U.S. Government Contractors and Human Trafficking

Two Case Studies of Iraq and Bosnia-Herzegovina

Author: Celline Cole,Resy Vermeltfoort

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319708279

Category: Social Science

Page: 118

View: 4760

This Brief examines the role of United States private military contractors (PMCs) in human trafficking and forced labor in case studies of Iraq and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Through the lens of these cases, the authors explore the legal and regulatory deficiencies surrounding PMCs in conflict zones, and the role of international criminal law in this context. It uses an integrative model of state corporate crime as a theoretical and analytical framework. This work will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as those involved in the field of criminal law and human rights law, as well as political science. It will also be of interest for policy makers, legislators and others working in international law and diplomacy.

Order, law, and crime

an introduction to criminology

Author: Raymond J. Michalowski

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 422

View: 2043

Understanding Sexual Violence

A Study of Convicted Rapists

Author: Diana Scully

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135220204

Category: Psychology

Page: 218

View: 7526

Understanding Sexual Violence examines the structural supports for rape in sexually violent cultures and dispels a number of myths about sexual violence--for example, that childhood abuse, alcohol, and drugs are direct causes of rape.

Women and the Mafia

Female Roles in Organized Crime Structures

Author: Giovanni Fiandaca

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387365427

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 2447

The insightful essays in this book shine a new light on the roles of women within criminal networks, roles that in reality are often less traditional than researchers used to think. The book seeks to answer questions from a wide range of academic disciplines and traces the portrait of women tied to organized crime in Italy and around the world. The book offers up accounts of mafia women, and also tales of severe abuse and violence against women.

What Works in Crime Prevention and Rehabilitation

Lessons from Systematic Reviews

Author: David Weisburd,David P. Farrington,Charlotte Gill

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493934775

Category: Social Science

Page: 331

View: 5057

Systematic reviews aim to minimize any possible bias in drawing conclusions by stating explicit criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies, by conducting extensive and wide-ranging searches for possibly eligible studies, and by making all stages of the review explicit and transparent so that the methods can be checked and replicated. Over a decade ago, a concerted effort was made by members of the criminology community, including the Editors and contributors of this volume, to bring the practice of systematic reviews to the study of Criminology, providing replicable, evidence-based data to answer key questions about the study of crime causation, detection, and prevention. Now, the pioneers in this effort present a comprehensive stock-taking of what has been learned in the past decade of systematic reviews in criminology. Much has been discovered about the effectiveness of (for example) boot camps, “hot spots” policing, closed-circuit television surveillance, neighborhood watch, anti-bullying programs in schools, early parenting programs, drug treatment programs, and other key topics. This ambitious volume aims to bring together and assess all major systematic reviews of the effectiveness of criminological interventions, to draw broad conclusions about what works in policing, corrections, developmental prevention, situational prevention, drug abuse treatments, sentencing and deterrence, and communities. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as in related fields such as public health and forensic science, with important implications for policy-makers and practitioners. Decisively showing that the “nothing works” era is over, this volume takes stock of what we know, and still need to know, to prevent crime. Focusing on different areas of prevention, individual chapters provide a state-of–the art analysis of the extent evaluation evidence. Together, they comprise an essential guide to improving both public safety and the lives of those most at risk of criminal involvement. I plan to keep this book close at hand and to use if often! Francis T. Cullen, Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus, University of Cincinnati This impressive volume, edited by Weisburd, Farrington and Gill, provides a comprehensive picture of what we’ve learned from systematic reviews about “what works” in addressing crime – and goes on to identify the “next step” issues that demand attention if the field is to move forward. At a time when there is a broad commitment to bringing science to the front lines of practice, this book should be on the reading list of both policymakers and scholars. Laurie O. Robinson, Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Criminology, Law Society, George Mason University and former Assistant Attorney General of the U.S. Department of Justice

Corporate deviance

Author: M. David Ermann,Richard J. Lundman

Publisher: Harcourt School

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 198

View: 8332

Biker Gangs and Transnational Organized Crime

Author: Thomas Barker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131752411X

Category: Political Science

Page: 260

View: 5425

Biker Gangs and Transnational Organized Crime, Second Edition, describes and analyzes a rapidly expanding global problem: criminal acts committed by motorcycle gangs. Thomas Barker, one of the world’s top experts on outlaw biker gangs, offers fascinating details about the Bandidos, the Vagos, the Mongols, and other "one percenters" (criminal biker gangs, as opposed to the vast majority of motorcycle enthusiasts). He combines this data with a strengthened conceptual framework that makes sense of this complicated picture. U.S.-based motorcycle gangs like the Hells Angels have proliferated, especially in Canada and Europe, to the point where these gangs have more members in other countries than in the United States. Increasingly more often in recent years their crimes are not limited to rumbles or drug use—these gangs challenge the dominance of organized crime, leading to violent conflicts between the rivals. Germany, Scandinavia, the UK, the Netherlands, and Canada are particularly hard-hit by this rising violence. One of Barker’s unique contributions is his Criminal Organization Continuum, building on the groundbreaking network approach to organized crime proposed by Klaus von Lampe. Introduced in the first edition, Barker elaborates his continuum tool and makes it more multi-dimensional to help refine the definition of adult criminal gangs. The product of years of research, this book lays the groundwork for further study by offering students, police, and researchers the most thorough account available of outlaw motorcycle gangs.

Preventing Terrorism and Controlling Risk

A Comparative Analysis of Control Orders in the UK and Australia

Author: Susan Donkin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461487056

Category: Social Science

Page: 89

View: 4277

​This Brief takes a provocative look at existing socio-legal literature with a comparative study of terrorism control orders, focusing on how the concept of pre-emption fits within a traditional criminological framework. This timely work examines how such measures might be conceived and interpreted within a situational crime prevention approach. Over the past decade, socio-legal scholars have identified a rise in pre-emptive control mechanisms to respond to terrorism and other threats in the post-9/11 world. Many have argued that this pre-emptive rationale has been used to justify the introduction of measures that transcend established legal and risk frameworks, to deal with individuals or groups thought to pose a threat to the state or its citizens. ​Preventing Terrorism and Controlling Risk: A Comparative Analysis of Control Orders in the UK and Australia will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly with a focus on terrorism, risk assessment, and human rights.​

Illegal Drugs, Drug Trafficking and Violence in Latin America

Author: Marcelo Bergman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331973153X

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 5711

This book describes the main patterns and trends of drug trafficking in Latin America and analyzes its political, economic and social effects on several countries over the last twenty years. Its aim is to provide readers an introductory yet elaborate text on the illegal drug problem in the region. It first seeks to define and measure the problem, and then discusses some of the implications that the growth of production, trafficking, and consumption of illegal drugs had in the economies, in the social fabrics, and in the domestic and international policies of Latin American countries. This book analyzes the illegal drugs problem from a Latin American perspective. Although there is a large literature and research on drug use and trade in the USA, Canada, Europe and the Far East, little is understood on the impact of narcotics in countries that have supplied a large share of the drugs used worldwide. This work explores how routes into Europe and the USA are developed, why the so-called drug cartels exist in the region, what level of profits illegal drugs generate, how such gains are distributed among producers, traffickers, and dealers and how much they make, why violence spread in certain places but not in others, and which alternative policies were taken to address the growing challenges posed by illegal drugs. With a strong empirical foundation based on the best available data, Illegal Drugs, Drug Trafficking and Violence in Latin America explains how rackets in the region built highly profitable enterprises transshipping and smuggling drugs northbound and why the large circulation of drugs also produced the emergence of vibrant domestic markets, which doubled the number of drug users in the region the last 10 years. It presents the best available information for 18 countries, and the final two chapters analyze in depth two rather different case studies: Mexico and Argentina.

The Argument of Mathematics

Author: Andrew Aberdein,Ian J Dove

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400765347

Category: Philosophy

Page: 393

View: 1628

Written by experts in the field, this volume presents a comprehensive investigation into the relationship between argumentation theory and the philosophy of mathematical practice. Argumentation theory studies reasoning and argument, and especially those aspects not addressed, or not addressed well, by formal deduction. The philosophy of mathematical practice diverges from mainstream philosophy of mathematics in the emphasis it places on what the majority of working mathematicians actually do, rather than on mathematical foundations. The book begins by first challenging the assumption that there is no role for informal logic in mathematics. Next, it details the usefulness of argumentation theory in the understanding of mathematical practice, offering an impressively diverse set of examples, covering the history of mathematics, mathematics education and, perhaps surprisingly, formal proof verification. From there, the book demonstrates that mathematics also offers a valuable testbed for argumentation theory. Coverage concludes by defending attention to mathematical argumentation as the basis for new perspectives on the philosophy of mathematics. ​

Global Regulation

Managing Crises After the Imperial Turn

Author: Kees Van Der Pijl,Libby Assassi,Duncan Wigan

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9781403939814

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 6343

When the United States and Britain invaded Iraq in 2003 it seemed as if they also tore up the fabric of global governance of the world economy. But this governance was already contested and the world economy, the contributors argue, is in crisis. The chapters in this collection address the question of whether and how the "imperial turn" taken by the US and Britain has affected the "governance" structures of the global political economy in the areas of world economy, property relations, corporate social responsibility, migration, and security.

The Role of State Agencies in Translational Criminology

Connecting Research to Policy

Author: Mark S Davis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319576828

Category: Social Science

Page: 63

View: 5912

This Brief discusses the role of state-level criminal justice organizations in the prevention and control of crime and delinquency. State agencies play an important role in translating criminological knowledge into criminal justice policy and practice. Their unique position enables them to help bridge the divide between the academic and federal agencies, and local communities that need the knowledge. Using several examples, the author shows how state agencies have facilitated translation with varying degrees of success. The agencies covered include: state police/patrol, attorneys general, adult and juvenile corrections, and state criminal justice planning agencies. To a lesser extent they also include statewide organizations representing law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, probation and parole officers, crime prevention professionals, and victim advocates. Most statewide criminal justice organizations are in an excellent position to translate criminological theory and research into policy and practice. Some, like those administering federal monies, to an extent are forced into the translation role for their constituents. Others, such as departments of corrections, do so out of necessity or because of enlightened leadership. Still others, such as state criminal justice planning agencies, provide leadership in translation because of the broad umbrella of their responsibilities and the incentives their pass-though dollars represent. Regardless, state agencies provide an important link between academic institutions and the federal government on one hand, and local criminal justice agencies on the other.​ This Brief provides and important resource for navigating that link.

Higher Police Education

An International View

Author: Colin Rogers,Bernhard Frevel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319583867

Category: Social Science

Page: 274

View: 9067

This edited collection is concerned with the ideas, challenges, demands and framework of conditions behind police education from an international perspective. Whilst not directly concerned with a classical comparison of education concepts from different countries, the broad range of international contributors consider issues such as professionalization programmes, how higher education programmes influence police organizations, as well how higher education influences police practice in a global context. Examining a wide array of countries from Germany to China and Brazil to show the flawed nature of an education system based purely upon an approach concerned with police officer numbers, the editors of this book argue for the need for greater scientific education among police around the world to meet contemporary developments. A timely and well-informed study, this book meets a crucial gap in the literature and will serve as an important contribution to existing work on policing, crime prevention, and theoretical criminology.

Investigating White-Collar Crime

Evaluation of Fraud Examinations

Author: Petter Gottschalk

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319689169

Category: Social Science

Page: 265

View: 6820

This book examines internal fraud investigations in public and private organizations. It provides a theoretical framework of white-collar crime and convenience theory, to examine a number of case studies, including some cases brought to light by the Panama Papers. Investigating white-collar crime is distinguished from other types of crime by: concealment of the crime rather than the criminal, victims who may be unaware of the crime and not directly visible to the criminal, and the resources available to suspects. It requires a unique strategy and a unique set of tools. This work provides insight into a number of internal investigation reports that are normally not publicly available. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly with an interest in white collar crime and corruption, as well as related fields such as business, management, economics, and public administration.

Perceptions of Female Offenders

How Stereotypes and Social Norms Affect Criminal Justice Responses

Author: Brenda Russell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461458714

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 5246

​Female offenders are often perceived as victims who commit crimes as a self-defense mechanism or as criminal deviants whose actions strayed from typical ‘womanly’ behavior. Such cultural norms for violence exist in our gendered society and there has been scholarly debate about how male and female offenders are perceived and how this perception leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This debate is primarily based upon theories associated with stereotypes and social norms and how these prescriptive norms can influence both public and criminal justice response. Scholars in psychology, sociology, and criminology have found that female offenders are perceived differently than male offenders and this ultimately leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This interdisciplinary book provides an evidence based approach of how female offenders are perceived in society and how this translates to differential treatment within the criminal justice system and explores the ramifications of such differences. Quite often perceptions of female offenders are at odds with research findings. This book will provide a comprehensive evidence-based review of the research that is valuable to laypersons, researchers, practitioners, advocates, treatment providers, lawyers, judges, and anyone interested in equality in the criminal justice system. ​

Foot Patrol

Rethinking the Cornerstone of Policing

Author: Jerry H. Ratcliffe,Evan T. Sorg

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319652478

Category: Social Science

Page: 90

View: 2071

This Brief reviews the history of foot patrol and the recent, research-driven resurgence of foot patrol in places such as Philadelphia. It summarizes and critiques existing literature on the subject, examining the efficacy of foot patrol. At the time the Philadelphia Foot Patrol Experiment was published, popular opinion about foot patrol was that it might improve community perception of police and reduce fear of crime, but it did not have a concrete crime prevention benefit. The Philadelphia Experiment represented a major examination of this concept, involving over 200 officers in 60 locations over a two-year period, in some of the highest violent crime areas of Philadelphia. The results suggested that a targeted hot spots-oriented foot patrol strategy did contribute to violent crime reduction. Four years later, the lead author of that seminal experiment explores its findings, together with the findings of the Philadelphia Policing Tactics Experiment, and examines their differences. This work also explores officer experiences with foot patrol. This Brief concludes with policy recommendations about foot patrol, when and how to implement it, and the benefits it can add to a police department. This Brief will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly with an interest in Police Studies, and related fields such as sociology and public policy. It will also be of interest to practitioners and policy makers interested in evidence-based policing.

Crime and Justice in Contemporary Japan

Author: Jianhong Liu,Setsuo Miyazawa

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331969359X

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 3351

This book provides an important overview of key criminology and criminal justice concerns in Japan. It highlights similarities between the practice of criminology research in Japan, as well as important differences, with other areas of Asia and with the West. In previous decades, Japan attracted international attention as the only industrialized country where the crime rate declined along with a rise in urbanization and economic development. Currently, Japan still enjoys a declining crime rate (the lowest among major industrialized countries) and a study of criminal justice practices in Japan may provide important insights for other regions. Japan also experiences important contemporary challenges which are shared by other regions: 1. Japan has the highest proportion of people over the age of 60 in the world. For criminology, this means key challenges in the victimization of older people, as well as the challenges of an aging prison population. 2. Besides the United States, Japan is the only developed country that still practices capital punishment, and its rate has been on the rise in the past 20 years. 3. Japan has also introduced new reforms in its law practice, including the introduction of new trial formats. The research in this book provides a helpful overview for scholars interested in criminology and criminal justice in Japan to understand the key issues of concern, and present a framework for future research needs. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, international studies, Asian Studies, sociology, and political science.

Criminal Justice and Mental Health

An Overview for Students

Author: Jada Hector,David Khey

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331976442X

Category: Social Science

Page: 225

View: 3521

This textbook provides an overview for students in Criminology and Criminal Justice about the overlap between the criminal justice system and mental health. It provides an accessible overview of basic signs and symptoms of major mental illnesses and size of scope of justice-involved individuals with mental illness. In the United States, the criminal justice system is often the first public service to be in contact with individuals suffering from mental illness or in mental distress. Those with untreated mental illnesses are often at higher risk for committing criminal acts, yet research on this population continues to shed light on common myths – such a prevailing assumption that those with mental illness tend to commit more violent crimes. Law enforcement agents may be called in as first responders for cases of mental distress; and due to a lack of mental health facilities, resources, and pervasive misconceptions about this population, those with mental illness often end up in the corrections system. In this environment, students in Criminology and Criminal Justice are likely to encounter those with mental illness in their future career paths, and need to be prepared for this reality. This timely work covers the roles of each part of the criminal justice system interacting with mentally ill individuals, from law enforcement and first responders, social services, public health services, sentencing and corrections, to release and re-entry. It also covers the crucial topic of mental health for criminal justice professionals, who suffer from high rates of job stress, PTSD, and other mental health issues. The final section of the book includes suggestions for future research. This work will be of interest to students of criminology and criminal justice with an interest in working in the professional sector, as well as those in related fields of sociology, psychology, and public health. It will also be of interest to policy-makers and practitioners already working in the field. The overall goal of this work is to inform, educate, and inspire change.

Dirty Money

On Financial Delinquency

Author: Vincenzo Ruggiero

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198783220

Category:

Page: 272

View: 3487

Navigating financial crashes of the Late Middle Ages up to the present day and analysing them through the lenses of classical, positivist, functionalist and Marxist criminology, Dirty Money: On Financial Delinquency explores the growth of grey areas in the financial world and our understanding, or misunderstanding, of financial delinquency. Pope Francis, while denouncing the incapacity of governments to reduce poverty and fight the exploitation of cheap labour, has also condemned greed, repeating several times the old medieval adage: money is the excrement of the devil. This distinction between clean and excremental, pure and impure, informs the symbolic order of many traditional and contemporary societies; however, it can also be used to single out criminal activity as opposed to law-abiding conduct and, in particular, to separate acceptable from unacceptable practices in the economic domain. With a focus on financial crime, whose ambiguity, ubiquity and evolving nature make the separation between acceptable and unacceptable practices inherently problematic, this book examines the process whereby the excrement of the devil was slowly 'freed' from both its sinful and criminal character. It is a study of how human action turns something seemingly benign into an instrument for the production of harm. Its focus, therefore, is on dirty money - namely the illegitimate appropriation of financial resources by individuals and groups holding expert knowledge and, often, occupying positions of power. The ideological arguments accompanying this evolution are scrutinised, alongside the history of financial initiatives and the accompanying 'crunches'. The struggle juxtaposing criminalization and decriminalization is at the core of all chapters, which analyse a series of major events chronologically, from the exploits of John Law to the deeds of contemporary finance. Analytically located in the area of white-collar crime, Dirty Money examines episodes of financial delinquency and discusses the way in which observers, including criminologists, shape an understanding of their causes and consequences. It will be of interest to scholars and students of criminology, sociology, criminal justice, history, and economics, as well as policy makers, finance professionals, and fraud investigators.

The Whistleblower

Sex Trafficking, Military Contractors, and One Woman's Fight for Justice

Author: Kathryn Bolkovac,Cari Lynn

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 0230115632

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 4541

When Nebraska police officer and divorced mother of three Kathryn Bolkovac saw a recruiting announcement for private military contractor DynCorp International, she applied and was hired. Good money, world travel, and the chance to help rebuild a war-torn country sounded like the perfect job. Bolkovac was shipped out to Bosnia, where DynCorp had been contracted to support the UN peacekeeping mission. She was assigned as a human rights investigator, heading the gender affairs unit. The lack of proper training provided sounded the first alarm bell, but once she arrived in Sarajevo, she found out that things were a lot worse. At great risk to her personal safety, she began to unravel the ugly truth about officers involved in human trafficking and forced prostitution and their connections to private mercenary contractors, the UN, and the U.S. State Department. After bringing this evidence to light, Bolkovac was demoted, felt threatened with bodily harm, was fired, and ultimately forced to flee the country under cover of darkness—bringing the incriminating documents with her. Thanks to the evidence she collected, she won a lawsuit against DynCorp, finally exposing them for what they had done. This is her story and the story of the women she helped achieve justice for.