpinnings of policy change conducive to social reform - contestation, social mobilization and coalition politics - are energized in the context of crises, the nature of demands and the responsiveness of elites can vary considerably.

Natural Resources and Social Conflict

Towards Critical Environmental Security

Author: M. Schnurr,L. Swatuk

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137002468

Category: Political Science

Page: 247

View: 4898

This volume brings together international scholars reflecting on the theory and practice of international security, human security, natural resources and environmental change. It contributes by 'centring the margins' and privileging alternative conceptions and understandings of environmental (in)security.

Natural Resource Extraction and Indigenous Livelihoods

Development Challenges in an Era of Globalization

Author: Emma Gilberthorpe,Gavin Hilson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317089707

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 959

This book provides an extended analysis of how resource extraction projects stimulate social, cultural and economic change in indigenous communities. Through a range of case studies, including open cast mining, artisanal mining, logging, deforestation, oil extraction and industrial fishing, the contributors explore the challenges highlighted in global debates on sustainability, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and climate change. The case studies are used to assess whether and how development processes might compete and conflict with the market objectives of multinational corporations and the organizational and moral principles of indigenous communities. Emphasizing the perspectives of directly-affected parties, the authors identify common patterns in the way in which extraction projects are conceptualized, implemented and perceived. The book provides a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the human environments where resource extraction takes place and its consequent impacts on local livelihoods. Its in-depth case studies underscore the need for increased social accountability in the planning and development of natural resource extraction projects.

Unchecked Corporate Power

Why the Crimes of Multinational Corporations Are Routinized Away and What We Can Do About It

Author: Gregg Barak

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317360532

Category: Social Science

Page: 212

View: 9536

Why are crimes of the suite punished more leniently than crimes of the street? When police killings of citizens go unpunished, political torture is sanctioned by the state, and the financial frauds of Wall Street traders remain unprosecuted, nothing succeeds with such regularity as the active failures of national states to obstruct the crimes of the powerful. Written from the perspective of global sustainability and as an unflinching and unforgiving exposé of the full range of the crimes of the powerful, Unchecked Corporate Power reveals how legalized authorities and political institutions charged with the duty of protecting citizens from law-breaking and injurious activities have increasingly become enablers and colluders with the very enterprises they are obliged to regulate. Here, Gregg Barak explains why the United States and other countries are duplicitous in their harsh reactions to street crimes in comparison to the significantly more harmful and far-reaching crimes of the powerful, and why the crimes of the powerful are treated as beyond incrimination. What happens to nations that surrender ever-growing economic and political power to the globally super rich and the mammoth multinational corporations they control? And what can people from around the world do to resist the criminality and victimization perpetrated by multinationals, and generated by the prevailing global political economy? Barak examines an array of multinational crimes—corporate, environmental, financial, and state—and their state-legal responses, and outlines policies and strategies for revolutionizing these contradictory relations of capital reproduction, criminality, and unsustainability.

Crude Chronicles

Indigenous Politics, Multinational Oil, and Neoliberalism in Ecuador

Author: Suzana Sawyer

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822385759

Category: History

Page: 310

View: 5447

Ecuador is the third-largest foreign supplier of crude oil to the western United States. As the source of this oil, the Ecuadorian Amazon has borne the far-reaching social and environmental consequences of a growing U.S. demand for petroleum and the dynamics of economic globalization it necessitates. Crude Chronicles traces the emergence during the 1990s of a highly organized indigenous movement and its struggles against a U.S. oil company and Ecuadorian neoliberal policies. Against the backdrop of mounting government attempts to privatize and liberalize the national economy, Suzana Sawyer shows how neoliberal reforms in Ecuador led to a crisis of governance, accountability, and representation that spurred one of twentieth-century Latin America’s strongest indigenous movements. Through her rich ethnography of indigenous marches, demonstrations, occupations, and negotiations, Sawyer tracks the growing sophistication of indigenous politics as Indians subverted, re-deployed, and, at times, capitulated to the dictates and desires of a transnational neoliberal logic. At the same time, she follows the multiple maneuvers and discourses that the multinational corporation and the Ecuadorian state used to circumscribe and contain indigenous opposition. Ultimately, Sawyer reveals that indigenous struggles over land and oil operations in Ecuador were as much about reconfiguring national and transnational inequality—that is, rupturing the silence around racial injustice, exacting spaces of accountability, and rewriting narratives of national belonging—as they were about the material use and extraction of rain-forest resources.

The Politics of Inclusive Development

Interrogating the Evidence

Author: Sam Hickey,Kunal Sen,Badru Bukenya

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198722567

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 396

View: 2521

This collection brings together internationally-renowned experts to offer the broadest and most comprehensive review available regarding how politics shapes inclusive development in the global south. Each aspect of development is covered, namely social, economic, environmental and cultural, with each substantive chapter offering a systematic review of the evidence in the relevant field. The collection also offers new easy of thinking about the politics ofdevelopment, and a range of practical suggestions for development policy and practice.

Indigenous Encounters with Neoliberalism

Place, Women, and the Environment in Canada and Mexico

Author: Isabel Altamirano-Jiménez

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 0774825111

Category: Social Science

Page: 284

View: 3166

The recognition of Indigenous rights and the management of land and resources have always been fraught with complex power relations and conflicting expressions of identity. Indigenous Encounters with Neoliberalism explores how this issue is playing out in two countries very differently marked by neoliberalism's local expressions – Canada and Mexico. Weaving together four distinct case studies, this book presents insights from Indigenous feminism, critical geography, political economy, and postcolonial studies. These examples highlight Indigenous people's responses to neoliberalism, reflecting the tensions that result from how Indigenous identity, gender, and the environment have been connected.

Mining Capitalism

The Relationship Between Corporations and Their Critics

Author: Stuart Kirsch

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520281705

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 314

View: 7299

Corporations are among the most powerful institutions of our time, but they are also responsible for a wide range of harmful social and environmental impacts. Consequently, political movements and nongovernmental organizations increasingly contest the risks that corporations pose to people and nature. Mining Capitalism examines the strategies through which corporations manage their relationships with these critics and adversaries. By focusing on the conflict over the Ok Tedi copper and gold mine in Papua New Guinea, Stuart Kirsch tells the story of a slow-moving environmental disaster and the international network of indigenous peoples, advocacy groups, and lawyers that sought to protect local rivers and rain forests. Along the way, he analyzes how corporations promote their interests by manipulating science and invoking the discourses of sustainability and social responsibility. Based on two decades of anthropological research, this book is comparative in scope, showing readers how similar dynamics operate in other industries around the world.

Social Conflict, Economic Development and the Extractive Industry

Evidence from South America

Author: Anthony Bebbington

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136620214

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 4104

The extraction of minerals, oil and gas has a long and ambiguous history in development processes – in North America, Europe, Latin America and Australasia. Extraction has yielded wealth, regional identities and in some cases capital for industrialization. In other cases its main heritages have been social conflict, environmental damage and underperforming national economies. As the extractive economy has entered another boom period over the last decade, not least in Latin America, the countries in which this boom is occurring are challenged to interpret this ambiguity. Will the extractive industry yield, for them, economic development, or will its main gifts be ones of conflict, degradation and unequal forms of growth. This book speaks directly to this question and to the different ways in which Latin American countries are responding to the challenge of extractive industry. The contributors are a mixture of geographers, economists, political scientists, development experts and anthropologists, who all draw on sustained field work in the region. By digging deep into both national and local experiences with extractive industry they demonstrate the ways in which it transforms economies, societies, polities and environments. They pay particular attention to the social conflict that extraction consistently produces, and they ask how far this conflict might usher in political and institutional changes that could lead to a more productive relationship between extraction and development. They also ask whether the existence of left-of-centre governments in the region changes the relationships between extractive industry and development. The book makes clear the immense difficulties that countries and regional societies face in harnessing extractive industry for the collective good. For the most part the findings question the wisdom of the development model that many countries in the region have taken up and which emphasises the productive roles of mining and hydrocarbon industries. The book should be of interest to students and researchers of Development Studies, Geography, Politics and Political Economy, as well as Anthropology.

Transforming Provincial Politics

The Political Economy of Canada's Provinces and Territories in the Neoliberal Era

Author: Bryan M. Evans,Charles W Smith

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442695935

Category: Political Science

Page: 456

View: 6049

Over the past thirty-five years, Canada’s provinces and territories have undergone significant political changes. Abandoning mid-century Keynesian policies, governments of all political persuasions have turned to deregulation, tax reduction, and government downsizing as policy solutions for a wide range of social and economic issues. Transforming Provincial Politics is the first province-by-province analysis of politics and political economy in more than a decade, and the first to directly examine the turn to neoliberal policies at the provincial and territorial level. Featuring chapters written by experts in the politics of each province and territory, Transforming Provincial Politics examines how neoliberal policies have affected politics in each jurisdiction. A comprehensive and accessible analysis of the issues involved, this collection will be welcomed by scholars, instructors, and anyone interested in the state of provincial politics today.

Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas

Author: Cécile Pelaudeix,Ellen Margrethe Basse

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317125924

Category: Political Science

Page: 300

View: 5966

Global energy problems will remain a challenge in the coming decades. The impact of climate change and the melting of polar sea ice opening up access to offshore hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic Ocean, raises questions for both civil society and the scientific community over drilling opportunities in Arctic marine areas. Disparities in approach to the governance of oil and gas extraction in the Arctic arise from fundamental differences in histories, cultures, domestic constraints and substantive values and attitudes in the Arctic coastal states and sub-states. Differing political systems, legal traditions and societal beliefs with regard to energy security and economic development, environmental protection, legitimacy of decision making, and the ownership and respect of the rights of indigenous people, all affect how governance systems of oil and gas extraction are designed. Using a multidisciplinary approach and case studies from the USA, Norway, Russia, Canada, Greenland/Denmark and the EU, this book both examines the current governance of extraction and its effects and considers ways to enhance the efficiency of environmental management and public participation in this system.

New Mechanisms of Participation in Extractive Governance

Between technologies of governance and resistance work

Author: Esben Leifsen,Maria-Therese Gustafsson,Maria Antonieta Guzman-Gallegos,Almut Schilling-Vacaflor

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351118129

Category: Political Science

Page: 178

View: 3436

The scholarly debate on deliberative democracy often suggests that participatory processes will contribute to make environmental governance not only more legitimate and effective, but also lead to the empowerment of marginalized social groups. Critical studies, however, analyse how technologies of governance make use of participation to draw boundaries that separate technical knowledge from political concerns, direct the focus towards procedural aspects and contractual obligations, and reinforce hegemonic understandings of development and of local people’s relationships to their environment. This book focuses on the dynamics and use of participatory mechanisms related to the rapid expansion of the extractive industries worldwide and the ways it increasingly affects sensitive natural environments populated by indigenous and other marginalized populations. Nine empirically grounded case studies analyse a range of participatory practices ranging from state-led and corporation-led processes like prior consultation and Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC), compensation practices, participatory planning exercises and the participation in environmental impact assessments (EIAs), to community-led consultations, community-based FPIC and EIA processes and struggles for community-based governance of natural resource uses. The book provides new insights through a combination of different theoretical strands, which help to scrutinize the limits to deliberation and empowerment on the one hand, and on the other hand to understand the political resistance potential that alternative uses of participatory mechanisms can generate. The chapters originally published as a special issue of Third World Quarterly.

Choice

Publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries, a Division of the American Library Association

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Academic libraries

Page: N.A

View: 3535

Rents to Riches?

The Political Economy of Natural Resource-Led Development

Author: Naazneen Barma,Kai Kaiser,Tuan Minh Le,Lorena Viñuela

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821387162

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 298

View: 4071

This volume focuses on the political economy surrounding the detailed decisions that governments make at each step of the value chain for natural resource management. From the perspective of public interest or good governance, many resource-dependent developing countries pursue apparently short-sighted and sub-optimal policies in relation to the extraction and capture of resource rents, and to spending and savings from their resource endowments. This work contextualizes these micro-level choices and outcomes.

From Enron to Evo

Pipeline Politics, Global Environmentalism, and Indigenous Rights in Bolivia

Author: Derrick Hindery

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816502374

Category: Social Science

Page: 303

View: 4769

Offering a critique of both free-market piracy and the dilemmas of resource nationalism, From Enron to Evo is groundbreaking book for anyone concerned with Indigenous politics, social movements, and environmental justice in an era of expanding resource development.

Water Justice

Author: Rutgerd Boelens,Tom Perreault,Jeroen Vos,Margreet Zwarteveen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107179084

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 390

View: 4353

An overview of critical conceptual approaches to water justice, illustrated with global historic and contemporary case studies of socio-environmental struggles.