Understanding Mathematics for Young Children

A Guide for Foundation Stage and Lower Primary Teachers

Author: Derek Haylock,Anne D Cockburn

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446204979

Category: Education

Page: 272

View: 9898

'This book is the ideal way to dispel some of the fears which surround the subject area of mathematics and should be an essential part of the professional development library of every early years setting provider for children aged three and over' - Early Years Update 'A book that is both readable and rigorous. [Its] guidance will help teachers to make mathematics meaningful to young children. Throughout the book connections are made which relate language, symbols, concrete materials and pictures to the key ideas that are central to effective learning for the 21st century. This book will help teachers gain a depth of understanding that will make them confident in engaging children with real mathematical thinking' - Dr J.E. Anghileri, Senior Lecturer in Mathematics and Mathematics Education, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge 'This is an updated version of a classic text which has been a best -seller among teachers and student teachers for many years. Being always strongly grounded in the classroom, it develops in a non-intimidating way teachers' own understanding of the mathematics they are teaching. Many insightful examples of children's thinking and appropriate activities help to illustrate the points. This is an essential book for teachers of Early Years and Key Stage 1' - Margaret Brown, Professor of Mathematics Education, King's College London, UK This is a fully revised version of the authors' successful and much-used book, Understanding Mathematics in the Lower Primary Years, updated to include the current Foundation Stage Curriculum and the new Primary Framework in England. The authors empower the reader to have a clearer understanding of the mathematical ideas behind the material they use in the classroom. They also show how children can be helped to develop an understanding of mathematics for themselves, rather than just learning recipes and routines with little meaning. Major themes are: - Understanding through making connections - Equivalence and transformation - Using and applying mathematics It is written for teachers and teacher trainees engaged in teaching mathematics to children aged 3 to 8 years. It is an essential student text and professional reference work for all teachers of children aged 3 to 8 years. Dr Derek Haylock is an education consultant and author, working in the field of mathematics education. His book Mathematics Explained for Primary Teachers has been a leader in the field for many years, with a third edition published in 2006. Dr Anne Cockburn is a Reader in the School of Education and Lifelong Learning at the University of East Anglia, Norwich. Watch the authors talking about their book here: YouTube

Understanding Mathematics in the Lower Primary Years

A Guide for Teachers of Children 3 - 8

Author: Derek Haylock,Anne D Cockburn

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761941040

Category: Education

Page: 238

View: 9189

New Edition of Best Seller! This is a fully revised and updated edition of the authors' successful and much-used book and was written for those who wish to have a clearer understanding of the mathematical ideas behind the material they use in the classroom.

Understanding Mathematics in the Lower Primary Years

Author: Derek Haylock,Anne D Cockburn

Publisher: Paul Chapman Educational Publishing

ISBN: N.A

Category: Education

Page: 208

View: 8359

`There have been few mathematical texts which cause readers to smile, but one of the great strengths of this book is the consistent good humour. Hiding in the explanations of more abstract concepts are unexpected images, such as the "two thousand sets of zero elephants placed inside these brackets [ ]", which surprise and entertain, and so render difficult ideas memorable' - Mathematics Education Review This is a substantially revised and expanded edition of the authors’ earlier book, Understanding Early Years Mathematics. It is written for teachers and student-teachers working with children aged four to eight year olds. It provides them with a clearer understanding of the mathematical material they d

Wie kleine Kinder schlau werden

selbständiges Lernen im Alltag

Author: John Caldwell Holt

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783407228550

Category:

Page: 232

View: 7421

Ausgehend von der Beobachtung des kindlichen Spielens erläutert der Autor, wie Kinder denken und lernen.

Engaging Young Children in Mathematics

Standards for Early Childhood Mathematics Education

Author: Douglas H. Clements,Julie Sarama,Ann-Marie DiBiase

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0805842101

Category: Education

Page: 474

View: 5895

Engaging Young Children in Mathematics: Standards for Early Childhood Mathematics Education brings together the combined wisdom of a diverse group of experts involved with early childhood mathematics. The book originates from the landmark 2000 Conference on Standards for Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten Mathematics Education, attended by representatives from almost every state developing standards for young children's mathematics; federal government officials; mathematicians; mathematics educators; researchers from mathematics education, early childhood education, and psychology; curriculum developers; teachers; policymakers; and professionals from organizations such as the National Conference of Teachers of Mathematics and the National Association for the Education of Young Children. The main goal of the Conference was to work collectively to help those responsible for framing and implementing early childhood mathematics standards. Although it has its roots in the Conference, the expanded scope of the standards and recommendations covered in this book includes the full range of kindergarten to grade 2. The volume is organized into two main parts and an online appendix (http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/org/conference/). Part One, Major Themes and Recommendations, offers a framework for thinking about pre-kindergarten - grade 2 mathematics education and specific recommendations. Part Two, Elaboration of Major Themes and Recommendations, provides substantive detail regarding young students' understandings of mathematical ideas. Each Part includes five parallel subsections: "Standards in Early Childhood Education"; "Math Standards and Guidelines"; "Curriculum, Learning, Teaching, and Assessment"; "Professional Development"; and "Toward the Future: Implementation and Policy." As a whole the book: * presents comprehensive summaries of research that provide specific guidelines for standards, curriculum, and teaching; * takes the recent reports and recommendations for early childhood mathematics education to the next level; * integrates practical details and research throughout; and * provides a succinct, but thorough review of research on the topics, sequences, and learning trajectories that children can and should learn at each of their first years of life, with specific developmental guidelines that suggest appropriate content for each topic for each year from 2-year-olds to 7-year-olds. This is an indispensable volume for mathematics educators, researchers, curriculum developers, teachers and policymakers, including those who create standards, scope and sequences, and curricula for young children and professional teacher development materials, and students in mathematics education, early childhood trainers, teacher educators, and faculty in mathematics education.

Das Glasperlenspiel

Versuch einer Lebensbeschreibung des Magister Ludi Josef Knecht samt Knechts hinterlassenen Schriften

Author: Hermann Hesse

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518765906

Category: Fiction

Page: 920

View: 1781

Dies ist Hermann Hesses letztes, sein wichtigstes und anspruchsvollstes Werk. Es ist ein Buch der Zukunft: Der Autor transportiert das Leben seines Helden Josef Knecht in das Jahr 2200. Er entwickelt mit dem »Glasperlenspiel«, in dem nicht weniger als das Streben nach Wahrheit auf dem Spiel steht, eine Utopie. »Er hat Ratsuchenden gezeigt, wie sie bei sich selbst Rat finden konnten. Die persönlichste Hilfe hat er dadurch geleistet, daß er das Bescheidwissen verweigerte ... Dies war sein Engagement, daß er sich für kein Programm engagieren ließ, keinen Zement für eine Weltanschauung lieferte. ... Hesse war ein Meister im Sinn des Tao: er spricht, damit sich der Schüler selbst versteht; spricht er dem Meister aber nach, so hat er nichts verstanden. Hesses Schriften sind Wittgensteinsche Leitern; ist die Mauer erstiegen, werden sie nicht mehr benötigt.« Adolf Muschg

Entwicklungspsychologie im Kindes- und Jugendalter

Author: Robert Siegler,Nancy Eisenberg,Judy DeLoache,Jenny Saffran

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662470284

Category: Psychology

Page: 688

View: 1101

Wer dieses Standardwerk liest, erhält einen umfassenden Überblick über einschlägige Theorien, moderne Forschungsmethoden und neueste Erkenntnisse zur Kindes- und Jugendentwicklung. Die einfache, klare Sprache sowie zahlreiche Illustrationen und Fallbeispiele machen die Lektüre des Lehrbuchs für Studierende der Entwicklungspsychologie zum echten Vergnügen. Tabellen, Schaubilder, Zusammenfassungen und Praxisbeispiele helfen dabei, den Stoff zu verstehen, zu strukturieren und zu verinnerlichen. Die Inhalte des Werkes gehen dabei teilweise deutlich über den klassischen Lehrstoff für Bachelor-Prüfungen hinaus und vermitteln ein vertieftes Verständnis dafür, wie die Entwicklung in unterschiedlichen Bereichen zusammenhängt, von welchen sozialen und gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen sie abhängt und wie die Entstehung von Problemen verhindert werden kann. Die Auseinandersetzung mit dieser Lektüre lohnt sich daher nicht nur für die Prüfungsvorbereitung im Bachelor- und Masterstudium. Auch wenn Sie bereits beruflich oder privat mit Kindern und Jugendlichen zu tun haben, wird Ihnen das Buch als wertvolles Nachschlagewerk dienen und immer wieder Lust machen, sich mit den Inhalten auseinanderzusetzen.

Teaching for Understanding

What it is and how to do it

Author: Douglas P Newton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136647910

Category: Education

Page: 192

View: 4337

First published in 2012. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Experiences in Math for Young Children

Author: Rosalind Charlesworth

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1133386539

Category: Education

Page: 528

View: 2064

EXPERIENCES IN MATH FOR YOUNG CHILDREN, 6th Edition, focuses on the developmental sequence of mathematics for young children and its integration with other content areas. For each mathematics concept presented, Charlesworth provides a picture of how the concept might be incorporated into music and movement, language arts, visual arts, science, and social studies for children from birth through age eight. Early education students learn about problem solving as the major means for constructing concepts with a balance of naturalistic, informal, and structured activities. Students are also prepared to put concepts into action with the assessment, instructional, and evaluation strategies provided in each unit. Finally, the text provides specific information about active approaches to mathematics, materials and resources for setting up learning centers, guidance on parental involvement, and Internet resources. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Children's Mathematics

Making Marks, Making Meaning

Author: Elizabeth Carruthers,Maulfry Worthington

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1847878814

Category: Education

Page: 280

View: 7976

Visit the author's own website here! Children's Mathematics Network 'In Case Study 5 (a grassroots 'Children's Mathematics Network group') the initiative supported the participants in their professional change by giving them a space for the detailed and joint consideration of children's mathematical thinking. Another significant feature of this initiative is its focus on careful consideration and analysis of children's mathematics, and the ways in which professionals can support and encourage the children's mathematical thinking and reasoning... The standard of the mathematical understanding, thinking and reasoning that the displays revealed was far higher than the specified curriculum objectives for children of this age...' - Researching Effective CPD in Mathematics Education (RECME) project: (NCETM, 2009) 'The review also plays great score by play-based learning of a mathematical nature, and makes specific recommendations regarding early mark-making as a precursor to abstract mathematical symbolism'. Section 115 features children's mathematical graphics and emphasises: 'The role of mark-making in children's cognitive development is set out in the taxonomy (Carruthers and Worthington, 2006)'. The report recommends that 'local authorities, leaders, managers and head teachers should provide a culture with a significant focus on mathematical mark-making' and 'a learning environment that encourages children to choose to use their own mathematical graphics to support their mathematical thinking and processes' - The Williams Maths Review: (DCSF, 2008) `At the very heart of the success of the book is the authors' ability to see mathematics through young children's eyes by listening to and reflecting on the constant efforts made by children to make sense of their world. This is a liberating book which proposes that the teaching of mathematics could and should be a highly creative and enjoyable proceess' - Branwen Llewelyn Jones, Early Years Consultant at PACE Ltd / TACTYC 'Ground breaking... To single out any one chapter would be unfair because there is something thought-provoking and inspirational throughout. If you want to expand your understanding upwards and outwards then get a copy soon' - Times Educational Supplement 'I first read Children's Mathematics, Making Marks, Making Meaning a couple of years ago and it had an immediate impact on my own thinking and teaching, and the work I do with trainee teachers. I'm sure you will find it compelling reading too. I think it has the potential to change, in a fundamental way, how we think about early mathematical development' - Lynne McClure, Editor, Math Co-ordiator's File, Mathematics Association 'In their exceptionally readable and informative book, Children's Mathematics, Making Marks, Making Meaning Carruthers and Worthington (2006) draw attention to one of the main goals of early years teaching, that is, to help children make links between the mathematics they have already encountered (and continue to engage with) at home and the more abstract mathematics of the school. These authors suggest that by encouraging children to represent mathematical ideas in their own ways and, crucially, by talking to the pupils about the marks they have made, we are given a "window" onto their thinking that may otherwise be inaccessible' - Liz Pumphrey, NRICH This book draws on the authors' many years of teaching children aged three to eight years and also on their extensive research with children in the home, nursery and school. The authors explain the development and range of young children's mathematical marks and visual representations, showing how children make mental connections between their own early marks and subsequent abstract mathematical symbolism, and go on to develop their own written methods. Combining theory and practice, this acclaimed book demonstrates how children's own mathematical graphics are highly creative and show deep levels of thinking. The authors show how this is the key to success in school mathematics and to higher levels of achievement. The authors are winners of TACTYC's (2003) Jenefer Joseph Award for the Creative Arts (3 - 8) - awarded for their innovative work with children on mathematical graphics.

Big Ideas of Early Mathematics

What Teachers of Young Children Need to Know

Author: Jeanine O'Nan Brownell,Jie-Qi Chen,Lisa Ginet,Erikson Institute. Early Math Collaborative

Publisher: Pearson

ISBN: 9780132946971

Category: Education

Page: 196

View: 8312

"The Big Ideas that convey the core concepts of mathematics are at the heart of this new book that gives early childhood educators the skills they need to organize for mathematics teaching and learning during the early years. For teachers of children ages three through six, the book provides foundations for further mathematics learning and helps facilitate long-term mathematical understanding. It's the perfect guide for those who want to focus their instruction on mathematics that is central, coherent, and rigorous. In it, readers see clearly why building early foundations in math matters, why teachers' understanding of foundational math matters, and why the methods used to teach it matter. Developed by the Erikson Institute's Early Math Collaborative team, the book groups the Big Ideas into nine chapter on topics that are familiar to early childhood teachers-sets, pattern and regularity, number, counting, operations, measurement, data analysis, shapes, and spatial thinking. The work is in keeping with the content strands identified by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and maps pathways to help teachers meet the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." -- publisher website.

Early Childhood Mathematics Education Research

Learning Trajectories for Young Children

Author: Julie Sarama,Douglas H. Clements

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135592500

Category: Education

Page: 424

View: 9719

This important new book synthesizes relevant research on the learning of mathematics from birth into the primary grades from the full range of these complementary perspectives. At the core of early math experts Julie Sarama and Douglas Clements's theoretical and empirical frameworks are learning trajectories—detailed descriptions of children’s thinking as they learn to achieve specific goals in a mathematical domain, alongside a related set of instructional tasks designed to engender those mental processes and move children through a developmental progression of levels of thinking. Rooted in basic issues of thinking, learning, and teaching, this groundbreaking body of research illuminates foundational topics on the learning of mathematics with practical and theoretical implications for all ages. Those implications are especially important in addressing equity concerns, as understanding the level of thinking of the class and the individuals within it, is key in serving the needs of all children.

Mathematics in the Early Years

Author: Juanita V. Copley

Publisher: National Council of Teachers of

ISBN: 9780873534697

Category: Education

Page: 230

View: 486

This thought-provoking material shows that although children think differently from adults and although children construct their own informal mathematics, they are capable of surprisingly complex forms of mathematical thinking and learning. The book presents historical, theoretical and social pictures of early childhood mathematics; discusses the mathematics content essential to the young child's understanding and zooms in on mathematics for the young child from the panoramic view of mathematics for everyone.

Befreit

Wie Bildung mir die Welt erschloss

Author: Tara Westover

Publisher: Kiepenheuer & Witsch

ISBN: 3462316680

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 448

View: 3273

Von den Bergen Idahos nach Cambridge – der unwahrscheinliche »Bildungsweg« der Tara Westover. Tara Westover ist 17 Jahre alt, als sie zum ersten Mal eine Schulklasse betritt. Zehn Jahre später kann sie eine beeindruckende akademische Laufbahn vorweisen. Aufgewachsen im ländlichen Amerika, befreit sie sich aus einer ärmlichen, archaischen und von Paranoia und Gewalt geprägten Welt durch – Bildung, durch die Aneignung von Wissen, das ihr so lange vorenthalten worden war. Die Berge Idahos sind Taras Heimat, sie lebt als Kind im Einklang mit der grandiosen Natur, mit dem Wechsel der Jahreszeiten – und mit den Gesetzen, die ihr Vater aufstellt. Er ist ein fundamentalistischer Mormone, vom baldigen Ende der Welt überzeugt und voller Misstrauen gegenüber dem Staat, von dem er sich verfolgt sieht. Tara und ihre Geschwister gehen nicht zur Schule, sie haben keine Geburtsurkunden, und ein Arzt wird selbst bei fürchterlichsten Verletzungen nicht gerufen. Und die kommen häufig vor, denn die Kinder müssen bei der schweren Arbeit auf Vaters Schrottplatz helfen, um über die Runden zu kommen. Taras Mutter, die einzige Hebamme in der Gegend, heilt die Wunden mit ihren Kräutern. Nichts ist dieser Welt ferner als Bildung. Und doch findet Tara die Kraft, sich auf die Aufnahmeprüfung fürs College vorzubereiten, auch wenn sie quasi bei null anfangen muss ... Wie Tara Westover sich aus dieser Welt befreit, überhaupt erst einmal ein Bewusstsein von sich selbst entwickelt, um den schmerzhaften Abnabelungsprozess von ihrer Familie bewältigen zu können, das beschreibt sie in diesem ergreifenden und wunderbar poetischen Buch. » Befreit wirft ein Licht auf einen Teil unseres Landes, den wir zu oft übersehen. Tara Westovers eindringliche Erzählung — davon, einen Platz für sich selbst in der Welt zu finden, ohne die Verbindung zu ihrer Familie und ihrer geliebten Heimat zu verlieren — verdient es, weithin gelesen zu werden.« J.D. Vance Autor der »Hillbilly-Elegie«

Children's Mathematical Thinking in Primary Years

Author: Julia Anghileri

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9780826479112

Category: Education

Page: 192

View: 9404

This popular Continuum series, intended chiefly for teachers and trainee teachers, places strong emphasis on practice but at the same time incorporates the latest research in the field. The book demonstrates a strong belief in the ability of children to learn, and in the ability of teachers to increase children's learning potential. The series authors are distinguished practitioners in their fields who write with authority, but without jargon. With the increasingly popular constructivist framework for learning, teachers are coming to recognize the limitations of taught procedures and to find ways to encourage children to generate their own knowledge and understanding in mathematics. The challenge for teachers is to promote an environment that encourages mathematical thinking in which pupils of all abilities are able to achieve their full potential. This text brings together experiences of teachers and researchers who examine the ways children work mathematically, in order to provide an enhanced learning environment within the classroom. It also addresses key issues in current maths teaching.

Learning and Teaching Mathematics 0-8

Author: Helen Taylor,Andrew Harris

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446293092

Category: Education

Page: 280

View: 6404

'What a super book! It is absolutely packed with practical ideas and activities to help you love maths, and love teaching and/or learning it. It certainly helps to develop an enthusiasm for a subject most adults tend to say "I'm no good at..."' - Early Years Educator ‘A wonderful book, packed with practical ideas and activities to help all students love maths.’ - Jo Boaler, Professor of Mathematics Education, Stanford University Fostering an enthusiasm for mathematics in young children is a vital part of supporting their mathematical development. Underpinned by subject and pedagogical knowledge, case studies and research-based perspectives, the authors provide clear guidance on how to support young children's learning and understanding in an effective and engaging way. Contemporary approaches to developing essential mathematical learning for young children are explored, including: play, practical activities and talk for mathematics outdoor learning understanding pattern counting, calculation and place value measures and shape problem solving and representing mathematics assessment working with parents. Written for both trainees and practitioners working with children aged 0 to 8 years, including those studying for Early Years and Early Childhood degrees and those on Primary PGCE and Primary Education courses, this book offers mathematical subject knowledge and teaching ideas in one volume. Helen Taylor is Course Leader of PGCE Primary Part-time Mathematics at Canterbury Christ Church University. Andrew Harris is Course Leader of PGCE Modular Mathematics at Canterbury Christ Church University.

Math and Science for Young Children

Author: Rosalind Charlesworth,Karen Lind

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1111833397

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 656

View: 7616

MATH AND SCIENCE FOR YOUNG CHILDREN, Seventh Edition, is a unique reference that focuses on the integration of math and science in early childhood education programs, while addressing the other important areas of child development during the crucial birth-through-eight age range. It also carefully addresses the ever-changing and significant national standards of the following organizations: The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), National Council of Teachers of Math (NCTM), National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and the National Research Council (NRC). A valuable resource for the student learner, working professional, and the involved parent, MATH AND SCIENCE FOR YOUNG CHILDREN, Seventh Edition, is the most current volume of information of its kind available on the market today. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Teaching Young Children Mathematics

Author: Sydney L. Schwartz

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 9781578867011

Category: Education

Page: 212

View: 2686

Children learn mathematics most effectively in contexts that are meaningful to them. In order to realize the potential of those contexts for fostering young children's mathematical learning, knowledge or mathematics as well as child development is the way to nurture and challenge children's thinking. Avoiding the debates surrounding "hands-on" learning vs. direct instruction, the author focuses on the value of different contexts for learning and illustrates ways to genuinely engage children as active learners. The work is rich with examples of children's interactions with each other and with adults as they utilize and extend their understanding of mathematics. Examples and guidelines for developing lessons and activities will be useful to educators and parents. Chapters explore such topics as: how we underestimate young children's mathematical capabilities; how appropriate sequencing of learning and building on prior knowledge will enhance understanding; what teachers, including parent-teachers, need to know; and high-stakes testing. This is a work that brings together the connections between knowing the basics and constructing knowledge in accessible and practical ways.

Supporting Early Mathematical Development

Practical Approaches to Play-Based Learning

Author: Caroline McGrath

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136998446

Category: Education

Page: 264

View: 8086

Supporting Early Mathematical Development is an essential text for current Early Years practitioners and students, offering an excellent blend of theory and practice that will enable you to provide successful mathematical education for children from birth to eight years old. Charting the delivery of mathematical development in Playgroups, Children's Centres, Nurseries and Primary Schools, it forges links between current practice and fundamental Early Years principles and makes suggestions for creating effective pedagogies in maths teaching. Promoting mathematical development through play-based learning, this book presents: a wealth of practical multi-sensory teaching strategies instructional methodologies activity ideas incorporating play, books, songs, cookery and the outdoors examples of children's work advice on translating theory into practice questions for reflective practice. Throughout the book, Caroline McGrath breaks down the complexity of teaching and learning mathematics into simple steps and guides readers through possible gaps in their knowledge, bringing fresh enthusiasm to teaching mathematics. This is an invaluable resource for practitioners and trainee teachers wishing to strengthen their mathematical teaching and professional practice, or for students on a wide range of Early Years courses.

Learning and Teaching Early Math

The Learning Trajectories Approach

Author: Douglas H. Clements,Julie Sarama

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134080719

Category: Education

Page: 380

View: 3874

In this important book for pre- and in-service teachers, early math experts Douglas Clements and Julie Sarama show how "learning trajectories" help diagnose a child’s level of mathematical understanding and provide guidance for teaching. By focusing on the inherent delight and curiosity behind young children’s mathematical reasoning, learning trajectories ultimately make teaching more joyous. They help teachers understand the varying levels of knowledge exhibited by individual students, which in turn allows them to better meet the learning needs of all children. Using straightforward, no-nonsense language, this book summarizes the current research about how children learn mathematics, and how to build on what children already know to realize more effective teaching. This second edition of Learning and Teaching Early Math remains the definitive, research-based resource to help teachers understand the learning trajectories of early mathematics and become quintessential professionals. Updates to the new edition include: • Explicit connections between Learning Trajectories and the new Common Core State Standards. • New coverage of patterns and patterning. • Incorporation of hundreds of recent research studies.