Author: Martin Bulmer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Social Science
Traces the history of British sociology and empirical social research over the past hundred years. Concludes with a discussion of the applications of the research including the use of social surveys for policymaking and the success of social science in predicting the future.
The decline of the social
Author: Gary N. Marks
Are socioeconomic inequalities in education declining? Is socioeconomic background becoming less important for people’s occupational class or status? How important is cognitive ability for education and later occupational outcomes? How do countries differ in the importance of socioeconomic background for education and work? Gary N. Marks argues that in western industrialized countries, pervasive views that socioeconomic background (or class background) has strong and unchanging relationships with education and later socioeconomic outcomes, resistant to policy and social change, are unfounded. Marks provides a large amount of evidence from many countries showing that the influence of socioeconomic background for education is moderate and most often declining, and socioeconomic background has only very weak impacts on adults’ occupation and earnings after taking into account education and cognitive ability. Furthermore, Marks shows that cognitive ability is a more powerful influence than socioeconomic background for educational outcomes, and that in addition to its indirect effects through education has a direct effect on occupation and earnings. Its effects cannot be dismissed as simply another aspect of socioeconomic background, nor do the usual criticisms of ‘cognitive ability’ apply. The declining effects for socioeconomic background and the importance of cognitive ability support several of the contentions of modernization theory. The book contributes to a variety of debates within sociology: quantitative and qualitative approaches, explanatory and non-explanatory theory, the relationship between theory and empirical research, the role of political ideology in research, sociology as a social science, and sociology’s contribution to knowledge about contemporary societies. It will appeal to professionals in the fields of education and sociology as well as postgraduate students and academics involved in the debate.
Author: Janet Powney,Mike Watts
Interviewing is one of the most frequently used research tools in the social sciences, yet its importance as a technique is usually underestimated. As Janet Powney and Mike Watts point out, the practical difficulties of interviewing are often understated, and the theoretical assumptions and implications of conducting interviews can prejudice a researcher’s conclusions. Originally published in 1987, this introductory, practical guide widens the debate about interviewing with discussion and advice on interviewing in different kinds of educational inquiry, ranging from large-scale surveys to research carried out in individual schools. The authors give guidelines for preparing, conducting, reporting and analysing interviews, and discuss the practical and theoretical problems arising from each of these aspects. Examples are taken from six case studies contributed by researchers who have conducted interviews for different purposes and in different ways. Interviewing in Educational Research will be valuable to students and researchers in many fields, not only in educational research, but generally in the social sciences, in medical research, economics, business, social planning and administration.
Author: Claudia V. Angelelli,Brian James Baer
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
This volume offers a comprehensive view of current research directions in Translation and Interpreting Studies, outlining the theoretical concepts underpinning that research and presenting detailed discussions of the various methods used. Organized around three factors that are responsible for shaping the study of translation and interpreting today—post-positivist theoretical approaches, developments in the language industry, and technological innovations—this volume is divided into three parts: Part I introduces the basic concepts organizing translation and interpreting research, such as the difference between qualitative and quantitative research, between product-oriented and process-oriented studies, and between prescriptive and descriptive approaches. Part II provides a theoretical mapping of current translation and interpreting research, covering the theories underlying the current conceptualization of translation and interpreting, from queer studies to cognitive science. Part III explores the key methodological approaches to research in Translation and Interpreting Studies, including corpus-based, longitudinal, observational, and ethnographic studies, as well as survey and focus group-based studies. The international range of contributors are all leading research experts who use the methodologies in their work. They present the research aims of these methods, offer sample research questions that can—and cannot—be addressed by these methods, and discuss modes of data collection and analysis. This is an essential reference for all advanced undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers in Translation and Interpreting Studies.
An Introduction to Field Research
Author: Robert G. Burgess
First Published in 2004. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Category: Catalogs, Union
Includes entries for maps and atlases.
Author: Library of Congress
Category: Monographic series
Author: Jerald Hage,Barbara Foley Meeker
Publisher: Allen & Unwin Australia
Category: Social Science
Author: Library of Congress
Category: Children's literature in series
Author: D. A. De Vaus
Publisher: Sage Publications Ltd
Category: Social Science
Social Surveys is the methods bible for social scientists using survey methods. It provides an unparalleled guide to the state of knowledge in the field and a key asset in practical survey know-how. A key method of information gathering in the social sciences, surveys provide a structured or systematic set of data. They explore issues of motivation, belief, social, political and economic practices and habits of life. Survey research seeks to discover what causes some phenomena by looking at variation in variables across cases and identifying characteristics that are systematically linked with it. In these four volumes, the distinguished author on research methods, David De Vaus has combed through the literature to provide readers with the essential contributions in the field. The collection is divided into 11 sections, making it a comprehensive guide to all social scientists using surveys: 1 Methodological Context of Surveys This section examines the qualitative-quantitative dichotomy; functionalism; feminism and positivism. The contributors include Alan Bryman on the debate about qualitative and quantitative research; Jennifer Platt on the relation between theory and method in functionalism; Anne Oakley on gender and people's ways of knowing; Christopher Bryant on instrumental positivism in the American Tradition; Marsh on survey epistemology and the adequacy of meaning; Blumer on sociological analysis and the `variable'. 2 Ethical Context This section is devoted to general ethical principles in survey research; privacy, confidentiality and consent; and disclosure in releasing tables and microdata sets. The contributors include Hartley on sampling and the threat to privacy; the Panel on Confidentiality and Data Access on private lives and public policies; Willenberg and de Waal on statistical disclosure control in practice. 3 Institutional Contexts This section explores the institutional location of survey research; the development of social survey institutions; research for government and using market research companies for academic research. Among the contributors are Fienberg and Tanur on a historical perspective on the institutional bases for survey research; Bulmer on social science research and policy-making in Britain; Wegner on establishing a dialogue and Payne and Harrop on social research and market research. 4 Research Designs This section examines the role of design and types of design; cross sectional designs; panel designs; comparative designs and official statistics. Included here are Stouffer on study design; Rose on household panel studies; Presser on social change; Duncan and Kalton on issues of design and analysis of surveys across time; Cantor on substantive implications of longitudinal design features; Mitchell on survey materials collected in the developing countries; the United States General Accounting Office on generating new information; and Bulmer on why sociologists do not make more use of official statistics. 5 Collecting Survey Data This section provides a critical overview of face-to-face interviews, telephone surveys, sampling, mail surveys, internet surveys, e-mail surveys, mixed mode surveying and data-sharing and secondary analysis. The contributors include Cannell and Miller on researching interviewing techniques; Beatty on understanding the standardized//non-standardized interviewing controversy; Groves on theories and methods of telephone surveys; Nicholls on computer-assisted telephone interviewing; Collins on sampling in telephone surveys; Dillman on the design and administration of mail surveys; Jenkins and Dillman on self-administered questionnaire design; Couper on web surveys; the National Council on Public Polls on Internet polls; MacElroy on measuring response rates in online surveys; Sheehan and Hoy on using e-mail surveys; Cho and LaRose on privacy issues in Internet survey work; Dillman on mixed mode approaches; and Kiecolt and Nathan on secondary analysis of survey data. 6 Sampling This section explores the history and types of sampling. The contributions include Sudman and Blair on sampling in the Twenty-First Century; Hansen on the development of survey sampling; Rothman and Mitchell on creativity and statistics; and Taylor on comparative methods of public opinion research. 7 Survey Error This section considers the nature and sources of survey error and includes contributions from Deming on survey errors and Groves on research on survey data quality 8 Measurement Error The section examines issues of reliability, validity, social desirability, acquiescence; social distance, gender, design based error, processing effects and reducing measurement error. The contributors are Schrieber on the reliability of `invariant' characteristics reported in surveys; Campbell and Fiske on convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix; Phillips and Clancy on some effects of `social desirability' in survey work; Grove and Geerken on response bias; McClendon on acquiescence and response order effects in interview surveys; Feldman and Hyman on interviewer effects; Northrup on gender of interviewer effects; de Leeuw and Hox on the effect of computer-assisted interviewing on data quality; Kalton and Schuman on the effect of the question on survey responses; Dex on the reliability of recall data; Jowell on the character of comparative research; Miles and Irvine on the faults of official statistics; Montgomery and Crittenden on improving coding reliability for open ended questions; Foddy on the in-depth testing of survey questions; and DeMaio on improving survey quality through pretesting. 9 Coverage Error This section investigates the extent to which surveys can access the required population. It examines coverage by telephone surveys, with quota samples and for rare populations. It includes contributions from the subcommittee of survey coverage on coverage errors occuring before sample selection; Link and Oldendick on call screening; O'Rourke and Blair on random respondent selection in telephone surveys; Marsh and Scarbrough on quota sampling; and Sudman and Kalton on sampling special populations. 10 Sampling Error This section examines sample size and sample type. It includes contributions from Austin on sample size and Sudman on probability sampling with quotas. 11 Non Response Error This section is devoted to questions of bias, mode effects and theories of non response. Contributors include van der Zouwen and de Leeuw on survey non response, measurement error and data quality; Goyder on socio-demographic determinants of response; Hawkins on the estimation of non response bias; Hox and de Leeuw on non response in mail, telephone and face-to-face surveys; Sharp and Frankel on respondent burden; Bogen on the effect of questionnaire length; Church on the effect of incentives on mail survey response rates; and Singer on informed consent and survey reponse; Snijkers, Hox et al on interviewers tactics for fighting survey non-response; Groves and Lyberg on non response issues in telephone surveys; Laurie, Smith et al on strategies for reducing non response in longitudinal panel surveys; Hertel on minimizing error variance; and Fuller on weighting to adjust non survey response. The collection will be of interest to students throughout the social sciences, and practitioners in sociology, political science, cultural studies, business studies and social research methods. About the Editor David De Vaus is Associate Professor of Sociology at La Trobe University, Melbourne. He is the author of Surveys in Social Research and Research Design in Social Research. He is
Author: Leo P. Chall
CSA Sociological Abstracts abstracts and indexes the international literature in sociology and related disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences. The database provides abstracts of journal articles and citations to book reviews drawn from over 1,800+ serials publications, and also provides abstracts of books, book chapters, dissertations, and conference papers.