Historical and Comparative Perspectives
Author: K. Tolley
By the end of the Twentieth century, formal schooling - once the privilege of male elites - had become accessible to women, the working class and some ethnic minorities. The essays in this volume explore the historical origins of this transformation, analyzing struggles Australia, Canada, China, Columbia, India, the United States, and South Africa.
Historical and Comparative Perspectives
Author: Peter Bellwood,James J. Fox,Darrell Tryon
Publisher: ANU E Press
Category: Social Science
The Austronesian-speaking population of the world are estimated to number more than 270 million people, living in a broad swathe around half the globe, from Madagascar to Easter Island and from Taiwan to New Zealand. The seventeen papers in this volume provide a general survey of these diverse populations focusing on their common origins and historical transformations. The papers examine current ideas on the linguistics, prehistory, anthropology and recorded history of the Austronesians.
Author: Pavla Miller
Publisher: Indiana University Press
"In this major contribution to European social history, Miller has succeeded in doing to history what Richard Wagner did to music -- weaving together powerful motifs with dramatic results." -- Choice "[Miller's book] wrestles with issues as basic as the historical construction of the Western personality and its connections with how Western societies have organized the state, the economy, the family, and intimate everyday life." -- MaryJo Maynes This wide-ranging study of familial, political, and economic change in the West between the sixteenth and the nineteenth centuries is organized around the two themes of the fall of a patriarchalist social order and the reformist movement to instill self-mastery into subject populations -- and how those societal shifts transformed state school systems.
Author: Crain Soudien,Peter Kallaway
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The papers for this special issue were selected from a pool of nearly 700 presentations which were made at the 10th Congress of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES), which was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 12 to 17 July 1998. The congress was hosted by the Southern African Comparative and History of Education Society (SACHES) and held on the campuses of the University of the Western Cape and the University of Cape Town. The papers were selected by the convenors of the conference's standing commissions, which provided a significant focus for the conference proceedings. These commissions were on the following themes: Teachers and teacher education Curriculum - Higher education - Lifelong learning - Language, literacy and basic education - Gender and education Policy - Theory and theory shifts Basic education in Africa Peace and Justice Dependency European Education Policy Research in Africa Culture, Indigenous Knowledge and Learning The papers presented, as the discussion below makes clear, ranged widely in subject matter and theoretical perspective and addressed issues of concern both to individual countries and to regions of the world. While some of the papers use comparison as an approach, it remains a matter of concern that the comparative perspective is so little in evidence. It is hoped that the com parative research approach will be more in evidence in the future.
Author: Charl Wolhuter,Corene de Wet
Publisher: AFRICAN SUN MeDIA
Religion in education continues to be, as it has been for quite some time, a controversial subject. In almost every society, long before the state began to assume responsibility for education, schooling was based on religion and education was supplied by organised religion. When state?supplied education systems came into being, the religious ethos of schools at first remained intact. During the past 50 years, that model came, for a variety of reasons, under increasing pressure. In the quest for an acceptable formula for the relation between education and religion, this book provides international comparative perspectives from the following national education systems, regarding the place of religion in education: Brazil, the United States of America, the Netherlands, Greece, Armenia, Israel, Iran, Malaysia, Japan, Tanzania and South Africa.
Author: Robert F. Arnove,Philip G. Altbach,Gail Paradise Kelly
Publisher: SUNY Press
In Emergent Issues in Education, leading scholars in comparative education and in the politics, sociology, anthropology, and economics of education illuminate worldwide trends in critical issues that confront policymakers and practitioners in different national settings. Among the topics raised and analyzed are the organization, governance, and financing of education; the content of curriculum, texts, and tests; and the quality and nature of teacher training. Among the issues examined is the tension that has emerged between the imperative to achieve equality of educational opportunity and the concern of educational decision makers to maintain and upgrade the quality of academic offerings. Aspects of this tension are manifested in the reform movements of the 1980s, especially the excellence movement that has resurfaced in the United States. Reform movements are evident in countries that have experienced increased enrollment at all levels of schooling in the post-World War II period. In the United States, as elsewhere, there has been a reassessment of the relevance of education to the economy and polity, and of the role of government and industry in education."
Policy, Preparation, and Practice
Author: Cathryn S. Magno
Through a multi-country study, Comparative Perspectives on International School Leadership examines the current global spread of educational leadership, occurring rapidly and widely. Exploring five international case studies of leadership policy, preparation, and practice under the framework of policy borrowing and adaptation, Magno attempts to understand and account for commonalities and differences across country contexts. Rather than assuming a particular model or theory to leadership is best, Comparative Perspectives on International School Leadership takes a policy-oriented perspective and considers how and why certain approaches are being formulated and accepted, including an examination of motivations, influencers, actors, institutions, and implementation processes. Magno ultimately argues that efforts toward formalizing educational leadership reflect current global political objectives to improve schools by increasing accountability, transparency, and professionalism. This engaging book will be of interest to scholars and students in the fields of educational leadership and comparative education.
Adapt, Improvise, Overcome?
Author: Fabrizio Coticchia,Francesco N. Moro
Category: Technology & Engineering
European armed forces have undergone deep changes in the past two decades. Given the breadth of the debate and the size of transformations that took place, it is somewhat surprising that relatively few academic studies have directly dealt with changes in force structure of European militaries, and the Italian armed forces in particular. The focus of this book is the organizational dimension of the restructuring of armed forces through 3 different lenses: doctrine and strategic framework, budget and resource allocation, and force structure and deployment. The key issues addressed relate to how these factors interact in shaping transformation. Of particular interest is the theme of learning, which is how armed forces endogenize change in the short and long run. This study provides valuable insights into the extent to which armed forces manage to adapt to the emerging strategic and operational challenges they have to face and to illustrate the weight of institutional legacies, resource constraints and inter-organizational learning in shaping transformation. Focusing on the Italian case in comparative perspective and based on a large variety of military operations from airstrikes to peacekeeping and counterinsurgency, the book provides an innovative viewpoint on military transformation and significantly contributes to our understanding of contemporary security that is deeply shaped by the lessons learnt in Afghanistan, Lebanon, Iraq and Libya.
Changing Curricula in Primary and Secondary Education
Author: Aaron Benavot,Cecilia Braslavsky,Nhung Truong
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
School curricula are established not only to prepare young people for a real world, but also to beckon an imagined one anchored in individual rights and collective progress. Both worlds—the real and the imagined—increasingly reflect influential trans-national forces. In this special edited volume, scholars with diverse backgrounds and conceptual frameworks explore how economic, political, social and ideological forces impact on school curricula over time and place. In providing regional and global perspectives on curricular policies, practices and reforms, the authors move beyond the conventional notion that school contents reflect principally national priorities and subject-based interests. Some authors emphasize a convergence to standardized global curricular structures and discourses. Others suggest that changes regarding the intended contents of primary and secondary school curricula reveal regional or trans-cultural influences. Overall, these comparative and historical studies demonstrate that the dynamics of curriculum-making and curricular reform are increasingly forged within wider regional, cross-regional and global contexts.
The Transformation of the USSR in Comparative Perspective
Author: Karen Dawisha
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
The collapse of the Soviet Union was part of a tumultuous process of imperial disintegration, new state-building, and potential imperial reconstruction unprecedented in recent decades. The daunting task of understanding the forces now in motion in Eurasia requires historical, comparative, interdisciplinary insights. This volume assembles an interdisciplinary group of scholars to construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct the Soviet empire in the context of Tsarist, Hapsburg, Ottoman, British, French and German precedents. Topics include: imperial development (Bruce Parrott and David Lake); imperial disintegration (Roman Szporluk, Soloman Wank and Michael Fry); peripheral successor states (Mark R. Bessinger, Dankwart A. Rustow, Robert I. Rotberg and Ali A. Mazrui); metropolitan successor states (S. Frederick Starr, Carole Find, Miles Kahler; and prospects (Hendrik Spruyt and Karen Dawisha).
An International Handbook and Research Guide
Author: Joseph M. Hawes,N. Ray Hiner
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
This unique handbook presents the work of many of the world's foremost authorities on children in a reference guide that affirms the importance of the role children play in the story of civilization. The contributors represent many nations as well as a variety of disciplines. The result is a volume beginning with an historical overview of children in pre-modern times and continuing with studies of modern childhood in countries throughout the world. Broad in its scope, this volume highlights the uniqueness of each historical and cultural influence and demonstrates how the study of childhood crosses all boundaries.
Author: Thomas A. Baylis,Dr David Childs,David Childs,Erwin L. Collier,Marilyn Rueschemeyer
Category: Political Science
As a new decade begins the popular demand for change has meant that the social and political fabric of the the Eastern Bloc countries has been irrevocably altered. This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the key political, economic and social areas of East German society, such as the military and the church, areas which will intrinsically involved with the movement for change.
Author: Shun-yi Shei,Kym Anderson,In Chan Ahn,Australian National University. Research School of Pacific Studies
Category: Technology & Engineering
South Korean comparative advantage, agricultural protection and domestic resource costs of rice production / Kym Anderson ; In Chan Ahn.
Author: American Educational Research Association
Economic Changes, Social Transformations, and the Dynamics of Inequality
Author: Christian Suter
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
Category: Social Science
This volume debates the complex nature of the relationships between globalization, social and economic transformations and growing inequalities. Employing a global, world-historical and comparative perspective, the 16 articles brought together in this volume deal with three central questions: Firstly, the question of the spatio-temporal evolution and variations of growing inequalities, secondly, the relative importance of globalization as compared to other factors explaining growing inequalities and, thirdly, institutional variations of inequality dynamics and globalization impacts. Christian Suter is Professor of Economic Sociology at the University of NeuchÃ¢tel and President of the World Society Foundation, domiciled at the University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Author: Iain Hampsher-Monk,Karin Tilmans,Frank van Vree
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Hoewel enorm invloedrijk in Duitstalig Europa, heeft de conceptuele geschiedschrijving (Begriffsgeschichte) tot nu toe weinig aandacht in het Engels gekregen. Dit genre van intellectuele geschiedschrijving verschilt van zowel de Franse geschiedschrijving van mentalités als de Engelstalige geschiedschrijving van verhandelingen door het concept. Aan de hand van practische voorbeelden in de geschiedschrijving wordt deze vorm toegelicht door Bram Kempers, Eddy de Jongh en Rolf Reichardt.
Author: Liset Van Dijk,Tanja Van Der Lippe
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Category: Social Science
These comparative studies by internationally-known scholars in the United States, Hungary, Germany, and the Netherlands provide a cross-national examination of substantially differing circumstances--in hours, earnings, job level, childcare availability, parental leave, and the like--of women's employment. The book's dual focus on micro and macro approaches clarifies the extent to which these variances can be ascribed to differences in the institutional context of employment or to the individual characteristics of female employees. It thereby provides a valuable contribution both to gender studies and to studies on the sociology of work. Women's employment changed dramatically during the second half of the twentieth century. Countries in the northern hemisphere have faced similar trends in labor and employment, yet there are still many contrasts between them when it comes to women's work. In this volume, women's employment is studied in different institutional, structural, and social settings, with the intention of exploring the causes of the differences and similarities in women's employment in different countries and at different times. Three perspectives are used: the macro approach, which provides a thorough and focused understanding of the influence of the institutional context on women's work; the micro approach, which gives insight into the employment behavior of individual women who live in the same social or institutional context; and the macro-micro approach, which makes clear the relative importance to women's work of both individual characteristics and institutional context. While a good deal of information is available on women's employment, a cross-national comparison over time has been lacking. This book fills that all-important niche. Women's Employment in a Comparative Perspective thus has a special relevance for economists as well as sociologists and social work specialists. Tanja Van der Lippe is assistant professor of sociology at the Research School ICS of Utrecht University, the Netherlands. Liset Van Dijk is senior researcher at the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Nivel.
Affinity and Diversity in Institutional, Structural and Cultural Patterns
Author: Mica Jovanovic
Publisher: Lit Verlag
Category: Business & Economics
This book consists of articles on the current institutional, economic, and managerial transformation and its impediments in Central and Eastern Europe as well as East Asia. Comparison in the Euro-Asian dimension, as this book is structured, is worldwide unique. Particular emphasis is placed on the general role of the state, institutions (internal and external), other transformation actors and their interplay with underlying specific structural and cultural features for economic systems. Further, empirical sector-, issue-centered and, in particular, country case studies are provided. Contributions have been made by scholars and experts with long experience in transformation analysis.
Western European Comparative Perspectives
Author: Catherine Paradeise,Emanuela Reale,Ivar Bleiklie,Ewan Ferlie
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Higher education reforms have been on the agenda of Western European countries for 25 years, trying to deal with self governed professional bureaucracies politically weakened by massification when an emerging common understanding enhanced their role as major actors in knowledge based economies. While university systems are deeply embedded in national settings, the ex post rationale of still on-going reforms is surprisingly uniform and “de-nationalized”. They promote (1) the “organizational turn” of universities, to varying extent substituting collegial loosely coupled entities by “integrated, goal-oriented entities deliberately choosing their own actions (and therefore open to differentiation), that can thus be held responsible for what they do” (2) the diversification of stakeholders, supposedly offering solutions to problems as various as the democratisation of universities, the shrinking of State budget resources and the diversification of university missions offering answers to changes in the making and in the use of science. When it comes to accounting for these reforms, two grand narratives of public management share the floor. NPM implies a strengthening of the capacity of the core State to direct public services organizations through management by objectives and results or contractualization, assessment, evaluation and. “Governance” focuses on “network-based” governance systems, where coordinating power and control are collectively shared between the major ‘social actors or partners’ at all levels of the decision-making system. Our results suggest that all higher education systems under study were more or less transformed according to both these narratives. It is therefore needed to understand how they combine or create contradictions. This leads us to test a third neo-weberian model. This model reaffirms the role of the State, of representative democracy, (central, regional and local), of public law (suitably modernized), preserves the idea of a public service with a distinctive status, culture and terms and conditions. It shifts from an internal orientation to bureaucratic rules towards an external orientation in meeting citizens’ needs and wishes by means of standardization of work processes and their products, based on a distinctive public service and a particular legal order survived as the foundations beneath the various packages of modernizing reforms. This book traces the national dynamics of public policies, organizational design and steering tools in seven European higher education and research systems, using these narratives to interpret and test the actual changes and the degree of national specificities and European convergence. This book is not a sum of national chapters like other presumably comparative. It does not intend to tell once again the story of the transformation of the relationships between the state and universities. It tries to use Higher education system to discuss issues on state intervention and steering and more generally the NPM, governance and neo-weberian models in a specific field. Furthermore, this book intends breaking the walls between specialists in higher education and specialist in public management and research policy. This well rooted division of labour is less that ever justified as the university mission in research (fundamental, applied, strategic) is underscored by commentors and reformers themselves. For that reason, we have chosen to observe the consequences of the dynamics of public policies, organizational design and steering tools on two specific issues related to the development of research training and organizing within universities: the transformation of research funding on the one hand and the expansion of graduate studies and doctoral schools on the other.
International Comparative Perspectives
Author: Patrick Blessinger,John P. Anchan
Higher education systems around the world are undergoing fundamental change and reform due to external pressures—including internationalization of higher education, increased international competition for students, less reliance on public funding, and calls to create greater access opportunities for citizens. How are higher education systems evolving structurally as a result of these and other pressures? In light of these changes, how can higher education be a positive force for democratizing societies? This book examines the emerging trends taking place in higher education systems around the world, focusing on the most salient political and social forces that underlie these trends. Each chapter provides a case study of a country, exploring its cultural and political history, the political and social developments that have affected its higher education system, and the result of these changes on the higher education system. In a fast-changing, knowledge-intensive, democratic society, Democratizing Higher Education explores how higher education systems can be developed to provide access, affordability, participation, and quality life-long learning for all.