Turning Points in the History of Mathematics

Author: Hardy Grant,Israel Kleiner

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 1493932640

Category: Mathematics

Page: 109

View: 3526

This book explores some of the major turning points in the history of mathematics, ranging from ancient Greece to the present, demonstrating the drama that has often been a part of its evolution. Studying these breakthroughs, transitions, and revolutions, their stumbling-blocks and their triumphs, can help illuminate the importance of the history of mathematics for its teaching, learning, and appreciation. Some of the turning points considered are the rise of the axiomatic method (most famously in Euclid), and the subsequent major changes in it (for example, by David Hilbert); the “wedding,” via analytic geometry, of algebra and geometry; the “taming” of the infinitely small and the infinitely large; the passages from algebra to algebras, from geometry to geometries, and from arithmetic to arithmetics; and the revolutions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that resulted from Georg Cantor’s creation of transfinite set theory. The origin of each turning point is discussed, along with the mathematicians involved and some of the mathematics that resulted. Problems and projects are included in each chapter to extend and increase understanding of the material. Substantial reference lists are also provided. Turning Points in the History of Mathematics will be a valuable resource for teachers of, and students in, courses in mathematics or its history. The book should also be of interest to anyone with a background in mathematics who wishes to learn more about the important moments in its development.

Bernhard Riemann 1826–1866

Turning Points in the Conception of Mathematics

Author: Detlef Laugwitz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0817647775

Category: Mathematics

Page: 357

View: 7922

The name of Bernard Riemann is well known to mathematicians and physicists around the world. His name is indelibly stamped on the literature of mathematics and physics. This remarkable work, rich in insight and scholarship, is addressed to mathematicians, physicists, and philosophers interested in mathematics. It seeks to draw those readers closer to the underlying ideas of Riemann’s work and to the development of them in their historical context. This illuminating English-language version of the original German edition will be an important contribution to the literature of the history of mathematics.

The History of Mathematics

A Brief Course

Author: Roger L. Cooke

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118460294

Category: Mathematics

Page: 648

View: 3468

Praise for the Second Edition "An amazing assemblage of worldwide contributions in mathematicsand, in addition to use as a course book, a valuable resource . . .essential." —CHOICE This Third Edition of The History of Mathematicsexamines the elementary arithmetic, geometry, and algebra ofnumerous cultures, tracing their usage from Mesopotamia, Egypt,Greece, India, China, and Japan all the way to Europe during theMedieval and Renaissance periods where calculus was developed. Aimed primarily at undergraduate students studying the historyof mathematics for science, engineering, and secondary education,the book focuses on three main ideas: the facts of who, what, when,and where major advances in mathematics took place; the type ofmathematics involved at the time; and the integration of thisinformation into a coherent picture of the development ofmathematics. In addition, the book features carefully designedproblems that guide readers to a fuller understanding of therelevant mathematics and its social and historical context.Chapter-end exercises, numerous photographs, and a listing ofrelated websites are also included for readers who wish to pursue aspecialized topic in more depth. Additional features of TheHistory of Mathematics, Third Edition include: Material arranged in a chronological and cultural context Specific parts of the history of mathematics presented asindividual lessons New and revised exercises ranging between technical, factual,and integrative Individual PowerPoint presentations for each chapter and a bankof homework and test questions (in addition to the exercises in thebook) An emphasis on geography, culture, and mathematics In addition to being an ideal coursebook for undergraduatestudents, the book also serves as a fascinating reference formathematically inclined individuals who are interested in learningabout the history of mathematics.

History of Topology

Author: I.M. James

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080534077

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1056

View: 5907

Topology, for many years, has been one of the most exciting and influential fields of research in modern mathematics. Although its origins may be traced back several hundred years, it was Poincaré who "gave topology wings" in a classic series of articles published around the turn of the century. While the earlier history, sometimes called the prehistory, is also considered, this volume is mainly concerned with the more recent history of topology, from Poincaré onwards. As will be seen from the list of contents the articles cover a wide range of topics. Some are more technical than others, but the reader without a great deal of technical knowledge should still find most of the articles accessible. Some are written by professional historians of mathematics, others by historically-minded mathematicians, who tend to have a different viewpoint.

Featured Reviews in Mathematical Reviews 1997-1999

With Selected Reviews of Classic Books and Papers from 1940-1969

Author: Donald G. Babbitt,Jane E. Kister

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821896709

Category: Mathematics

Page: 541

View: 8149

This second volume of Featured Reviews makes available special detailed reviews of some of the most important mathematical articles and books published from 1997 through 1999. Also included are excellent reviews of several classic books and articles published prior to 1970. Among those reviews, for example, are the following: Homological Algebra by Henri Cartan and Samuel Eilenberg, reviewed by G. Hochschild; Faisceaux algebriques coherents by Jean-Pierre Serre, reviewed by C. Chevalley; and On the Theory of General Partial Differential Operators by Lars Hormander, reviewed by J. L. Lions. In particular, those seeking information on current developments outside their own area of expertise will find the volume very useful. By identifying some of the best publications, papers, and books that have had or are expected to have a significant impact in applied and pure mathematics, this volume will serve as a comprehensive guide to important new research across all fields covered by MR.

Bernhard Riemann 1826–1866

Wendepunkte in der Auffassung der Mathematik

Author: Detlef Laugwitz

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3034889836

Category: Mathematics

Page: 348

View: 8391

Das Riemannsche Integral lernen schon die Schüler kennen, die Theorien der reellen und der komplexen Funktionen bauen auf wichtigen Begriffsbildungen und Sätzen Riemanns auf, die Riemannsche Geometrie ist für Einsteins Gravitationstheorie und ihre Erweiterungen unentbehrlich, und in der Zahlentheorie ist die berühmte Riemannsche Vermutung noch immer offen. Riemann und sein um fünf Jahre jüngerer Freund Richard Dedekind sahen sich als Schüler von Gauss und Dirichlet. Um die Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts leiteten sie den Übergang zur "modernen Mathematik" ein, der eine in Analysis und Geometrie, der andere in der Algebra mit der Hinwendung zu Mengen und Strukturen. Dieses Buch ist der erste Versuch, Riemanns wissenschaftliches Werk unter einem einheitlichen Gesichtspunkt zusammenzufassend darzustellen. Riemann gilt als einer der Philosophen unter den Mathematikern. Er stellte das Denken in Begriffen neben die zuvor vorherrschende algorithmische Auffassung von der Mathematik, welche die Gegenstände der Untersuchung, in Formeln und Figuren, in Termumformungen und regelhaften Konstruktionen als die allein legitimen Methoden sah. David Hilbert hat als Riemanns Grundsatz herausgestellt, die Beweise nicht durch Rechnung, sondern lediglich durch Gedanken zu zwingen. Hermann Weyl sah als das Prinzip Riemanns in Mathematik und Physik, "die Welt als das erkenntnistheoretische Motiv..., die Welt aus ihrem Verhalten im un- endlich kleinen zu verstehen."

Classics in the History of Greek Mathematics

Author: Jean Christianidis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402000812

Category: Mathematics

Page: 474

View: 6272

The twentieth century is the period during which the history of Greek mathematics reached its greatest acme. Indeed, it is by no means exaggerated to say that Greek mathematics represents the unique field from the wider domain of the general history of science which was included in the research agenda of so many and so distinguished scholars, from so varied scientific communities (historians of science, historians of philosophy, mathematicians, philologists, philosophers of science, archeologists etc. ), while new scholarship of the highest quality continues to be produced. This volume includes 19 classic papers on the history of Greek mathematics that were published during the entire 20th century and affected significantly the state of the art of this field. It is divided into six self-contained sections, each one with its own editor, who had the responsibility for the selection of the papers that are republished in the section, and who wrote the introduction of the section. It constitutes a kind of a Reader book which is today, one century after the first publications of Tannery, Zeuthen, Heath and the other outstanding figures of the end of the 19th and the beg- ning of 20th century, rather timely in many respects.

Encyclopedia of Mathematics Education

Author: Louise Grinstein,Sally I. Lipsey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136787224

Category: Education

Page: 912

View: 2278

First published in 2001. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Infinitesimal Analysis

Author: E.I. Gordon,A.G. Kusraev,Semën Samsonovich Kutateladze

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402007385

Category: Mathematics

Page: 422

View: 4377

Infinitesimal analysis, once a synonym for calculus, is now viewed as a technique for studying the properties of an arbitrary mathematical object by discriminating between its standard and nonstandard constituents. Resurrected by A. Robinson in the early 1960's with the epithet 'nonstandard', infinitesimal analysis not only has revived the methods of infinitely small and infinitely large quantities, which go back to the very beginning of calculus, but also has suggested many powerful tools for research in every branch of modern mathematics. The book sets forth the basics of the theory, as well as the most recent applications in, for example, functional analysis, optimization, and harmonic analysis. The concentric style of exposition enables this work to serve as an elementary introduction to one of the most promising mathematical technologies, while revealing up-to-date methods of monadology and hyperapproximation. This is a companion volume to the earlier works on nonstandard methods of analysis by A.G. Kusraev and S.S. Kutateladze (1999), ISBN 0-7923-5921-6 and Nonstandard Analysis and Vector Lattices edited by S.S. Kutateladze (2000), ISBN 0-7923-6619-0

Topics in the Theory of Gibbs Semigroups

Author: Valentin Zagrebnov

Publisher: Leuven University Press

ISBN: 9789058673305

Category: Mathematics

Page: 185

View: 9282

One-parameter semigroup theory started to be an important branch of mathematics in the thirties when it was realized that the theory has direct applications to partial differential equations, random processes, infinite dimensional control theory, mathematical physics, etc. It is now generally accepted as an integral part of contemporary functional analysis. Compact strongly continuous semigroups have been an important research subject since a long time, as in almost all applications of partial differential equations with bounded domains the semigroups turn out to be compact. From this point of view, the present volume of the Leuven Notes in Mathematical and Theoretical Physics emphasizes a special subclass of these semigroups. In fact, the focus here is mainly on semigroups acting on a Hilbert space H with values in the trace class ideal C1(H) of bounded operators on H. Historically, this class of semigroups is closely related to quantum statistical mechanics.

Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: Thomas Bedürftig,Roman Murawski

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110470772

Category: Mathematics

Page: 474

View: 3452

The present book is an introduction to the philosophy of mathematics. It asks philosophical questions concerning fundamental concepts, constructions and methods - this is done from the standpoint of mathematical research and teaching. It looks for answers both in mathematics and in the philosophy of mathematics from their beginnings till today. The reference point of the considerations is the introducing of the reals in the 19th century that marked an epochal turn in the foundations of mathematics. In the book problems connected with the concept of a number, with the infinity, the continuum and the infinitely small, with the applicability of mathematics as well as with sets, logic, provability and truth and with the axiomatic approach to mathematics are considered. In Chapter 6 the meaning of infinitesimals to mathematics and to the elements of analysis is presented. The authors of the present book are mathematicians. Their aim is to introduce mathematicians and teachers of mathematics as well as students into the philosophy of mathematics. The book is suitable also for professional philosophers as well as for students of philosophy, just because it approaches philosophy from the side of mathematics. The knowledge of mathematics needed to understand the text is elementary. Reports on historical conceptions. Thinking about today‘s mathematical doing and thinking. Recent developments. Based on the third, revised German edition. For mathematicians - students, teachers, researchers and lecturers - and readersinterested in mathematics and philosophy. Contents On the way to the reals On the history of the philosophy of mathematics On fundamental questions of the philosophy of mathematics Sets and set theories Axiomatic approach and logic Thinking and calculating infinitesimally – First nonstandard steps Retrospection

The Equations

Icons of Knowledge

Author: Sander Bais

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674019676

Category: Science

Page: 96

View: 5589

In this beautifully designed book, the equations that govern our world unfold in all their formal grace--and their deeper meaning as core symbols of our civilization. The renowned Dutch physicist Sander Bais has produced a book that delves into the details of seventeen equations that form the very basis of what we know of the universe today.

Engineering Optics

Author: Keigo Iizuka

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387757236

Category: Science

Page: 532

View: 780

Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

My Best Mathematical and Logic Puzzles

Author: Martin Gardner

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486281523

Category: Games

Page: 82

View: 858

The noted expert and longtime author of Scientific American's Mathematical Games column selects 70 of his favorite "short" puzzles. Enthusiasts can challenge their skills with such mind-bogglers as The Returning Explorer, The Mutilated Chessboard, Scrambled Box Tops, Bronx vs. Brooklyn, and dozens more involving logic and basic math. Complete solutions included.

Prime Obsession

Bernhard Riemann and the Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics

Author: John Derbyshire

Publisher: Joseph Henry Press

ISBN: 0309141257

Category: Science

Page: 446

View: 3895

In August 1859 Bernhard Riemann, a little-known 32-year old mathematician, presented a paper to the Berlin Academy titled: "On the Number of Prime Numbers Less Than a Given Quantity." In the middle of that paper, Riemann made an incidental remark â€" a guess, a hypothesis. What he tossed out to the assembled mathematicians that day has proven to be almost cruelly compelling to countless scholars in the ensuing years. Today, after 150 years of careful research and exhaustive study, the question remains. Is the hypothesis true or false? Riemann's basic inquiry, the primary topic of his paper, concerned a straightforward but nevertheless important matter of arithmetic â€" defining a precise formula to track and identify the occurrence of prime numbers. But it is that incidental remark â€" the Riemann Hypothesis â€" that is the truly astonishing legacy of his 1859 paper. Because Riemann was able to see beyond the pattern of the primes to discern traces of something mysterious and mathematically elegant shrouded in the shadows â€" subtle variations in the distribution of those prime numbers. Brilliant for its clarity, astounding for its potential consequences, the Hypothesis took on enormous importance in mathematics. Indeed, the successful solution to this puzzle would herald a revolution in prime number theory. Proving or disproving it became the greatest challenge of the age. It has become clear that the Riemann Hypothesis, whose resolution seems to hang tantalizingly just beyond our grasp, holds the key to a variety of scientific and mathematical investigations. The making and breaking of modern codes, which depend on the properties of the prime numbers, have roots in the Hypothesis. In a series of extraordinary developments during the 1970s, it emerged that even the physics of the atomic nucleus is connected in ways not yet fully understood to this strange conundrum. Hunting down the solution to the Riemann Hypothesis has become an obsession for many â€" the veritable "great white whale" of mathematical research. Yet despite determined efforts by generations of mathematicians, the Riemann Hypothesis defies resolution. Alternating passages of extraordinarily lucid mathematical exposition with chapters of elegantly composed biography and history, Prime Obsession is a fascinating and fluent account of an epic mathematical mystery that continues to challenge and excite the world. Posited a century and a half ago, the Riemann Hypothesis is an intellectual feast for the cognoscenti and the curious alike. Not just a story of numbers and calculations, Prime Obsession is the engrossing tale of a relentless hunt for an elusive proof â€" and those who have been consumed by it.

Entertaining Mathematical Puzzles

Author: Martin Gardner

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486252117

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 112

View: 6411

Playing with mathematical riddles can be an intriguing and fun-filled pastime — as popular science writer Martin Gardner proves in this entertaining collection. Puzzlists need only an elementary knowledge of math and a will to resist looking up the answer before trying to solve a problem. Written in a light and witty style, Entertaining Mathematical Puzzles is a mixture of old and new riddles, grouped into sections that cover a variety of mathematical topics: money, speed, plane and solid geometry, probability, topology, tricky puzzles, and more. The probability section, for example, points out that everything we do, everything that happens around us, obeys the laws of probability; geometry puzzles test our ability to think pictorially and often, in more than one dimension; while topology, among the "youngest and rowdiest branches of modern geometry," offers a glimpse into a strange dimension where properties remain unchanged, no matter how a figure is twisted, stretched, or compressed. Clear and concise comments at the beginning of each section explain the nature and importance of the math needed to solve each puzzle. A carefully explained solution follows each problem. In many cases, all that is needed to solve a puzzle is the ability to think logically and clearly, to be "on the alert for surprising, off-beat angles...that strange hidden factor that everyone else had overlooked." Fully illustrated, this engaging collection will appeal to parents and children, amateur mathematicians, scientists, and students alike, and may, as the author writes, make the reader "want to study the subject in earnest" and explains "some of the inviting paths that wind away from the problems into lusher areas of the mathematical jungle." 65 black-and-white illustrations.

Ways of Thinking, Ways of Seeing

Mathematical and other Modelling in Engineering and Technology

Author: Chris Bissell,Chris Dillon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642252095

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 234

View: 8708

This fascinating book examines some of the characteristics of technological/engineering models that are likely to be unfamiliar to those who are interested primarily in the history and philosophy of science and mathematics, and which differentiate technological models from scientific and mathematical ones. Themes that are highlighted include: • the role of language: the models developed for engineering design have resulted in new ways of talking about technological systems • communities of practice: related to the previous point, particular engineering communities have particular ways of sharing and developing knowledge • graphical (re)presentation: engineers have developed many ways of reducing quite complex mathematical models to more simple representations • reification: highly abstract mathematical models are turned into ‘objects’ that can be manipulated almost like components of a physical system • machines: not only the currently ubiquitous digital computer, but also older analogue devices – slide rules, physical models, wind tunnels and other small-scale simulators, as well as mechanical, electrical and electronic analogue computers • mathematics and modelling as a bridging tool between disciplines This book studies primarily modelling in technological practice. It is worth noting that models of the type considered in the book are not always highly valued in formal engineering education at university level, which often takes an “applied science” approach close to that of the natural sciences (something that can result in disaffection on the part of students). Yet in an informal context, such as laboratories, industrial placements, and so on, a very different situation obtains. A number of chapters considers such epistemological aspects, as well as the status of different types of models within the engineering education community. The book will be of interest to practising engineers and technologists; sociologists of science and technology; and historians and philosophers of science and mathematics. It will also be written in a way that will be accessible to non-specialists.

Applied Mathematics

Author: Alain Goriely

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198754043

Category: Mathematics

Page: 168

View: 5098

Mathematics is playing an increasingly important role in society and the sciences, enhancing our ability to use models and handle data. While pure mathematics is mostly interested in abstract structures, applied mathematics sits at the interface between this abstract world and the world in which we live. This area of mathematics takes its nourishment from society and science and, in turn, provides a unified way to understand problems arising in diverse fields. This Very Short Introduction presents a compact yet comprehensive view of the field of applied mathematics, and explores its relationships with (pure) mathematics, science, and engineering. Explaining the nature of applied mathematics, Alain Goriely discusses its early achievements in physics and engineering, and its development as a separate field after World War II. Using historical examples, current applications, and challenges, Goriely illustrates the particular role that mathematics plays in the modern sciences today and its far-reaching potential. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Topics in Topology

Author: Solomon Lefschetz

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691095738

Category: Mathematics

Page: 137

View: 499

Solomon Lefschetz pioneered the field of topology--the study of the properties of many?sided figures and their ability to deform, twist, and stretch without changing their shape. According to Lefschetz, "If it's just turning the crank, it's algebra, but if it's got an idea in it, it's topology." The very word topology comes from the title of an earlier Lefschetz monograph published in 1920. In Topics in Topology Lefschetz developed a more in-depth introduction to the field, providing authoritative explanations of what would today be considered the basic tools of algebraic topology. Lefschetz moved to the United States from France in 1905 at the age of twenty-one to find employment opportunities not available to him as a Jew in France. He worked at Westinghouse Electric Company in Pittsburgh and there suffered a horrible laboratory accident, losing both hands and forearms. He continued to work for Westinghouse, teaching mathematics, and went on to earn a Ph.D. and to pursue an academic career in mathematics. When he joined the mathematics faculty at Princeton University, he became one of its first Jewish faculty members in any discipline. He was immensely popular, and his memory continues to elicit admiring anecdotes. Editor of Princeton University Press's Annals of Mathematics from 1928 to 1958, Lefschetz built it into a world-class scholarly journal. He published another book, Lectures on Differential Equations, with Princeton in 1946.