Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph
Publisher: National Academies Press
The polygraph, often portrayed as a magic mind-reading machine, is still controversial among experts, who continue heated debates about its validity as a lie-detecting device. As the nation takes a fresh look at ways to enhance its security, can the polygraph be considered a useful tool? The Polygraph and Lie Detection puts the polygraph itself to the test, reviewing and analyzing data about its use in criminal investigation, employment screening, and counter-intelligence. The book looks at: The theory of how the polygraph works and evidence about how deceptivenessâ€"and other psychological conditionsâ€"affect the physiological responses that the polygraph measures. Empirical evidence on the performance of the polygraph and the success of subjectsâ€™ countermeasures. The actual use of the polygraph in the arena of national security, including its role in deterring threats to security. The book addresses the difficulties of measuring polygraph accuracy, the usefulness of the technique for aiding interrogation and for deterrence, and includes potential alternativesâ€"such as voice-stress analysis and brain measurement techniques.
Lies, Truth and Science
Author: Anthony Gale
Publisher: Sage Publications
Category: Social Science
The polygraph lie detection test is currently at the centre of much controversy in both the UK and the US. The Polygraph Test - published by SAGE Publications in association with The British Psychological Society - is the most comprehensive account of issues surrounding the use of the test in criminal investigations, personal screening and security vetting. The book is organized in four parts to present the reader with the basic facts' of how the polygraph test does - and does not - work as well as the wider psychological and legal implications. Part One describes the test, analyses its accuracy, questions its use in psychometrics and considers its role in vetting, investigation and interrogation. Part Two asks questions absolutely fundamental to psychology: can truth and honesty - indeed, even emotion - be measured? Part Three looks at the polygraph test in practice and Part Four considers legal and civil rights issues with contributions from British and American lawyers and a British trade unionist. The Polygraph Test: Lies, Truth and Science will be essential reading to psychologists and students of psychology.
Scientific Truth Verification, Lie Detection
Author: James Allan Matté
Publisher: J.A.M. Publications
Category: Political Science
Carefully and succinctly explores polygraph law, history, and science. For related material, see Hein Item #327060.
Author: David Todeschini
This book will enable you to determine whether or not someone is lying to you. Contains over 60 axioms or guidelines that put your subject through the gauntlet. From FBI Agent to Housewife, you need to read this book. After you do, you will never look at the NEWS, political speeches, or anything that the government tells you in the same light. Conceived in an environment of pathological liars, this book takes "common sense" to a new level. Some deceptions are very subtle and nefarious, and some deceptions are your own conclusions - which you arrive at by the design of the liar - or government - which tells you only what will lead you to believe their lies
Current Challenges and Cognitive Approaches
Author: Pär Anders Granhag,Aldert Vrij,Bruno Verschuere
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Detecting Deception offers a state-of-the-art guide to the detection of deception with a focus on the ways in which new cognitive psychology-based approaches can improve practice and results in the field. Includes comprehensive coverage of the latest scientific developments in the detection of deception and their implications for real-world practice Examines current challenges in the field - such as counter-interrogation strategies, lying networks, cross-cultural deception, and discriminating between true and false intentions Reveals a host of new approaches based on cognitive psychology with the potential to improve practice and results, including the strategic use of evidence, imposing cognitive load, response times, and covert lie detection Features contributions from internationally renowned experts
My Fight Against the Dangerous Myth of Lie Detection
Author: Doug Williams
The 2014 EDITION brings you up to date on all Doug is continuing to do to stop the abuse caused by the dangerous myth of "lie detection" and details the unscrupulous, unconstitutional methods the government is now using to try to stop - and even imprison him for speaking out against the abusive polygraph industry. It also includes the original version of his manual HOW TO STING THE POLYGRAPH. A decorated veteran of the Oklahoma City Police Department, Doug Williams held the rank of Detective Sergeant in charge of the Internal Affairs/Polygraph Section. As an expert police polygraphist, he administered thousands of tests. But, as Diane Sawyer said on 60 MINUTES, "Doug knows everything about the polygraph, and he says it doesn't work!" This is the true story of how Doug changed from cop to crusader in order to fight the abuse perpetrated by the sick joke called the "lie detector," and the practitioners of what he describes as an "insidious Orwellian instrument of torture." This is the ultimate "whistle blower" book that chronicles the exciting and dangerous adventures of Doug Williams and his crusade against the multi-billion dollar scam called lie detection; what the inventor of the polygraph, Dr. John Larson, referred to as "Frankenstein's monster." Before December of 1988, three out of every four people in private industry in the U.S. had to pass a polygraph test in order to get or keep a job; after December of 1988, that was a violation of federal law. How did that happen? Legislation to prohibit this type of polygraph testing had been introduced every year since 1972, and every year it failed to pass - every year, that is, until 1988. Why did that legislation finally succeed after so many failures? Many say it was primarily due to the efforts of Doug Williams. As a matter of fact, Doug Williams was given the VOLUNTEER ADVOCATE award by the ACLU for being "the one person most responsible for the Employee Polygraph Protection Act becoming a federal law." Doug tells of all he did to get this law passed and what he continues to do in his fight against the polygraph industry by employing a three pronged attack - LEGISLATION, LITIGATION, & EDUCATION. This book is an exciting behind the scenes account of Doug's first very controversial appearance on national television, his intensely explosive testimony in congress, and his work to build grass roots support to outlaw the use of the polygraph. His crusade against the polygraph industry became an obsession, and for many years he lived in the back of a 1967 Chevy panel truck and moved from city to city putting on seminars and going on radio and television talk shows to promote support for legislation that would outlaw the use of the polygraph. It tells of how he debunked the myth of "lie detection" on CBS 60 MINUTES; in this classic investigative report, three out of three polygraph operators called three different truthful people liars on a crime that never even happened. Doug has been featured on most of the major news programs, and on all of the major television and cable networks including CBS 60 MINUTES, CBS NIGHTWATCH, NBC NIGHTLY NEWS, CNN NEWS, FOX NETWORK'S EXPLORING THE UNKNOWN, NBC DATELINE, FOX NEWS, CNN NEWS STAND, THE DISCOVERY CHANNEL, BBC, TLC, and SHOWTIME PENN & TELLER: BULLSHIT! He has been featured in over 1000 newspaper and magazine articles, thousands of blogs, has been interviewed by hundreds of local TV news and talk shows, and appeared on over 500 radio talk shows. He has lobbied in the US House of Representatives and the Senate, and was a member of the Office of Technology Assessment studying the validity of the polygraph as a "lie detector." This book tells of what Doug Williams has done; the dangers he has faced, the victories he has had, and some of the humorous incidents that occurred along the way. It tells of how he continues to fight the dangerous myth of lie detection, and what the government is doing to try to stop him.
The History of an American Obsession
Author: Ken Alder
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
The story of the lie detector takes us straight into the dark recesses of the American soul. It also leads us on a noir journey through some of the most storied episodes in American history. That is because the device we take for granted as an indicator of guilt or innocence actually tells us more about our beliefs than about our deeds. The machine does not measure deception so much as feelings of guilt or shame. As Ken Alder reveals in his fascinating and disturbing account, the history of the lie detector exposes fundamental truths about our culture: why we long to know the secret thoughts of our fellow citizens; why we believe in popular science; and why America embraced the culture of "truthiness." For centuries, people searched in vain for a way to unmask liars, seeking clues in blushing cheeks, shifty eyes, and curling toes...all the body's outward signs. But not until the 1920s did a cop with a Ph.D. team up with an entrepreneurial high school student from Berkeley, California and claim to have invented a foolproof machine that peered directly into the human heart. In a few short years their polygraph had transformed police work, seized headlines, solved sensational murders, and enthralled the nation. In Chicago, the capital of American vice, the two men wielded their device to clean up corruption, reform the police, and probe the minds of infamous killers. Before long the lie detector had become the nation's "mechanical conscience," searching for honesty on Main Street, in Hollywood, and even within Washington, D.C. Husbands and wives tested each other's fidelity. Corporations tested their employees' honesty. Movie studios and advertisers tested their audiences' responses. Eventually, thousands of government employees were tested for their loyalty and "morals" -- for lack of which many lost their jobs. Yet the machine was flawed. It often was used to accuse the wrong person. It could easily be beaten by those who knew how. Repeatedly it has been applied as an instrument of psychological torture, with the goal of extracting confessions. And its creators paid a commensurate price. One went mad trying to destroy the Frankenstein's monster he had created. The other became consumed by mistrust: jealous of his cheating wife, contemptuous of his former mentor, and driven to an early death. The only happy man among the machine's champions was the eccentric psychologist who went on to achieve glory as the creator of Wonder Woman. Yet this deceptive device took America -- and only America -- by storm. Today, the CIA still administers polygraphs to its employees. Accused celebrities loudly trumpet its clean bill of truth. And the U.S. government, as part of its new "war on terror," is currently exploring forms of lie detection that reach directly into the brain. Apparently, America still dreams of a technology that will render human beings transparent. The Lie Detectors is the entertaining and thought-provoking story of that American obsession.
Torture, Technology and Truth
Author: Andrew Balmer
This book develops a sociological account of lie detection practices and uses this to think about lying more generally. Bringing together insights from sociology, social history, socio-legal studies and science and technology studies (STS), it explores how torture and technology have been used to try to discern the truth. It examines a variety of socio-legal practices, including trial by ordeal in Europe, the American criminal jury trial, police interrogations using the polygraph machine, and the post-conviction management of sex offenders in the USA and the UK. Moving across these different contexts, it articulates how uncertainties in the use of lie detection technologies are managed, and the complex roles they play in legal spaces. Alongside this story, the book surveys some of the different ways in which lying is understood in philosophy, law and social order. Lie Detection and the Law will be of interest to STS researchers, socio-legal scholars, criminologists and sociologists, as well as others working at the intersections of law and science.
Uses and Abuses of the Lie Detector
Author: David Thoreson Lykken
Publisher: Plenum Press
The author presents case histories of persons whose lives have been blighted by our uniquely American faith in the myth of the lie detector. Dr. Lykken also explains how to "beat" the machine, not only because it is unfair that spies and Mafia soldiers already know these techniques, but also because innocent persons have nearly a 50:50 chance of failing lie detector tests unless they use appropriate countermeasures. Many state courts in the U.S. still admit lie detector tests into evidence under certain conditions - a practice that ensures the conviction of more innocent people every year. Finally, Dr. Lykken reports on the results of recent surveys of informed scientific opinion about lie detection and presents another method of polygraphic interrogation that is designed to detect, not lies, but the presence of guilty knowledge. This method is scientifically credible and holds promise for future use in criminal investigation.
Warum wir weniger lügen, als wir eigentlich könnten
Author: Dan Ariely
Publisher: Droemer eBook
Täglich täuschen wir Kollegen und Bekannte. Aber es ist doch erstaunlich, dass wir weit weniger schwindeln, als wir eigentlich könnten. Dan Ariely eröffnet eine völlig neue Sichtweise auf unser Verhalten und erklärt, warum wir trotz aller lockenden Vorteile keine notorischen Falschspieler sind.
Author: Michael Shermer
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit
Examines supernatural controversies such as crop circles, the Shroud of Turin, and cold fusion, and provides evidence for and against each phenomenon.
Author: Jan Widacki
Publisher: Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM Krakowskie Towarzystwo Edukacyjne Sp. z o.o.
Professor Udo Undeutsch (1917–2013) Col. Marian Jóźwiak (5th March 1930 – 21st December 2013) Jan Widacki History of Polygraph Examinations in Poland James Allan Matte fMRI Lie Detection Validity and Admissibility as Evidence in Court and Applicability of the Court’s Ruling to Polygraph Testing view article Book reviews Jan Widacki, Martyna Huszcza, Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques – Third Edition, by Nathan J. Gordon and William L. Fleisher
Author: Wolfgang Ambach,Matthias Gamer
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
Deception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in social interactions and has attracted a significant amount of research during the last decades. The majority of studies in this field focused on how deception modulates behavioral, autonomic, and brain responses and whether these changes can be used to validly identify lies. Especially the latter question, which historically gave rise to the development of psychophysiological “lie detection” techniques, has been driving research on deception and its detection until today. The detection of deception and concealed information in forensic examinations currently constitutes one of the most frequent applications of psychophysiological methods in the field. With the increasing use of such methods, the techniques for detecting deception have been controversially discussed in the scientific community. It has been proposed to shift from the original idea of detecting deception per se to a more indirect approach that allows for determining whether a suspect has specific knowledge of crime-related details. This so-called Concealed Information Test is strongly linked to basic psychological concepts concerning memory, attention, orienting, and response monitoring. Although research in this field has intensified with the advancement of neuroimaging techniques such as PET and fMRI in the last decade, basic questions on the psychological mechanisms underlying modulatory effects of deception and information concealment on behavioral, autonomic, and brain responses are still poorly understood. This Research Topic brings together contributions from researchers in experimental psychology, psychophysiology, and neuroscience focusing on the understanding of the broad concept of deception including the detection of concealed information, with respect to basic research questions as well as applied issues. This Research Topic is mainly composed of originalresearch articles but reviews and papers elaborating on novel methodological approaches have also been included. Experimental methods include, but are not limited to, behavioral, autonomic, electroencephalographic or brain imaging techniques that allow for revealing relevant facets of deception on a multimodal level. While this Research Topic primarily includes laboratory work, relevant issues for the field use of such methods are also discussed.
Author: Fred Edward Inbau
Wie uns Pseudo-Wissenschaftler das Leben schwer machen
Author: Ben Goldacre
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
Category: Health & Fitness
Der große Sachbuch-Bestseller aus Großbritannien: Endlich wird entlarvt, wie uns Pseudo-Wissenschaftler belügen, um uns Medizin- und Kosmetikprodukte zu verkaufen »Von Zahnärzten empfohlen«.»Von Dermatologen getestet«. Doch mit welchem Ergebnis? Woher wissen wir, ob uns eine medizinische Behandlung hilft? Wie können wir überprüfen, was uns alternative Heilmethoden wie zum Beispiel die Homöopathie versprechen? Und warum glauben kluge, kritische Menschen hanebüchene Dinge, nur weil »die Wissenschaft« sie angeblich bewiesen hat? Ben Goldacre entlarvt mit so viel Witz wie Wissen die zweifelhafte Wissenschaft hinter vermeintlich geprüften und bewiesenen Fakten und zeigt uns, wie wir mit eigenen Mitteln schlechte von guter Wissenschaft unterscheiden können.
Author: Vitas Saldziunas,Kovalenka Aleksandras,Sald I Nas Vitas
Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
This book wrote experienced criminal investigators. The book will be useful for polygraph examiners, criminal police investigators, researchers, students, prosecutors, lawyers and judges. In this book the authors wanted to show problems, arising from polygraph tests, as well as very broad possibilities. The authors are absolutely sure that part of the lie detection specialists may disagree with our stated ideas. For the readers, who want to know more about polygraph lie detection techniques, theoretical models of lie detection, the authors have provided a wide list of references.
Author: Irving B. Weiner,Allen K. Hess
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This is a fully-revised and updated version of the top academic work in forensic psychology. Focussed mainly on the practical aspects of forensics, this volume provides all readers need to know to be effective practioners. Detailed sections cover both civil and criminal forensic practice; forensic report writing; treating mental illness in the incarcerated; andethicsal issues. Contributors are the best-known and most respected practitioners in the field from the US and Canada. All chapters are completely revised from the previous edition, including 6 which have new authors. Forensic psychology is one of the fastest-growing specialties in the field. Its practitioners are able to avoid managed care and structured settings, and they often focus on assessment, rather than long-term treatment of clients. With the growing public interest in all things forensic, most graduate programs in psychology have added at least one course in forensic psychology over the past few years; and more established professionals are entering the field every day.
A Beginner's Guide
Author: Ray Bull,Charlotte Bilby,Claire Cooke,Tim Grant
Publisher: Oneworld Publications
Category: Social Science
How does the mind of a criminal work? How can you stop criminals from re-offending? What does being in prison do to your mind? From lie detection to psychological profiling, Professor Ray Bull and his team of experts demonstrate how understanding the mind is essential in the fight against criminality. Covering prisons, police methods, and eyewitness reliability, this book provides an authoritative introduction to the fascinating research underpinning modern criminal psychology. Professor Ray Bull is Director of Postgraduate Courses in Forensic Psychology at University of Leicester, where his co-authors are all lecturers.