The Undersea Network

Author: Nicole Starosielski

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822376229

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 9655

In our "wireless" world it is easy to take the importance of the undersea cable systems for granted, but the stakes of their successful operation are huge, as they are responsible for carrying almost all transoceanic Internet traffic. In The Undersea Network Nicole Starosielski follows these cables from the ocean depths to their landing zones on the sandy beaches of the South Pacific, bringing them to the surface of media scholarship and making visible the materiality of the wired network. In doing so, she charts the cable network's cultural, historical, geographic and environmental dimensions. Starosielski argues that the environments the cables occupy are historical and political realms, where the network and the connections it enables are made possible by the deliberate negotiation and manipulation of technology, culture, politics and geography. Accompanying the book is an interactive digital mapping project, where readers can trace cable routes, view photographs and archival materials, and read stories about the island cable hubs.

Undersea Fiber Communication Systems

Author: Jose Chesnoy

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128043954

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 702

View: 2915

Since publication of the 1st edition in 2002, there has been a deep evolution of the global communication network with the entry of submarine cables in the Terabit era. Thanks to optical technologies, the transmission on a single fiber can achieve 1 billion simultaneous phone calls across the ocean! Modern submarine optical cables are fueling the global internet backbone, surpassing by far all alternative techniques. This new edition of Undersea Fiber Communication Systems provides a detailed explanation of all technical aspects of undersea communications systems, with an emphasis on the most recent breakthroughs of optical submarine cable technologies. This fully updated new edition is the best resource for demystifying enabling optical technologies, equipment, operations, up to marine installations, and is an essential reference for those in contact with this field. Each chapter of the book is written by key experts of their domain. The book assembles in a complementary way the contributions of authors from key suppliers acting in the domain, such as Alcatel-Lucent, Ciena, NEC, TE-Subcom, Xtera, from consultant and operators such as Axiom, OSI, Orange, and from University and organization references such as TelecomParisTech, and Suboptic. This has ensured that the overall topics of submarine telecommunications is treated in a quite ecumenical, complete and un-biased approach. Features new content on: Ultra-long haul submarine transmission technologies for telecommunications Alternative submarine cable applications, such as scientific or oil and gas Addresses the development of high-speed networks for multiplying Internet and broadband services with: Coherent optical technology for 100Gbit/s channels or above Wet plant optical networking and configurability Provides a full overview of the evolution of the field conveys the strategic importance of large undersea projects with: Technical and organizational life cycle of a submarine network Upgrades of amplified submarine cables by coherent technology

Alien Ocean

Anthropological Voyages in Microbial Seas

Author: Stefan Helmreich

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520250621

Category: Social Science

Page: 403

View: 4941

"Alien Ocean immerses readers in worlds being newly explored by marine biologists: the deep sea, the microscopic realm, and oceans beyond national boundaries. Working alongside scientists on ships at sea, in coastal research labs, and at undersea volcanoes, Stefan Helmreich charts how revolutions in genomics, bioinformatics, and remote sensing have pressed marine bioligists to view the sea as animated by its smallest inhabitants: marine microbes. Thriving in astonishingly extreme conditions, such microbes have become key figures in scientific and public debates about the origin of life, climate change, biotechnology, and even the possibility of life on other worlds."--Cover.

Race on the Line

Gender, Labor, and Technology in the Bell System, 1880–1980

Author: Venus Green

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822383101

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 388

View: 9306

Race on the Line is the first book to address the convergence of race, gender, and technology in the telephone industry. Venus Green—a former Bell System employee and current labor historian—presents a hundred year history of telephone operators and their work processes, from the invention of the telephone in 1876 to the period immediately before the break-up of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1984. Green shows how, as technology changed from a manual process to a computerized one, sexual and racial stereotypes enabled management to manipulate both the workers and the workplace. More than a simple story of the impact of technology, Race on the Line combines oral history, personal experience, and archival research to weave a complicated history of how skill is constructed and how its meanings change within a rapidly expanding industry. Green discusses how women faced an environment where male union leaders displayed economic as well as gender biases and where racism served as a persistent system of division. Separated into chronological sections, the study moves from the early years when the Bell company gave both male and female workers opportunities to advance; to the era of the “white lady” image of the company, when African American women were excluded from the industry and feminist working-class consciousness among white women was consequently inhibited; to the computer era, a time when black women had waged a successful struggle to integrate the telephone operating system but faced technological displacement and unrewarding work. An important study of working-class American women during the twentieth century, this book will appeal to a wide audience, particularly students and scholars with interest in women’s history, labor history, African American history, the history of technology, and business history.

Binocular Vision

The Politics of Representation in Birdwatching Field Guides

Author: Spencer Schaffner

Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press

ISBN: 1558498869

Category: Nature

Page: 201

View: 5302

Starting with popular books from the late 19th century and moving ultimately to the electronic guides of the current day, this book contextualizes bird watching field guides historically, culturally, and in terms of a wide range of important environmental issues.

Tubes

A Journey to the Center of the Internet

Author: Andrew Blum

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 1443414395

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 304

View: 9654

Everybody knows that the Internet is the most powerful information network ever conceived. It is a gateway to information, a messenger of love and a fountain of riches and distraction. We are all connected now, but connected to what? In Tubes, acclaimed young journalist Andrew Blum takes readers on a fascinating journey to find out. As Blum writes, the Internet is tangible: it fills buildings, converges in some places in the world and avoids others, and it flows through tubes—along train lines and highways, and under oceans. You can map it, smell it and see it. As Tom Vanderbilt does in his bestselling Traffic, Blum goes behind the scenes of our everyday lives and combines first-rate reporting and engaging explanation into a fast-paced quest to explain the world in which we live. The room in Los Angeles where the Internet was born; the busy hub in downtown Toronto that links Canada with the world; a new undersea cable that connects West Africa and Europe; and the Great Pyramids of our time, the monumental data centres that Google and Facebook have built in the wilds of Oregon—Blum visits them all to chronicle the dramatic story of the Internet’s development and explain how it all works.

Sensing Sound

Singing and Listening as Vibrational Practice

Author: Nina Sun Eidsheim

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822374692

Category: Music

Page: 288

View: 5781

In Sensing Sound Nina Sun Eidsheim offers a vibrational theory of music that radically re-envisions how we think about sound, music, and listening. Eidsheim shows how sound, music, and listening are dynamic and contextually dependent, rather than being fixed, knowable, and constant. She uses twenty-first-century operas by Juliana Snapper, Meredith Monk, Christopher Cerrone, and Alba Triana as case studies to challenge common assumptions about sound—such as air being the default medium through which it travels—and to demonstrate the importance a performance's location and reception play in its contingency. By theorizing the voice as an object of knowledge and rejecting the notion of an a priori definition of sound, Eidsheim releases the voice from a constraining set of fixed concepts and meanings. In Eidsheim's theory, music consists of aural, tactile, spatial, physical, material, and vibrational sensations. This expanded definition of music as manifested through material and personal relations suggests that we are all connected to each other in and through sound. Sensing Sound will appeal to readers interested in sound studies, new musicology, contemporary opera, and performance studies.

Signal Traffic

Critical Studies of Media Infrastructures

Author: Lisa Parks,Nicole Starosielski

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780252080876

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 296

View: 7025

The contributors to Signal Traffic investigate how the material artifacts of media infrastructure--transoceanic cables, mobile telephone towers, Internet data centers, and the like--intersect with everyday life. Essayists confront the multiple and hybrid forms networks take, the different ways networks are imagined and engaged with by publics around the world, their local effects, and what human beings experience when a network fails. Some contributors explore the physical objects and industrial relations that make up an infrastructure. Others venture into the marginalized communities orphaned from the knowledge economies, technological literacies, and epistemological questions linked to infrastructural formation and use. The wide-ranging insights delineate the oft-ignored contrasts between industrialized and developing regions, rich and poor areas, and urban and rural settings, bringing technological differences into focus. Contributors include Charles R. Acland, Paul Dourish, Sarah Harris, Jennifer Holt and Patrick Vonderau, Shannon Mattern, Toby Miller, Lisa Parks, Christian Sandvig, Nicole Starosielski, Jonathan Sterne, and Helga Tawil-Souri.

Media Policy and Globalization

Author: Paula Chakravartty

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748627219

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 8265

This volume takes a fresh look at media and communications policy and provides a comprehensive account of issues that are central to the study of the field. It moves beyond the 'specifics' of regulation, by examining policy areas that have proved to be of common concern for societies across different socio-economic realities. It also seeks to address profound gaps in the study of policy by demonstrating the centrality of historical, social and political context in debates that may appear solely technical or economistic. Media Policy and Globalization covers the institutional changes in the communications policy arena by examining the changing role of the state, technology and the market and the role of civil society. It discusses actual policy areas in broadcasting, telecommunications and the information society, and examines the often-overlooked normative dimensions of communications policy.

Networks of New York

An Illustrated Field Guide to Urban Internet Infrastructure

Author: Ingrid Burrington

Publisher: Melville House

ISBN: 1612195431

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 112

View: 9779

A guided tour of the physical Internet, as seen on, above, and below the city’s streets What does the Internet look like? It’s the single most essentail aspect of modern life, and yet, for many of us, the Internet looks like an open browser, or the black mirrors of our phones and computers. But in Networks of New York, Ingrid Burrington lifts our eyes from our screens to the streets, showing us that the Internet is everywhere around us, all the time—we just have to know where to look. Using New York as her point of reference and more than fifty color illustrations as her map, Burrington takes us on a tour of the urban network: She decodes spray-painted sidewalk markings, reveals the history behind cryptic manhole covers, shuffles us past subway cameras and giant carrier hotels, and peppers our journey with background stories about the NYPD's surveillance apparatus, twentieth-century telecommunication monopolies, high frequency trading on Wall Street, and the downtown building that houses the offices of both Google and the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force. From a rising star in the field of tech jounalism, Networks of New York is a smart, funny, and beautifully designed guide to the endlessly fascinating networks of urban Internet infrastructure. The Internet, Burrington shows us, is hiding in plain sight. From the Hardcover edition.

Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks

Author: Milorad Cvijetic,Ivan Djordjevic

Publisher: Artech House

ISBN: 1608075559

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 804

View: 660

Providing straightforward practical guidance, this highly accessible resource presents today's most advanced topics on photonic communications. You get the latest details on 5th generation photonic systems that can be readily applied to your projects in the field. Moreover, the book provides valuable, time-saving tools for network simulation and modeling. You find in-depth coverage of optical signal transmission systems and networks. The book includes coverage of a wide range of critical methods and techniques, such as MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output), OFDM (Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing), and advanced modulation and coding. You find detailed discussions on the basic principles and applications of high-speed digital signal processing. Other key topics include advanced concepts on coded-modulation, turbo equalization, polarization-time coding, spatial-domain-based modulation and coding, and multidimensional signaling. This comprehensive book includes a complete set of problems at the end of each chapter to help you master the material.

Never Alone, Except for Now

Art, Networks, Populations

Author: Kris Cohen

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822372509

Category: Art

Page: 216

View: 3015

How is it that one can be connected to a vast worldwide network of other people and places via digital technologies and yet also be completely alone? Kris Cohen tackles this philosophical question in Never Alone, Except for Now by exploring how contemporary technologies are changing group formations and affiliations within social life. He identifies a new form of collectivity that exists between publics, which are built through conscious acts, and populations, which are automatically constructed through the collection of Big Data. Finding traditional liberal concepts of the public sphere and neoliberal ideas of populations inadequate on their own to examine these new forms of sociality, Cohen places familiar features of the web—such as emoticons, trolling, and search engines—in conversation with artworks by Felix Gonzalez-Torres, William Gibson, Sharon Hayes, and Thomson & Craighead to more precisely articulate the affective and aesthetic experiences of living between publics and populations. This liminal experience—caught between existing as a set of data points and as individuals newly empowered to create their own online communities—explains, Cohen contends, how one is simultaneously alone and connected in ways never before possible.

Database of Dreams

The Lost Quest to Catalog Humanity

Author: Rebecca Lemov

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300216645

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 9054

Just a few years before the dawn of the digital age, Harvard psychologist Bert Kaplan set out to build the largest database of sociological information ever assembled. It was the mid-1950s, and social scientists were entranced by the human insights promised by Rorschach tests and other innovative scientific protocols. Kaplan, along with anthropologist A. I. Hallowell and a team of researchers, sought out a varied range of non-European subjects among remote and largely non-literate peoples around the globe. Recording their dreams, stories, and innermost thoughts in a vast database, Kaplan envisioned future researchers accessing the data through the cutting-edge Readex machine. Almost immediately, however, technological developments and the obsolescence of the theoretical framework rendered the project irrelevant, and eventually it was forgotten.

A Prehistory of the Cloud

Author: Tung-Hui Hu

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262330105

Category: Computers

Page: 240

View: 3230

We may imagine the digital cloud as placeless, mute, ethereal, and unmediated. Yet the reality of the cloud is embodied in thousands of massive data centers, any one of which can use as much electricity as a midsized town. Even all these data centers are only one small part of the cloud. Behind that cloud-shaped icon on our screens is a whole universe of technologies and cultural norms, all working to keep us from noticing their existence. In this book, Tung-Hui Hu examines the gap between the real and the virtual in our understanding of the cloud. Hu shows that the cloud grew out of such older networks as railroad tracks, sewer lines, and television circuits. He describes key moments in the prehistory of the cloud, from the game "Spacewar" as exemplar of time-sharing computers to Cold War bunkers that were later reused as data centers. Countering the popular perception of a new "cloudlike" political power that is dispersed and immaterial, Hu argues that the cloud grafts digital technologies onto older ways of exerting power over a population. But because we invest the cloud with cultural fantasies about security and participation, we fail to recognize its militarized origins and ideology. Moving between the materiality of the technology itself and its cultural rhetoric, Hu's account offers a set of new tools for rethinking the contemporary digital environment.

A Vast Machine

Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

Author: Paul N. Edwards

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262290715

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 546

View: 9981

Global warming skeptics often fall back on the argument that the scientific case for global warming is all model predictions, nothing but simulation; they warn us that we need to wait for real data, "sound science." In A Vast Machine Paul Edwards has news for these skeptics: without models, there are no data. Today, no collection of signals or observations -- even from satellites, which can "see" the whole planet with a single instrument -- becomes global in time and space without passing through a series of data models. Everything we know about the world's climate we know through models. Edwards offers an engaging and innovative history of how scientists learned to understand the atmosphere -- to measure it, trace its past, and model its future.

Software, Infrastructure, Labor

A Media Theory of Logistical Nightmares

Author: Ned Rossiter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135016380

Category: Social Science

Page: 220

View: 2142

Infrastructure makes worlds. Software coordinates labor. Logistics governs movement. These pillars of contemporary capitalism correspond with the materiality of digital communication systems on a planetary scale. Ned Rossiter theorizes the force of logistical media to discern how subjectivity and labor, economy and society are tied to the logistical imaginary of seamless interoperability. Contingency haunts logistical power. Technologies of capture are prone to infrastructural breakdown, sabotage, and failure. Strategies of evasion, anonymity, and disruption unsettle regimes of calculation and containment. We live in a computational age where media, again, disappear into the background as infrastructure. Software, Infrastructure, Labor intercuts transdisciplinary theoretical reflection with empirical encounters ranging from the Cold War legacy of cybernetics, shipping ports in China and Greece, the territoriality of data centers, video game design, and scrap metal economies in the e-waste industry. Rossiter argues that infrastructural ruins serve as resources for the collective design of blueprints and prototypes demanded of radical politics today.

The Container Principle

How a Box Changes the Way We Think

Author: Alexander Klose,Charles Marcrum

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262028573

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 3596

A cultural history of the shipping container as a crucible of globalization and a cultural paradigm.

Archipelagic American Studies

Author: Brian Russell Roberts,Michelle Ann Stephens

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822373203

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 520

View: 7094

Departing from conventional narratives of the United States and the Americas as fundamentally continental spaces, the contributors to Archipelagic American Studies theorize America as constituted by and accountable to an assemblage of interconnected islands, archipelagoes, shorelines, continents, seas, and oceans. They trace these planet-spanning archipelagic connections in essays on topics ranging from Indigenous sovereignty to the work of Édouard Glissant, from Philippine call centers to US militarization in the Caribbean, and from the great Pacific garbage patch to enduring overlaps between US imperialism and a colonial Mexican archipelago. Shaking loose the straitjacket of continental exceptionalism that hinders and permeates Americanist scholarship, Archipelagic American Studies asserts a more relevant and dynamic approach for thinking about the geographic, cultural, and political claims of the United States within broader notions of America. Contributors Birte Blascheck, J. Michael Dash, Paul Giles, Susan Gillman, Matthew Pratt Guterl, Hsinya Huang, Allan Punzalan Isaac, Joseph Keith, Yolanda Martínez-San Miguel, Brandy Nalani McDougall, Ifeoma Kiddoe Nwankwo, Craig Santos Perez, Brian Russell Roberts, John Carlos Rowe, Cherene Sherrard-Johnson, Ramón E. Soto-Crespo, Michelle Ann Stephens, Elaine Stratford, Etsuko Taketani, Alice Te Punga Somerville, Teresia Teaiwa, Lanny Thompson, Nicole A. Waligora-Davis

Broadband Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home

Systems Technologies and Deployment Strategies

Author: Chinlon Lin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470094796

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 571

Broadband Optical Access and Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) will provide the ultimate broadband service capabilities. Compared with the currently well-deployed broadband access technologies of ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) and Cable Modems, optical broadband access with Fiber-to-the-User’s home will cater for much higher speed access for new services. Broadband Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home presents a comprehensive technical overview of key technologies and deployment strategies for optical broadband access networks and emerging new broadband services. The authors discuss network design considerations, new services, deployment trends and operational experiences, while explaining the current situation and providing insights into future broadband access technologies and services. Broadband Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home: Offers a comprehensive, up-to-date introduction to new developments in broadband access network technologies and services. Examines the impact of research and development in photonics technologies on broadband access and FTTH. Covers ADSL, VDSL with FTTC (Fiber-to-the-Curb), Cable Modem over HFC (Hybrid-Fiber Coax) and Gigabit Ethernet. Discusses the roles of Broadband Wireless LAN and integrated FTTH/Wireless Broadband Access as well as Broadband Home Networks. Provides a global view of broadband network development, presenting different technical and system deployment approaches and strategic considerations for comparison. Gives insight into the worldwide broadband competition and the future of this technology. Broadband Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home will be an invaluable resource for engineers in research and development, network planners, business managers, consultants as well as analysts and educators for a better understanding of the future of broadband in the field of telecommunications, data communications, and broadband multimedia service industries.

Sustainable Media

Critical Approaches to Media and Environment

Author: Nicole Starosielski,Janet Walker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317745825

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 7757

Sustainable Media explores the many ways that media and environment are intertwined from the exploitation of natural and human resources during media production to the installation and disposal of media in the landscape; from people’s engagement with environmental issues in film, television, and digital media to the mediating properties of ecologies themselves. Edited by Nicole Starosielski and Janet Walker, the assembled chapters expose how the social and representational practices of media culture are necessarily caught up with technologies, infrastructures, and environments.Through in-depth analyses of media theories, practices, and objects including cell phone towers, ecologically-themed video games, Geiger counters for registering radiation, and sound waves traveling through the ocean, contributors question the sustainability of the media we build, exchange, and inhabit and chart emerging alternatives for media ecologies.